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Wes urisa v1

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Wes urisa v1

  1. 1. 2012WES Biosolids Program GPS & GIS Implementation Susan Ottersen GIS Analyst/Engineer Tech III Water Environment Services Clackamas County 4/16/2012 1|Page 2012 URISA AWARD APPLICATION
  2. 2. A: System -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4 1. Name of the System and ESIG™ Award Categories: ---------------------------------------------------------- 4 2. Executive administrator letter: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4 3. Summary: ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4 4. Three user testimonials: --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5B: Jurisdiction--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5 1. Name of jurisdiction: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5 2. Population served by the organization:-------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5 3. Annual total budget for jurisdiction: ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5 4. Chief elected official: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5 5. System Contact: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5C: System Design ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 6 1. What motivated the system development? -------------------------------------------------------------------- 6 2. What specific service or services was the system intended to improve? ------------------------------- 6 3. What, if any, unexpected benefits did you achieve? --------------------------------------------------------- 7 4. What system design problems were encountered? ---------------------------------------------------------- 7 5. What differentiates this system from other similar systems? -------------------------------------------- 10D: Implementation ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 11 1. What phases did you go through in developing the system? --------------------------------------------- 11 2. Were there any modifications to the original system design? Why? What? ------------------------ 11E: Organizational Impact ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 12 1. What user community does the system serve and how? -------------------------------------------------- 12 2. What are the ultimate decisions/operations/services being affected? If appropriate, provide a few examples including, but not limited to: screen input/output forms, paper products, or other descriptive graphics ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 12 3. What were the quantitative and qualitative impacts of the system? ---------------------------------- 14 4. What effect has the system had on productivity? ----------------------------------------------------------- 15 5. What, if any, other impacts has the system had? ------------------------------------------------------------ 16 6. How did the system change the way business is conducted with and/or service delivered to clients? Give specific examples comparing the old way with the new ---------------------------- 16 2|Page2012 URISA AWARD APPLICATION
  3. 3. F: System Resources ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 16 1. What are the system’s primary hardware components? Give a brief list or description of the hardware configuration supporting the system . ------------------------------------------------------ 16 2. What are the system’s primary software components? Describe the primary software and, if a commercial package, any customizations required for the system. ------------------------------ 16 3. What data does the system work with? List and briefly describe the database(s) ----------------- 17 4. What staff resources were required to implement the system? (approximate staff and consultant time as FTE’s) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 17 5. Comment on anything unusual about the resources used to develop your system, such as data, software, personnel and financing. --------------------------------------------------------------------- 17APPENDIX A: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 18APPENDIX B: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 20APPENDIX C: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 24 3|Page2012 URISA AWARD APPLICATION
  4. 4. Application for 2011 URISA ESIG™A: System 1. Name of the System and ESIG™ Award Categories:Single Process System 2. Executive administrator letter:See Appendix A. 3. Summary:Water Environment Services (WES) began its Biosolids program in the 1980’s. Then, environmentalrequirements were more lenient and record maintenance sporadic where now greater attention toenvironment safety has produced stricter standards from the program’s regulator, Oregon’s Departmentof Environmental Quality (DEQ). In 2009, an internal assessment revealed that WES was not meetingthe regulator’s record keeping and soil testing standards and, from a management perspective, was notmanaging program risk associated with land application of liquid biosolids. Compelled by the risk ofscraping the Liquid Biosolids Program altogether unless practices were brought into compliance and riskmanaged, WES took steps to ensure compliance and mitigate program risk. WES achieved that due, inpart, to this GPS/GIS project, which provided for greater internal controls that enhanced fieldmanagement and narrowed the variance associated with spraying onto fields and for stakeholders,strengthened customer service and documentation for the farming community, neighbors, andregulators.Biosolids spreading is not a precise application and, as discovered with WES’ internal audit / assessment,can generate land-application risk. DEQ has strict guidelines for application of Biosolids to agriculturalland with specific distances from buildings, water supply wells or springs, streams, ditches, roads, andother features. Given those regulatory guidelines, WES faced several issues: Lacking in WES’ liquid Biosolids program was a method to track all land-application updates at the farms that were receiving the liquid Biosolids on their fields. Needed was a system that recorded precisely where biosolids were applied and, more importantly, identified the location of land-sensitive buffered zones and if buffer violations occurred during application.The only system that made sense as a solution which identified and tracked data was implementing aGPS system with mapping in ArcGIS.The GPS/GIS project used Trimble GPS technology (handheld devices for field mapping and dashboarddevices for truck drivers) and ArcGIS mapping software to manage all steps associated with theapplication of liquid biosolids onto agricultural fields. Included was the education of staff who mappedthe fields using the Trimble 2008 GeoXt handheld unit equipped with TerraSync software and theBiosolids drivers, responsible for liquid land application, who used the EZ Guide 500 dashboard truckdevice. 4|Page2012 URISA AWARD APPLICATION
  5. 5. Lack of field staff buy-in and active participation would have rendered this project a failure. Staff thatmapped the agricultural fields with the handheld devices and drove the land-application trucks with thedashboard truck device were the end users of this technology and identified the obstacles in using thisGPS/GIS application. 4. Three user testimonials:See Appendix B.B: Jurisdiction 1. Name of jurisdiction:Clackamas County Service District No. 1, Water Environment Services of Clackamas County (WES) 2. Population served by the organization:Clackamas County Water Environment Services (WES) manages sanitary sewer and surface waterservices for over 150,000 people in two special districts located within Clackamas County and operatesseven wastewater treatment facilities; three of these facilities produce biosolids. Facilities that produceliquid biosolids are located in Clackamas County Service District No. 1: Kellogg Wastewater TreatmentPlant and Hoodland Treatment Plant.Clackamas County Service District No. 1 provides retail sanitary sewer and surface water managementservices to unincorporated portions of North Clackamas County as well as the City of Happy Valley,Damascus, Boring, the communities of the Hoodland corridor, Fischer’s Forest Park near Redland, andwholesale wastewater treatment services to the cities of Milwaukie and Johnson City. These services arelargely funded by revenues derived from rates and fees for development. 3. Annual total budget for jurisdiction:Clackamas County Service District No. 1: Proposed FY2012-13 Operating Budget of $27,232,000 andCapital Budget of $11,361,000. 4. Chief elected official:Mike Kuenzi, Director150 Beavercreek RoadOregon City, Oregon 97045 5. System Contact: Susan Ottersen, GIS Analyst/Engineer Tech III 150 Beavercreek Road 5|Page2012 URISA AWARD APPLICATION
  6. 6. Oregon City, Oregon 97045 Phone: 503-742-4613 Fax: 503-742-4565 susanott@co.clackamas.or.usC: System Design 1. What motivated the system development?Water Environment Services operates a liquid biosolids program out of the Kellogg Creek (KC)Wastewater Treatment Plant and the Hoodland (HD) Sewage Treatment Plant. WES’ liquid program isthe largest liquid biosolids land application program in the state of Oregon. WES generates 13,000,000gallons of liquid biosolids annually serving over 100 different fields. WES also manages a cake biosolidsprogram out of the Tri-City (TC) Wastewater Treatment Plant. Both KC and TC require biosolids to beremoved daily from the plant do to capacity issues, which has been occurring since the 1980’s. With theincreased DEQ requirements, it compelled WES to implement a more accurate and stringent monitoringprogram.The land application of liquid biosolids is particularly challenging. The liquid land application programserves farmers within 15 miles of the KC plant. This area is mostly zoned residential/rural, where theagricultural land application sites are adjacent to homes, schools, roads, and other denser populatedareas. It is a patchwork quilt of fields in an ever expanding populated area that provides little room forerror. For example, the largest field is a mere 33 acres. In contrast, our cake program in Eastern Oregonserves farmers with areas in the 200 – 500 acre ranges.The land application of biosolids in Oregon is regulated by the Oregon Department of EnvironmentalQuality (DEQ) which authorizes all sites for biosolids application. Every site must be authorized by DEQand each site has unique requirements based on its location.After an internal audit / assessment in 2009, it was clear that there were opportunities to improve ourcompliance with DEQ rules and our relationship with neighbors adjacent to land application sites. Keyfindings included: Application on unauthorized land Over application of biosolids on some fields resulting in elevated Nitrates in the soil Subjective boundaries around sensitive features resulting in repeated buffer violations Soil samples not taken or sampling sites not recorded Daily spreading records not being maintained Interruption of field application because of rain, equipment problems, staffing, etc. There was no clear record of where spreading had stopped. 2. What specific service or services was the system intended to improve? 6|Page2012 URISA AWARD APPLICATION
  7. 7. WES provides a service of delivery and land application of liquid biosolids to privately owned agriculturalland. The land owner in the past was defined as our customer; now the adjacent neighbors andcommunity at large are included in this definition of customer. Our service extends to them by assuringprotection of their wells, surface water and minimizing odors.The ability to continue this service is dependent on maintaining compliance and gaining reasonableacceptance in the community. The use of GPS/GIS guided land application has allowed us to achieveboth. 3. What, if any, unexpected benefits did you achieve?A. Better customer service, less customer complaints and educational opportunities. This required on the ground mapping of the land to locate all sensitive features, including adjacent wells. This resulted in contact with neighbors and the opportunity to talk with them about the program and provide contact information if they have any concerns before, during or after the land application. We believe the increased contact with neighbors, in combination with respecting buffers, reduced complaints during and after land application events. Now, when complaints do occur, we respond with a site visit to share with the complainant how we run our program, and assure them we are doing the land application as safely as possible to protect human health and the environment. This provides an opportunity to educate the community on our program and to share how we use GPS/GIS in the protection of health and the environment.B. Land-owner financial support. We are now able to recover a portion of land-application costs from the farming community where before, politically, this would have been unlikely.C. Better regulatory relationship. CCSD#1 now realizes a stronger relationship with the regulating agency, DEQ due, in part, to this GPS/GIS application. 4. What system design problems were encountered?Problem 1a: Blank screen with initial ArcGIS created shapefile when used in EZ Guide 500 GPS unit. Cause: The EZ Guide 500 directory files are hard coded into the system. Initial Solution: Create an easy file in the EZ Guide 500 resolved the hardcoded directory file structure and the hardware bridging. (AgGPSDatatemplatetemplateFarmtemplateField) 7|Page2012 URISA AWARD APPLICATION
  8. 8. Problem 1b: Blank screen with initial ArcGIS created shapefile when used in EZ Guide 500 GPS unit. Cause: The shapefile created in ArcGIS was based on the Oregon State plane Zone 15 coordinate system. EZ Guide 500 GPS unit uses the geographic coordinate system of WGS NAD 1984 which in the shapefile created in the truck GPS unit creates a positional (.pos) file for the unit to properly determine its real world location. Solution: Create an original template shapefile within the EZ Guide 500 unit and transfer the positional file into each ArcGIS created field shapefile. Note: there is a distance restriction from the original .pos file. In order to read shapefiles for instance, in another county, a new positional file must be created.Problem 2: EZ Guide 500 GPS unit distorts/warps true circle buffers around point features, i.e., wells. Cause: The reason for the distortion is that the truck hardware does not allow for the mathematical computation of circles labeled as buffered zones around any point feature found within geographic field boundaries. ArcGIS map software reads true circle objects, while Trimble truck GPS hardware does not, thus creating distorted buffers in shapefiles. Solution: Within ArcGIS, vertices were added to the arc of the true circle giving the GPS unit in the truck the ability to convert the arc to its true geographic position, mitigating the chance of land- application error risk. See Image D. 8|Page2012 URISA AWARD APPLICATION
  9. 9. Shapefile of RSA viewed in ArcGIS Warped shapefile over SDE fileProblem 3: The truck Trimble GPS hardware misplaces and repositions ArcGIS created vertices thatprovide ghost polygons and false areas, which, again, as in problem 2, creates land-application error risk. Cause: The truck GPS unit cannot read a complex multipart polygon possibly do to (a) compute the longitude and latitude of vertices created in ArcGIS (b) Truck GPS unit character field truncates the character length of the ArcGIS vertices positional location causing an accuracy issue. Solution: Explode a multi-part polygon into separate shapefiles which are then applied as separate shapes that constitute one field. Once land-application is completed and the spread data are downloaded, data are merged as one multipart polygon. 9|Page2012 URISA AWARD APPLICATION
  10. 10. Original RSA boundaries of 1 field with 3 associated polygons.Scrambled boundaries because of verticesrelocations 5. What differentiates this system from other similar systems?Every stage, from field mapping to regulatory reporting, uses GPS technology and ArcGIS mappingsoftware to comply with regulatory requirements. Mapping process is comprehensive, robust, updatingand analyzing field application changes that enable WES to manage every step associated with liquidbiosolids land application.Other agencies use GIS or GPS in various forms.University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 1. Post Biosolids Spray: Walks outline of spray to calculate total acreage using a handheld device for billing purpose.Virginia Beach, VA 1. Maps fields with GPS handheld device and creates GIS maps to record soil types and features.Metro Wastewater Reclamation District, Denver, 1. Uses GPS technology to map swaths whereCO liquid biosolids have been applied.Clackamas County Service District No. 1, Water 1. Maps fields with GPS handheld device andEnvironment Services, Clackamas County creates GIS maps to record sensitive features . 2. Creates shapefiles in ArcGIS to use in truck GPS unit with all required buffers. 3. Maps swaths where liquid biosolids have been applied 4. Uses spread maps for post-application to analyze any buffer violations 5. Creates reports using maps for regulatory documentation showing complianceProgram comparisons. 10 | P a g e2012 URISA AWARD APPLICATION
  11. 11. D: Implementation 1. What phases did you go through in developing the system?a) Reviewed current processes that included the development of process maps for current practicesb) Examined regulatory requirements on land-application constraints (buffered land zones) and reporting proceduresc) Accessed accuracy needs for field application and recommended a 1-meter accuracy variance for handheld devices based on land-application spraying methods and equipment costd) Discussed data and equipment needs with end userse) Analyzed time-line requirements with program managersf) Researched fleet GPS systems for driver useg) Trained myself on handheld GeoXT, handheld device software TerraSync & truck GPS unit EZ Guide 500 and related softwareh) Developed TerraSync Data Dictionary to represent all required DEQ sensitive featuresi) Trained staff for on handheld device application (handheld GeoXT device and software TerraSync)j) Trained BAT II Supervisor on the uploading & downloading of data onto EZ Guide 5000k) Trained drivers in use of GPS unit and calculating spray width.l) Mapped new processes associated with GPS and GIS application in liquids biosolids program 2. Were there any modifications to the original system design? Why? What?A. Python programs were developed to execute command-line programs that were once done manually. Before the Python programs, each command for BUFFER, ERASE, etc for each applicable sensitive feature for each field, which for agricultural field could contain up to 20 buffers per field. As a result of incorporating the Python programs for command lines, the buffering process become a 15-minute task or less where before it would take from 3 hours to 5 hours to execute per field. Python buffering program interface 11 | P a g e2012 URISA AWARD APPLICATION
  12. 12. B. The completion of uploading and downloading data onto and off of the truck GPS unit became more efficient when that task was shifted from the GIS specialist / Engineer Technician 3 to the Biosolids Application Technician. A savings of 1 - 3 hours per field was generated from this task shift for the GIS Analyst as the BAT 2 was already in the field for pre-field application authorization.E: Organizational Impact 1. What user community does the system serve and how?User Community How servedBiosolids Provide guided land application via truck mounted units that display field and itsApplication buffer zones.Technicians (land- On-going mapping updates field’s annually to capture site usage changes thatapplication truck affect buffer zones and spreadable acres.drivers) Assures proper agronomic loading rates due to actual spreadable acres vs. acreage of the entire site.BAT 2 and Assure staff are performing as requestedSupervisor Eliminates manual flagging of sensitive areas Identify needs for training Knowledge transfer of field locations and unique requirementsManager Overall program management including Selecting sites Understanding potential problems based on mapping; locating potential new sites that meet select criteria (slope, soil type, adjacent properties, etc) Assuring all sensitive features are accounted for and mapped. 2. What are the ultimate decisions/operations/services being affected? If appropriate, provide a few examples including, but not limited to: screen input/output forms, paper products, or other descriptive graphicsA: The imagine below shows the technology process that Water Environment Services developed formanaging field application of liquid Biosolids. Affected was staff and data flow because, before this GPSand GIS project, all processes were done manually. Before this project, burden for reporting compliancefell upon the shoulders of the drivers and the manager who supervised the drivers. This included‘coloring in’ of vague maps of farm fields of areas that where biosolids had been spread. With theimplementation of this project, this tracking transferred from the drivers to other staff such as theengineer, source control technician, the surface water technician and water quality analyst.Two Major DecisionsThe first decision related to the field mapping that had to be conducted before spraying began usingGPS and GIS technology. For end-users, WES had to guarantee that data flowed smoothly from thehand-held device to the truck dashboard device and then to ArcGIS and finally back to the truckdashboard device where sensitive land areas identified buffers that would not be sprayed with liquidBiosolids. The process itself guaranteed the smooth flow of data and thus the process map serves as thesolution for timely, smooth data flow. 12 | P a g e2012 URISA AWARD APPLICATION
  13. 13. The second decision centered on determining eligible fields using the data results from the initial fieldmapping that had been performed by the surface water technician and water quality analyst. Beforeany liquid biosolids was applied onto a field, analysis results determine if a field was still viable for landapplication by calculating a final spreadable acreage. An analysis of the final size of the field and the‘cutting up’ of the field do to buffers would determine if the cost and risk of spread violations was stillbeneficial for WES and farm.Application of Liquid Biosolids using GPS Units Determining Eligible Farms GPS Data Biosolids Application Technician START AND b) EXP t & Bo , Jane hryn (Kat Uploads Selects fields to spray (Applies rating data Identifies eligible methodology. Sets of field agricultural fields priority on the order of to be agricultural fields that sprayed will be sprayed.) Downloads closed Files the following: fields Farm and Remaining TAZimportBiosolids_GPSB_Uploads to EZAgGPSdataWES Uploads new fields Spreadable Acreage map Deletes fields where Soil sampling map swath data has been mapped SW Tech and Water Quality Analyst Maps the GPS agricultural field Pathfinder using Trimble Office Geo-XT unit Software TAZimportBiosolids_GPS A_FieldVerifield Downloads *.SSF files Another source control Digital copies of maps technician Maps soli GPS sampling site Pathfinder TazImportBioSolids_GPSJPGs using Trimble Office Geo-XT unit Software <farmname>RSA.jpg = Map of Remaining Spreadable Acres Downloads <farmname>SS.jpg = Map of Soil Sampling Locations *.SSF files <farmname>Spread.jpg = Map of Application Spread TAZimportBiosolids_GPS Soils Exports to .shp formatted specifically for Easyguide Engineering Technician 3 ` 500 unit TAZimportBiosolids_GPS ArcGIS Software: Creates farm and Buffers for and excludes GPS Remaining water wells, ditches, roads, Pathfinder Spreadable Acreage low points, > 12˚ grades Office map and residential development Software Creates soil sampling from agricultural field. map Converts *.cor file into *.SHP shape file Makes Produces polygon differential Imports into showing boundaries of Spatial Data Scrubs data for corrections to field (to be sprayed) Engine (SDE) topology errors *.ssf. using the *.SHP shape Software Creates *.COR file fileApplication of Liquid Biosolids using GPS Units Spraying of Biosolids on Field Data Analysis CON’D Biosolid Application Technician Down loads previous Swath Map data ArcGIS Software: Creates swath Engineering Technician 3 map ` TAZimportBiosolids_GPSDownLoads Imports shape file into SDE 13 | P a g e2012 URISA AWARD APPLICATION
  14. 14. B: An established set of maps for each step of the process is created, reviewed and finalized by both theBAT II Supervisor and the Biosolids Manager.The series of maps include:  A soil sampling location map  An RSA map  And a Spread mapSee Appendix C for examples. 3. What were the quantitative and qualitative impacts of the system?Quantitative:Complaints are resolved between WES and the complainant rather than being elevated to the CountyCommissioners level. Zero complaints were elevated to mayors or Council members sinceimplementation. While historical data is incomplete, staff recalls this happening on numerous occasions. Year Total number or Estimated complaints recorded complaints to elected officials 2004* 4 unknown 2005 6 unknown 2006 7 unknown 2007 9 3 2008 9 5 2009 14 unknown 2010 11 0 2011 6 0 *First year the complaint database went on-lineQualitative: 14 | P a g e2012 URISA AWARD APPLICATION
  15. 15. A more professional program that considers risk management as a critical component to program management. Enhanced dialog with neighbors as a result of well mapping. This results in an opportunity to share this technology and reassure them WES was managing the Liquids Biosolids Program as safely as possible. Knowledge transfer regarding field locations and buffered areas. Validation of acres spread for billing purposes Validating correct spreading occurred if compliance or complaint situation presents Land Application Technicians appreciate hard buffers; subjective buffers cause problems. 4. What effect has the system had on productivity?A. A processing time line has been set for each step of the biosolids tracking once the land application has been completed. a) BAT 2 downloads spread data and advises GIS Analyst b) GIS Analyst has 2 days to create spread map and then advises BAT 2 c) BAT 2 has 3 days to do post-application check using ‘Spread Map’. d) Biosolids manager has 5 days to finalize all data and maps are in farm binder for that particular land applicationThese turn around dates are tracked by the Biosolids Manager and analyzed/reviewed quarterly.Biosolids team has a meeting to review timeline productivity. 15 | P a g e2012 URISA AWARD APPLICATION
  16. 16. B. The BAT 2 Coordinator no longer has to take time to walk the field marking sensitive features with flags for each field. This has added 1-3 hours of extra time for tracking and properly recording information for post-application procedures.C. The drivers now have quicker turn around times on the land application as there is no longer the issue of reapplying biosolids on already sprayed areas. They now know exactly where to start or stop the application procedure without having to wait and discuss with other drivers at the field. 5. What, if any, other impacts has the system had?Risk management and general confidence in the land application component of the program. 6. How did the system change the way business is conducted with and/or service delivered to clients? Give specific examples comparing the old way with the new1. This system had significant changes to the way business is conducted. In the past, before the implementation of this GPS/GIS application, the drivers were limited to using a printed tax map and then colored in the areas where they applied Biosolids. Consequently, biosolids were land applied with little consideration for buffers and correct acreage (resulting in fields being overloaded and risking groundwater contamination or runoff to surface water). In addition, Technicians were persuaded by farmers to apply on land that was not authorized by DEQ to receive biosolids. With mapping, all of these challenges are now under control.2. There was also no review of the field after application to assess proper spreading. Now with the mapping, field inspections are made with the spread map, and closure can occur with confidence that the driver applied correctly. This has provided a mechanism for the Supervisor to know when training might be needed.F: System Resources 1. What are the system’s primary hardware components? Give a brief list or description of the hardware configuration supporting the system .Trimble EZ-Guide 500 Lightbar Guidance SystemTrimble GeoXT 2008 with TerraSync 2. What are the system’s primary software components? Describe the primary software and, if a commercial package, any customizations required for the system.ArcGIS 9.3 – after outlining the processes, a series of small python programs were developed to speedup processing. 16 | P a g e2012 URISA AWARD APPLICATION
  17. 17. 3. What data does the system work with? List and briefly describe the database(s)Wells Roads (public & private) Power Lines Wind MillsBuildings Ravines Trees StreamsWater Slope Septic Tanks Drain FieldsCulvert Ditches Field Boundary Special RequestsBuffers 4. What staff resources were required to implement the system? (approximate staff and consultant time as FTE’s)It was a significant undertaking to get this operational. Equipment and software needed tobe purchased; our GIS Technician required some time to resolve problems in the field withrecording and/or downloading and all fields required GPS mapping; all fields requiredmapping. Estimated FTE to become fully operational with few problems was 2.0 over thecourse of 1 year. 5. Comment on anything unusual about the resources used to develop your system, such as data, software, personnel and financing.Did not have an immediate buy-in by drivers, as they were not favorable of computer tracking. Did notwant to deal with ‘electronic’ equipment and thought the system was going to be complex andcumbersome and waste time. After a few field applications, the drivers now are very favorable of thespread tracking and with training have found the units to be easy to use. The truck GPS units werechosen mainly for the general simplicity of the unit and the larger screen. There was also a cost issuedeterminant, but if needed a higher end unit could have been purchased. The EZ Guide GPS unit is amid-level Agricultural GPS system. 17 | P a g e2012 URISA AWARD APPLICATION
  18. 18. APPENDIX A: 18 | P a g e2012 URISA AWARD APPLICATION
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  20. 20. APPENDIX B: 20 | P a g e2012 URISA AWARD APPLICATION
  21. 21. 21 | P a g e2012 URISA AWARD APPLICATION
  22. 22. 22 | P a g e2012 URISA AWARD APPLICATION
  23. 23. 23 | P a g e2012 URISA AWARD APPLICATION
  24. 24. APPENDIX C: 24 | P a g e2012 URISA AWARD APPLICATION
  25. 25. Soil Sampling Location Map 25 | P a g e2012 URISA AWARD APPLICATION
  26. 26. RSA (Remaining Spreadable Acres) Map 26 | P a g e2012 URISA AWARD APPLICATION
  27. 27. Spread Data Map 27 | P a g e2012 URISA AWARD APPLICATION

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