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Canta & Rustia_Encyclical_Peace-On-Earth-.pptx

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Canta & Rustia_Encyclical_Peace-On-Earth-.pptx

  1. 1. PACEM IN TERRIS “Peace on Earth” By: Fel Janika D. Galanida-Canta Charess D. Rustia
  2. 2. PACEM IN TERRIS Encyclical of Pope John XXIII On Establishing Universal Peace In Truth,Justice, Charity, And Liberty April 11, 1963 https://www.vatican.va/content/john-xxiii/en/encyclicals/documents/hf_j-xxiii_enc_11041963_pacem.html
  3. 3. Peace on Earth Part 1 By: Fel Janika D. Galanida-Canta Human Rights as the Basis for Peace Calls for Disarmament
  4. 4. Pacem in terris was the first encyclical that a pope addressed to "all men of good will", rather than only to Catholics, quoting the praise to God as said by the heavenly army above the manger of Bethlehem. John XXIII reacted to the political situation in the middle of the Cold War. Coming just months after the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis, during which the Vatican served as an intermediary between the White House and the Kremlin, the document also reflected the Pope's experience of 1960 in trying to resolve difficulties arising out the four- power occupation of Berlin.
  5. 5. The "peace encyclical" was issued only two years after the erection of the Berlin Wall. It also draws on Pope John's reading of Saint Augustine's The City of God and Thomas Aquinas' view of Eternal Law. In this it echoes the Gospel's core values and principles of patristic and medieval thought, while reflecting the historical period in which it was written. "He was insisting that the responsibility for setting conditions for peace does not just belong to the great and powerful of the world—it belongs to each and every one of us.“ - Mary Ann Glendon ( Professor of Law, Harvard Law School)
  6. 6. Pacem in terris declares that peace can only be achieved by obeying God's law. After setting out principles deduced from the natural law for each area covered, the encyclical examines the “characteristics of the present day” or “signs of the times”
  7. 7. The first section of the encyclical establishes the relationship between individuals and humankind, encompassing the issues of human rights and moral duties. The second section addresses the relationship between man and state, dwelling on the collective authority of the latter. The third section establishes the need for equality amongst nations and the need for the state to be subject to rights and duties that the individual must abide by. Peace on Earth—which man throughout the ages has so longed for and sought after—can never be established, never guaranteed, except by the diligent observance of the divinely established order.
  8. 8. The final section presents the need for greater relations between nations, thus resulting in collective states assisting other states. The encyclical ends with the urging of Catholics to assist non-Christians and non-Catholics in political and social aspects. Pacem in terris ("Peace on Earth") radically affected Catholic social teaching not only on war and peace, but on church-state relations, women's rights, religious freedom, international relations and other major issues.
  9. 9. Human Rights as the Basis for Peace Rights: Man has the right to live. Rights Pertaining to Moral and Cultural Values: man has a natural right to be respected. He has a right to his good name. He has the natural right to share in the benefits of culture. The Right to Worship God According to One's Conscience: According to the clear teaching of Lactantius, "this is the very condition of our birth, that we render to the God who made us that just homage which is His due; that we acknowledge Him alone as God, and follow Him. It is from this ligature of piety, which binds us and joins us to God, that religion derives its name.''
  10. 10. Human Rights as the Basis for Peace The Right to Choose Freely One's State in Life: Whether it is to found a family or to embrace the priesthood or the religious life. Economic Rights The Right of Meeting and Association The Right to Emigrate and Immigrate Political Rights St. Paul expressed this as follows: "Putting away lying, speak ye the truth every man with his neighbor, for we are members one of another.”
  11. 11. Calls for Disarmament St. Paul teaches, "there is no power but from God" The duty to promote the common good must not only be exercised in our local communities, but also at the state and Federal levels. Pacem in Terris also points out that governments have a responsibility to promote the common good of its citizens in terms of building roads, water supply systems, public health and educational programs. At the international level, we will not achieve peace on earth if there are wide disparities in the economic status of people around the globe.
  12. 12. Calls for Disarmament An Appeal to Conscience: Hence, representatives of the State have no power to bind men in conscience, unless their own authority is tied to God's authority, and is a participation in it. On the contrary, we are lifted up and ennobled in spirit, for to serve God is to reign. The attainment of the common good is the sole reason for the existence of civil authorities. It is in the nature of the common good that every single citizen has the right to share in it—although in different ways, depending on his tasks, merits and circumstances.
  13. 13. Calls for Disarmament Need for Disarmament: Hence justice, right reason, and the recognition of man's dignity cry out insistently for a cessation to the arms race. In the words of Pope Pius XII: "The calamity of a world war, with the economic and social ruin and the moral excesses and dissolution that accompany it, must not on any account be permitted to engulf the human race for a third time."
  14. 14. The Prince of Peace We who, in spite of Our inadequacy, are nevertheless the vicar of Him whom the prophet announced as the Prince of Peace, conceive of it as Our duty to devote all Our thoughts and care and energy to further this common good of all mankind. "Our Lord Jesus Christ, after His resurrection stood in the midst of His disciples and said: Peace be upon you, alleluia. The disciples rejoiced when they saw the Lord." It is Christ, therefore, who brought us peace; Christ who bequeathed it to us: "Peace I leave with you: my peace I give unto you: not as the world giveth, do I give unto you."
  15. 15. Let us follow the example of Jesus and St. Francis and dedicate ourselves to peace. “Lord, make us instruments of your peace. Where there is hatred, let us sow love. Where there is injury, pardon. Where there is doubt, faith. Where there is despair, hope. Where there is darkness, light. And where there is sadness, joy.”
  16. 16. Peace on Earth Part 2 By: Charess D. Rustia Need for a World-Wide Institution Promote & Safeguard the Universal Common Good
  17. 17. Principles All 10 Catholic Social Principles were involve in the encyclical Pacem in Terris: • Human Dignity • Respect for Human Life • Association • Participation • Preferential Protection for the Poor and Vulnerable • Solidarity • Stewardship • Subsidiary • Human Equality • Common Good
  18. 18. Need for a World-Wide Institution Institutions serve the fundamental teachings. In the religious context of institutions, particularly the Christian Institutions. Catholic social teachings were amplified. marking the philosophy of Christianity and Catholicism. Furthermore, throughout its long history, the Church has been a major source of social services like schooling and medical care; an inspiration for art, culture and an inspiration for art, culture and philisophy; and an influential player in politics and religion.
  19. 19. Need for a World-Wide Institution The family is a central social institution that must be supported and strengthened, not undermined. While our society often exalts individualism, the Catholic tradition teaches that in association with others—in families and in other social institutions that foster growth, protect dignity and promote the common good—human beings grow and come to their fulfillment. The most "appropriate and fundamental solutions to poverty will be those that enable persons to take control of their own lives."
  20. 20. Promote & Safeguard the Universal Common Good The common good as a foundational principle is closely intertwined with Human dignity and leads to solidarity as described by John Paul II above. Because we are created as social beings, individual rights need to be experienced within the context of promotion of the common good. "Contrary to the cultural bias of our time, there is a long-standing, Christian conviction, rooted in biblical, patristic and medieval thought that what one deserves can only be properly determined within a framework that takes the common good and the needs of the poor into account.
  21. 21. Promote & Safeguard the Universal Common Good Pope John Paul II has updated the traditional conviction in a way that addresses the realities of today's high-tech, knowledge based economy." The common good is the "good that comes into existence in a community of solidarity among active, equal agents."
  22. 22. Promote & Safeguard the Universal Common Good Essential to the common good is participation by all in all spheres of society. The social nature of the person requires that structures of both the civil society and the state allow full human growth and development. All of society is responsible for the common good, but only the state is responsible for public order (that part of the common good which involves public peace, minimum standards of justice and public morality).
  23. 23. Case Analysis: Background: The seizure of Marawi in the southern Philippines by militants linked to Islamic State (IS) and the response to it by Philippine authorities provides useful insights to Australian and other policymakers, with relevance for force structure, concepts of operations and the breadth of activity required to deal effectively with the consequences of an urban seizure. The siege showed the unpreparedness of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) for an urban fight: the AFP took five months to recover the city, leaving it in ruins and sustaining a notable number of casualties. This will obviously provide a set of lessons and insights to the Philippine military and authorities, but it also can allow other governments and militaries to assess their own readiness to deal with urban operations, either as assisting partners or in their own territories. The militants’ plans for taking over the city exploited its physical and political geography as well as Muslim grievances, including a profound sense of disconnect from the Philippine state and its predominantly Christian identity.
  24. 24. Case Analysis: Proposed Solution: War is a contest of political will. Hard power provides the means to apply violence, while soft power is employed to disempower the adversary without coercion and to influence affected populations. In any case, Filipino needs to understand and grasp the power of peace being a Muslim or Christians. The Muslims are a people that advocates case, as much as how the Christians who promotes Peace. Setting aside our cultural differences and religious beliefs, all Filipinos should only focus on upholding the concept of peace. We are one nation, one color, one blood. Oneness must be able to emphasize in order to attain peace. The case in Marawi should not be repeated nor encouraged.
  25. 25. Case Analysis: Recommendations: We must promote peace and practice it first and foremost in our home. When our children declare and teach peace on their own, only then we can be assured that peace will be maintained in our community, society, and our country. As educators, we must not be tired of prompting peace to our students be it in the classroom, school programs or anywhere that we have opportunity to do so. Jesus as the Prince of Peace promotes love and peace and as followers of Christ, we do the same by being Peacemakers. “Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called children of God.” (Matt. 5:9)
  26. 26. Case Analysis 2: Background: Since the break-down of the Soviet Union and until the hot war between Russia and Ukraine, these countries were involved in a mutually dependant gas trade, where Russia was an exporter and Ukraine was an importer as well as a transit country. During the 2000s Russia and Ukraine engaged in multiple severe gas wars in which Russia shut off the gas supply to Ukraine due to non-payment of debts, and as a bargaining tool for a price increase. Ukraine demanded a higher transit fee and diverted Russian gas exports to Europe for its own consumption, leading to supply disruptions in Europe. These gas wars led to a heightened interest in the hold-up problem and European gas supply security.
  27. 27. Conclusion: The potential for a hold-up problem is an important challenge in the international natural gas trade. As discussed, multiple significantly large supply disruptions in the last two decades illustrate this importance. The reasons for this importance are because (1) gas pipelines are expensive and asset-specific investments; (2) international gas trade might include more than two parties to a transaction due to the presence of transit countries. The hold-up problem is thus crucial for landlocked countries. As discussed, gas supply disruptions due to issues related to transit countries happened quite frequently in the last two decades.
  28. 28. Reccomendation/Proposed Solution: There could be three (3) ways to ameliorate the issues related to transit countries: (1)use of an international organisation; (2) designing contracts with price mechanisms that might reduce the possibility of disputes; (3) reducing the number of parties involved in the trade.

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