FlashbackWhat two places did the Frenchprimarily colonize in America?
Agenda• Flashback• Pretest• Introduction to the American Revolution
Pretest• List THREE causes of the American Revolution?• Where were the first shots fired during the American Revolution?• Who was at war?• List THREE battles that occurred in the American Revolution?
Exit SlipWhat did you learn today?Why was it important?
French and Indian War• France and Britain had been at war in Europe• They fought over land north of the Ohio River• Britian allied with the Native Americans
French and Indian War• Results • Albany Plan of Union-first suggestion that the colonies should form a central government • “Seven Years War” • Treaty of Paris: eliminated French power in the colonies
The Proclamation of 1763• Britain needed to deal with the growing Native American hostilities against colonies• Britain established land west of the Appalachian mountains for the Native Americans
The Proclamation of 1763• Colonist • Who already lived in these lands were made to leave • Wanted to expand the colonies • Were outraged at the betrayal of their government
Taxation WithoutRepresentation• The French and Indian War left Britain greatly in debt.• King George III raised money to pay back Britain’s war debt by taxing the colonists.• However, the colonists did not have representatives in Britain’s government.
Sugar Act• Taxed the sale of all raw sugar and similar goods• Merchants were angered because it hurt trade• Colonist argues it violated traditional English Rights
The Stamp Act• Put a tax on almost all printed goods• Results • First direct tax placed on the colonies by Britain • Sons of Liberty: group that organized to protest the stamp Act • Colonist began boycotting British goods
Townshend Act• In 1767, the Townshend Revenue Act began taxing glass, paint, oil, lead, paper, and tea.• It also gave Britain the right to seize colonist property• Colonists’ again boycotted British goods.• British merchants helped ensure the act was repealed.
Boston Massacre• March 5, 1770• British troops were in Boston to help maintain order• Colonist were protesting and bumped a solider• Shots were fired• 5 dead and 6 injured
FlashbackWhat were three reasons why Europeans wanted to settle in theNew World?
Tea Act• In 1773, the British passed the Tea Act to help the British East India Company.• The Tea Act gave the East India Company a monopoly on selling tea in the colonies by regulating tea prices.• Colonist were afraid they were going to lose their businesses
Tea Act• In Philadelphia and New York, colonists forced the tea ships to turn back.• In Charleston, South Carolina, colonists let tea sit on the docks until it rotted.• However, Boston was well-controlled by British forces.• British leaders there held the tea ships in the port.
The Boston Tea Party• Then, on December 16, 1773, Bostonian colonists protested the Tea Act.• Colonists snuck into the Boston Harbor after dark, dressed as Native Americans.• They boarded the tea ships and dumped 90,000 pounds of tea into the water.
Intolerable Acts• The Intolerable Acts were four laws passed by the British.• Four Laws: • Closed the Boston Harbor • Eliminated trial by jury • Quartering Act • Eliminated colony representation in the west
Intolerable Acts• These acts were enacted to punish the colonist• As a results the First Continental Congress was established to decide how to address these issues
The Revolution Begins• The town of Concord created a special military unit called the “Minutemen”• Loyalist- people who stayed loyal to England• Patriots- supporters of the revolution
The Revolution Begins• Lexington and Concord • The British troops went to Concord to seize weapons being stored by colonist • There were about 70 Minutemen waiting for them in Lexington • When the British got to Concord their were 400 Minutemen forcing the British to retreat
The Revolution begins• The Second Continential Congress met in Philadelphia • Adopted a militia “The Continental Army” • Appointed George Washington to head the army
Journal EntryThe American Revolution happened because….
EQ and Learning TargetEssential Question:What events led to the outbreak of theAmerican Revolution?Learning Target:I can identify and explain the eventsthat led to the American Revolution.
Movement to Independence• Olive Branch Petition: a document sent by the Continental Congress to King George III declaring their allegiance to the king• Thomas Paine: Common Sense • Pamphlet calling for independence from Britain • Very persuasive and widely read • Gained a lot of colonist support for the revolution
Declaration of Independence• July 4,1776• Written by Thomas Jefferson• Submitted and signed by the Continental Congress
Declaration of Independence• Preamble: Stated the purpose of the document: to declare what the colonies and Britain should split• Statement of rights: political ideas that all people have natural rights• List of Grievances: A list of things the king has done to violate the colonist natural rights• Resolution of Independence: states the United Colonies should be a free and independent state
Declaration of Activity• In your own words, list 10 grievances the colonist had against the king• Write a paragraph explaining if you think the colonist were justified in declaring independence • Include at least two reasons for or against the declaration • Use the list of grievances your notes and the textbook to help support your argument• Each person should turn in their own list of grievances and paragraph
FlashbackWhat was the primaryreligion found in the NewEngland colonies?
EQ and Learning TargetEssential Question:How was the American Revolutionwon?Learning Target:I can explain how the AmericanRevolution was won.
War for Independence• American Leaders • George Washington • Nathaniel Greene- Washinton’s top field officer • Francis Marion- “Swamp Fox”• British Leaders • William Howell-Leader of the British Army • John Burgoyne-Lost at Saratoga • Lord Cornwallace-Surrendered at Yorktown • Benedict Arnold-famous trader
Battle of Trenton• December, 1776: Washington plans surprise attack of Hessian camp at Trenton, NJ.• December 25: Washington attacks on Christmas night, kills/captures 1,000 men• 3 days later: defeat of British at Princeton, NJ forces British to return to NY for winter
Battle of Saratoga• 1777- British capture Philadelphia, Continental Congress escapes• Valley Forge- winter of 1777-78: nearly 2,500 American soldiers die from cold, food shortages• October 1777- Gen. Burgoyne’s troops captured outside Saratoga, NY• Result: France enters war
Battle of Yorktown• 1778- British turn to South• Savannah, GA and Charlestown, SC fell to British• Battle of Kings Mountain- victory for Patriots• British eventually are defeated and surrender at Yorktown (1781)
Journal EntryThe Americans were able to winthe Revolutionary Warbecause…..
FlashbackWhat are the three branches of theAmerican government?
Map Activity• Label the following (PG. 96 in your text) • Battle of Saratoga, Bunker Hill, Yorktown, Trenton, Charles Town, Savannah, Valley Forge, • Indicate with different colors British victories and American Victories • Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico • The Appalachian Mountains • Color the Proclamation of 1763 Line • Include a key to your map • Color all of the colonies a light color