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Teachers’ motivation is central to the success or failure of attempts to improve learning in developing countries. Evidence from Nigeria, as in several other sub-Saharn African countries, has suggested that low teacher motivation is a problem, with causes including poor infrastructure, difficulties in managing pupil behaviour, perceptions of unfair recruitment practices, dissatisfaction with pay and conditions, and frustration at teachers’ own inability to improve children’s learning outcomes. Despite these concerns, teacher motivation is patchily and inconsistently measured in developing countries. This paper describes the development of a teacher motivation scale for use in Nigeria, and presents results of applying the scale in evaluations of several education programmes (the Teacher Development Programme [TDP], Girls’ Education Programme, and Education Sector Support Programme in Nigeria), together with quantitative and qualitative findings on teacher absenteeism, adoption of new methods, and teachers’ own perceptions. The scale attempts to measure the extent to which teachers internalise the goals of the school and the teaching profession, find interest and enjoyment in their work, and the extent to which they believe in their own ability to teach (self-efficacy). We present information on how and why the scale was developed, and some preliminary findings from a 2016 survey of 3588 teachers.