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A scale and findings from northern
Nigeria
Measuring teacher
motivation
Sept 2016
EDOREN 2
50% of grade-3 pupils could not name the first letter of their name
Only one in every ten grade-3 pupils demonstr...
7/12/2015 EDOREN 3
Sept 2016 4
How teachers spend their time in a lesson
Motivation in a programme theory of change
 Teacher Development Programme in Nigeria: aims to improve teaching through
te...
Measuring motivation
3 main issues with the existing scales:
 Some motivation questions not appropriate for northern Nige...
Measuring motivation
 Commonly scales mix up aspects from different theoretical frameworks
 Teacher Efficacy Scale
Sept ...
Measuring motivation
Sept 2016 © 2016 Oxford Policy Management Ltd 8
A model of motivation for programme evaluations
Sept 2016 © 2016 Oxford Policy Management Ltd 9
TDP
intervention
better pe...
Added complication: teachers can’t always read well
Sept 2016 © 2016 Oxford Policy Management Ltd 10
 Scale revised for use in subsequent surveys
 Most recent version: ESSPIN (Education Sector
Support Programme in Nigeria...
7/12/2015 EDOREN 12
Sept 2016 © 2016 Oxford Policy Management Ltd 13
ESSPIN motivation scales
 Several revisions leading to 4 factors, with g...
Sept 2016 © 2011 Oxford Policy Management Ltd 14
Using the scales: research questions
 How does teacher motivation vary geographically (rural/urban, by state) and
between...
Sept 2016 © 2016 Oxford Policy Management Ltd 16
How does motivation differ by state?
Sept 2016 © 2016 Oxford Policy Management Ltd 17
… and by training, qualification, and sex?
Sept 2016 © 2016 Oxford Policy Management Ltd 18
Does teachers’ perceived ‘skills’ reflect their content knowledge?
Sept 2016 © 2016 Oxford Policy Management Ltd 19
Satisfaction and engagement are also strongly correlated with test
scores...
Explaining teachers’ motivation: regression analysis
(Sample: 1923 teachers. * p <.05)
Sept 2016 © 2011 Oxford Policy Mana...
Using teacher motivation to explain outcomes
 We attempt to fit models to explain the following outcomes:
– Teacher-level...
Sept 2016 © 2016 Oxford Policy Management Ltd 22
Conclusions
 Teacher motivation appears to be important, but measuring i...
Thank you
stuart.cameron@opml.co.uk
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Measuring teacher motivation: a scale and findings from northern Nigeria

Teachers’ motivation is central to the success or failure of attempts to improve learning in developing countries. Evidence from Nigeria, as in several other sub-Saharn African countries, has suggested that low teacher motivation is a problem, with causes including poor infrastructure, difficulties in managing pupil behaviour, perceptions of unfair recruitment practices, dissatisfaction with pay and conditions, and frustration at teachers’ own inability to improve children’s learning outcomes. Despite these concerns, teacher motivation is patchily and inconsistently measured in developing countries. This paper describes the development of a teacher motivation scale for use in Nigeria, and presents results of applying the scale in evaluations of several education programmes (the Teacher Development Programme [TDP], Girls’ Education Programme, and Education Sector Support Programme in Nigeria), together with quantitative and qualitative findings on teacher absenteeism, adoption of new methods, and teachers’ own perceptions. The scale attempts to measure the extent to which teachers internalise the goals of the school and the teaching profession, find interest and enjoyment in their work, and the extent to which they believe in their own ability to teach (self-efficacy). We present information on how and why the scale was developed, and some preliminary findings from a 2016 survey of 3588 teachers.

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Measuring teacher motivation: a scale and findings from northern Nigeria

  1. 1. A scale and findings from northern Nigeria Measuring teacher motivation Sept 2016
  2. 2. EDOREN 2 50% of grade-3 pupils could not name the first letter of their name Only one in every ten grade-3 pupils demonstrated basic listening comprehension skills on a grade-1 level story On average, a grade-3 pupil could name or sound out 6 letters in a minute (Source: TDP 2014 baseline - Jigawa, Katsina, Zamfara) Context: Low learning outcomes
  3. 3. 7/12/2015 EDOREN 3
  4. 4. Sept 2016 4 How teachers spend their time in a lesson
  5. 5. Motivation in a programme theory of change  Teacher Development Programme in Nigeria: aims to improve teaching through teacher training, materials, ongoing support, ‘trainer in the pocket’ – Theory of change: TDP materials and support can improve teacher motivation by raising teacher self-esteem – Suggested mechanism: Sept 2016 © 2016 Oxford Policy Management Ltd 5 Teachers acquire some new skills Visible progress in students’ learning outcomes Improved self-esteem More motivated Work harder Attend regularly Attend training and keen to learn more Boosts / sustains the effect of a short training intervention through a self-reinforcing cycle
  6. 6. Measuring motivation 3 main issues with the existing scales:  Some motivation questions not appropriate for northern Nigeria context  Some clearly relate to factors likely to influence motivation rather than the condition of being motivated  Often focused narrowly on self-efficacy / locus of control ideas: – belief that something is within my control  goal setting, activity choice, willingness to expend effort, persistence We define teacher motivation as the propensity of teachers to start and maintain behaviours that are directed towards fulfilling their professional goals, and in particular towards achieving better learning outcomes for the school’s learners We combine self-efficacy-related items with ideas from elsewhere:  Bennell (2004) ‘will-do’ vs. ‘can-do’ / Bennell and Akyeampong (2007) scale specifically for use in developing countries  Intrinsic Motivation Inventory: e.g. interest, enjoyment, usefulness, pressure Sept 2016 © 2016 Oxford Policy Management Ltd 6
  7. 7. Measuring motivation  Commonly scales mix up aspects from different theoretical frameworks  Teacher Efficacy Scale Sept 2016 © 2016 Oxford Policy Management Ltd 7
  8. 8. Measuring motivation Sept 2016 © 2016 Oxford Policy Management Ltd 8
  9. 9. A model of motivation for programme evaluations Sept 2016 © 2016 Oxford Policy Management Ltd 9 TDP intervention better pedagogic / content knowledge / skills better interaction between teachers can do: external factors less limiting better learning outcomes for students will do: more motivated, engaged Self-efficacy (external + internal efficacy) intrinsic motivation commitment
  10. 10. Added complication: teachers can’t always read well Sept 2016 © 2016 Oxford Policy Management Ltd 10
  11. 11.  Scale revised for use in subsequent surveys  Most recent version: ESSPIN (Education Sector Support Programme in Nigeria) - Enugu, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Kwara, Lagos  This paper uses data from ESSPIN Composite Survey 3 (2016): 735 schools, 3588 teachers  We focus on northern states (Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano) Sept 2016 11 Data and background
  12. 12. 7/12/2015 EDOREN 12
  13. 13. Sept 2016 © 2016 Oxford Policy Management Ltd 13 ESSPIN motivation scales  Several revisions leading to 4 factors, with good reliability: – satisfaction: the value I place on my role as a teacher (‘interest and enjoyment’) – skills: the perception I have of my competences and skills as a a teacher (≈can do / self-efficacy) – engagement: how engaged and committed I feel I am to my work as a teacher (≈will do / pressure/tension) – collegiality: how I see the extent of commitment and collaboration among my colleagues (≈teacher-teacher interaction) Cross-correlations Items EAP reliability Satisfaction Skills Engage- ment Satisfaction 6 0.83 1 Skills 12 0.88 0.65 1 Engagement 4 0.66 0.25 0.24 1 Collegiality 6 0.8 0.46 0.59 0.06
  14. 14. Sept 2016 © 2011 Oxford Policy Management Ltd 14
  15. 15. Using the scales: research questions  How does teacher motivation vary geographically (rural/urban, by state) and between male and female teachers?  Does training (in-service and pre-service) influence teachers’ self-efficacy, engagement and satisfaction?  Are ‘skills’ (can-do) important for engagement (will-do)?  Do teachers whose content knowledge is stronger assess their own scores more highly?  Are more ‘engaged’ teachers more active in their lessons?  Do students with more motivated teachers learn more? Sept 2016 © 2011 Oxford Policy Management Ltd 15
  16. 16. Sept 2016 © 2016 Oxford Policy Management Ltd 16 How does motivation differ by state?
  17. 17. Sept 2016 © 2016 Oxford Policy Management Ltd 17 … and by training, qualification, and sex?
  18. 18. Sept 2016 © 2016 Oxford Policy Management Ltd 18 Does teachers’ perceived ‘skills’ reflect their content knowledge?
  19. 19. Sept 2016 © 2016 Oxford Policy Management Ltd 19 Satisfaction and engagement are also strongly correlated with test scores in English and maths
  20. 20. Explaining teachers’ motivation: regression analysis (Sample: 1923 teachers. * p <.05) Sept 2016 © 2011 Oxford Policy Management Ltd 20 Satisfaction Skills (I) Skills (II) Engage- ment (I) Engage- ment (II) Kaduna 45.8* 18.0 10.6 52.3* 54.4* Kano 22.1* 19.5* 17.3 2.2 4.4 Rural -2.9 -7.2 -5.8 -19.0* -19.8* Female -11.1 -4.7 -4.1 9.9 9.4 Training 0.7 -4.0 -4.3 9.5* 9.0* Qualified -9.6 4.8 3.5 4.6 5.2 Years of experience -0.1 -0.3 -0.4 -0.1 -0.1 English / maths test 0.1 Skills -0.1* R-squared 0.020 0.011 0.014 0.102 0.121
  21. 21. Using teacher motivation to explain outcomes  We attempt to fit models to explain the following outcomes: – Teacher-level  Proportion of time teachers spend on ‘positive interaction’ (e.g. explaining rather than chanting)  Proportion of time teachers spend doing something (e.g. not just leaving students to copy from the board) – School-level  Average proportion of teachers absent each day  Proportion of classes with teachers in them at start of school day and after the morning break  Motivation does not seem to influence these outcomes after controlling for other school characteristics (rural/urban location, state) Sept 2016 © 2011 Oxford Policy Management Ltd 21
  22. 22. Sept 2016 © 2016 Oxford Policy Management Ltd 22 Conclusions  Teacher motivation appears to be important, but measuring it is not easy  Satisfaction and skills scales are worse in Jigawa than Kaduna and Kano  Engagement is better in Kaduna than Jigawa or Kano  Teachers in rural schools have particularly low engagement compared to urban teachers  Teachers who received in-service training are more engaged  But overall, our models seeking either to explain teacher motivation or to use teacher motivation to explain their behaviour, have limited predictive power  Unobserved factors may include: – Community support for teachers – Relationship with the head teacher – Salary and deployment policies  Teachers’ behaviour may be constrained by their knowledge / skills more than their attitudes
  23. 23. Thank you stuart.cameron@opml.co.uk

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