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Assignment final

  1. 1. Page 1 of 30 POVERTY BREEDS CRIME: Poverty and/or the fear of it, in one way or another, is a fundamental cause of all evils that are experienced in modern society. What is greed, after all? Greed is the fear of the loss of money and wealth, the basis for survival in modern society. Thus, the rich tycoon, who fears poverty, will do anything to keep and maintain wealth for survival. Poverty encourages hoarding. If you are afraid of loss, or have always had a lack, whenever you come into abundance, you will tend to hoard, even if you don‟t need to, because of the fear of having lack again some time in the future. The rich stay rich, because they tend to hoard. But the poor, who have little, also tend to hoard what little they have, because it is scarce. Of course, sometimes it is also true that people who have never had wealth, and suddenly come into wealth, spend frivolously because they don‟t know what to do with wealth and the experience of wealth makes them spend on everything they can get. This is a different type of hoarding. Poverty also fosters desperation which in turn breeds crime. The poorest neighborhoods generally have a great deal more crime than the richest neighborhoods. But the rich neighborhoods can be victimized by poverty because the poor often break into rich people‟s homes to steal their goods. The current drug war can be blamed in its entirety on poverty. The drug cartels in South America, Asia, and the Middle East were made of poor people finding a way to become rich, by selling drugs. Of course, it is a known fact that drugs often find their way into the hands of poor people. Some sell drugs to try to get money, and this also breeds crime, because of the fierce competition of rival individuals and gangs which leads to violence. But often too, poor people with low self esteem use drugs to mentally escape their situation, and they become addicted, and then they need to find money for the drugs that they crave and they are already poor and have little money as it is. Thus that breeds still more crime. Of course, crime breeds more poverty. After all, businesses do not want to set up shop in places with high crime because of the dangers to personal safety, and because it simply hurts business. After all, would you want to go to a store which is likely to get held up? Poverty also contributes to poor health and early death. The poor have little or no access to the best health care and preventive medicine. And what health care they do have is second rate. The poor can‟t afford basic physicals and health screenings. And most can‟t even afford private health From The Desk Of Noman Khan
  2. 2. Page 2 of 30 insurance, so most do without. Health insurance is supposed to be a buttress against the high cost of health care. But the insurance, though it is cheaper than the health costs themselves, is still way too costly for most poor people. The poor get little or no education. Thus, they often don‟t even know certain things that may help them improve their situation. This affects their health care since they don‟t have knowledge of how to protect themselves or prevent common illnesses. Education is touted as the means to escape poverty and it often is. Knowledge is power. But because formal education is expensive, how many poor can actually afford to go to school? In the USA, financial aid is a joke. Government grants pay only a small percentage of the cost of tuition, the rest must be paid for in loans, which are costly to repay, and private funds, which are not available to the poor, simply because the little money they earn is used to pay for basic survival. Knowledge may be power, but unless it is translated into credentials that one can present to a job interview, education is useless for escaping poverty. It takes money to make money. To get a proper education with the credentials to go with that education is expensive. The lack of money breeds all the negative characteristics that people hate. It breeds hate, anger, and jealousy. If someone else is doing better than you, how can you be happy, if you are not doing well? The poor often hate the rich and resent them because of their wealth. Poverty breeds racism, classism, and ethnics because the society stratifies itself to define classes to separate the rich from the poor -- the rich by their fear of poverty, and the poor by poverty itself. Poverty breeds selfishness because people, both rich and poor tend to hoard which has already been mentioned. Poverty breeds dishonesty because people will often do anything to get even a little bit of scarce money -- people thus will lay, cheat, steal -- whatever it takes to get as much money as they believe they need. And even when they are rich, they still believe that they are poor and will still do the same things -to get even more money, even if it is far more than they will ever need. Poverty creates wars. The rich often create wars to make more money and the poor are often forced to fight them. Poverty breeds anger, fear, and low self esteem. A person with little money feels inadequate and inferior to other people because of that one‟s inability to provide for one‟s own needs and for others. Poverty even breeds boredom. After all, when the bills are partially paid, and one is in debt, not being able to pay them in full, and there is no From The Desk Of Noman Khan
  3. 3. Page 3 of 30 money left over, how do you amuse yourself and entertain yourself after a long day‟s work? Whatever entertainment there is has to be cheap. A bottle of cheap booze perhaps. Maybe some TV -- if you paid your electric bill or cable bill or maybe a sex magazine or a video. A movie or a night on the town is a luxury. If you are resourceful, you might be able to amuse yourself, but very few have that level of imagination. There is simply no up side to poverty. People often claim that a poorer person‟s life is simpler. Simpler how? Poverty actually makes things more complicated. A person is forced to make a choice between putting food on the table and paying the electric bill. The person is forced to ration his or her meager resources being unable to pay the obligations in full when they are due. If one is bored and wants entertainment, one must pull money from resources meant to pay obligations. That adds to complications. Poverty forces people to go into huge debt even for the smallest things. When you have a lack of money, everything in life is harder. Accomplishments are fewer and farther between, because you have less money to do anything with. People say that adversity builds character, but the above paragraphs show that the exact opposite is true. Whatever character adversity builds is mostly negative. True, sometimes, hardship can make people cooperate. Hardship can sometimes prompt people to acts of courage, heroism, and altruism, but these noble characteristics are few and far between when compared to the evils that poverty and a life of hardship brings. People say that poverty breeds faith -- that hardship builds one‟s faith in God. But the reality is that people turn to religion only because they are desperate and have no alternative to remedy their situation. The radical religious extremism that one sees throughout the world is the result of poverty. Some people adopt the attitude that poverty is good for them to console themselves when they are unable to make it and faith is used as a justification for their continued poverty because they are unable to improve their situation. The extremism is a violent reaction to their situation where they attempt to remedy their situation and they use religion as a platform for social, economic, and political change. In fact the creation of new religions is often the result of people responding to oppressive situations including grinding poverty. People say that poverty makes people diligent and appreciate hard work. Not necessarily. The fact that so many people work only for their basic survival, and often don‟t even have enough for that, breeds apathy, laziness and discontentment. People who work hardest are the ones who are the From The Desk Of Noman Khan
  4. 4. Page 4 of 30 most fulfilled by what they do, because it doesn‟t seem like work to them. They actually enjoy their work. Most people work jobs they utterly loathe just to earn a meager wage. They hate their jobs and their pay is unrewarding to them, so they want to do everything they can to get out of work and doing a job that they hate. Even if the job is a high paying job, if you hate it, you will still not work hard at it because you utterly hate it. And poverty actually encourages the exact opposite of diligence in many people. People work so hard for so little that they will look for an easy way to make money. They see no point in working hard because they are left unrewarded in their pockets, self esteem, and fulfillment. They develop the attitude that all hard work is unpleasant and to be avoided. People say that hardship and poverty builds strength. Sometimes. More often, the poor are malnourished and undernourished, so they are often physically weak. The poor are often more weak and vulnerable in other ways too They often fall prey to scams because they are looking for easy ways to make money because they are underpaid and have no fulfillment and they work very hard for very little. The poor are more prone to be victims of crime and are also more prone themselves to become criminals just out of desperation borne from their poverty. They are more likely to be victims of abuse because of frustration. They have no money or resources to defend themselves against others who are stronger than they are who want to harm them and take what meager resources they have. Poverty also gives one a limited choice of mates and reproduction. The ladies naturally favor, because they fear poverty, the ones who are wealthy, or the ones who are the hardest and meanest, because if they must live in poverty, the one can hold his own against the hard world. Poverty builds fear and mistrust. This is the basis of what is called “street smarts.” Once one has been bitten by a scam or an attack, a poor person is far less trusting. Mistrust is a byproduct of a culture of poverty where people are victimized. In certain survival situations, a certain level of fear and mistrust is beneficial, but mostly it works against the individual. You will fear and mistrust even the people who are actually trying to help you. And fear and mistrust also breeds a climate of hostility because one does not know whom one can trust. People say that poverty can make you strong and independent by teaching you how to be resourceful. In fact, poverty does exactly the opposite. Having little resources fosters dependence simply because you have no means or resources to support yourself. And most people simply aren‟t resourceful or talented enough to make it on their own without some From The Desk Of Noman Khan
  5. 5. Page 5 of 30 help. And even those that are resourceful and talented often depend on luck and goodwill to make it. In short, poverty cannot breed moral and spiritual values, unless they are satanic values. If you know how to be lecherous, dishonest, cruel, fearful, mistrusting, hateful, spiteful you might be able to survive and maybe get rich. And religion itself is often a breeder of poverty convincing people that they are worthless and sinful and that they need to be dependent solely on God and his goodness. And all this while the leaders of the religions often fill their coffers with the hard earned money of the poor. Religion itself is a racket to make money, the founders themselves often starting out poor, and finding a way to get rich using the gullibility of the poor, frightened and disillusioned. Since most of the world‟s people are poor. It is hard to imagine that this world was created for the benefit of humankind. The Gnostics may have been correct when they claimed that this world was created by an evil god who hates humanity. According to them, this world was created and is ruled by the evil god Satan, who is usually called Yaldabaoth, the Child of Chaos. Maybe that is why this world is so rotten. It could not have been created by a good god. Well, that is of course, if you believe in a spiritual reality… If you are an agnostic or an atheist, the world is just the way it is, neither good nor evil and it certainly was not created for our benefit. From The Desk Of Noman Khan
  6. 6. Page 6 of 30 ROLE OF OUR (PAKISTANI) EDUCATION SYSTEM: EDUCATION SYSTEM: Our formal education system basically is an example of „static model‟. Students are taught only that material which is written in syllabus books by some progressive people. Students only have to go through that written material and only have to improve their understanding of the related concepts. But that „improved‟ understanding is considered to be the „upper limit‟ or the „upper boundary‟ of all what students can be expected to do. Students are not required to further improve that „improved‟ understanding with the help of their own „thinking and analysis‟. Any further improvement is considered possible only in a situation when the same author has written a new edition of the same book. Only this „new edition‟ is considered to be the sole source of any kind of „further‟ improvement in the understanding level. In this way, what a progressive person has done, the students have to follow it. Students are required to „crawl‟ behind that progressive person. Students (and many teachers also) remain static up to that level to which they have been „pulled‟ by the progressive people. By themselves, students cannot (also not expected to and also not required to) go beyond. Students are evaluated only for their „improved‟ understanding level and it is still irrelevant to consider that if they are able to practically apply that „improved‟ understanding or not. Students actually are bound to remain unable to practically apply their better understanding level because „practical approach‟ is missing in this kind of „static‟ understanding „improvement‟ model. Students themselves do not analyze or evaluate what is written in the syllabus books. They view the written text only from a single angle. Practical situations always require analysis of situation from maximum possible angles. Since students do not do that, they remain unable to handle the practical situations. Students only have to „follow‟ the progressive people so they are bound to remain behind those progressive people. Whatever „milestone‟ they have covered, in fact has already been left behind by those progressive From The Desk Of Noman Khan
  7. 7. Page 7 of 30 people. The situation is the worst in the case of static minded teachers. In fact static students are still in a better position than to the one which is held by the static minded teachers. Students are „improving‟ their understanding. They go to next class and „further improve‟ their understanding. But the static minded teachers – they actually, even are not „improving‟ their understanding. They are just teaching the same material which was already known to them. They are just teaching the same material over and over again and from year to year. Since they are required to teach the „same‟ material under this education system, so actually they are not in need to generate any new ideas in the related subject. So the static minded teachers are not even doing what is being done by the static students because students after all, are improving their understanding level from year to year but these teachers are at the same level of understanding for the most part of their respective careers. SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT: The situation can be improved and this static education system can be transformed into a better progressive system. Following are the necessary points or steps that are required for this purpose. I. Class room should not be only lecture based. There should mainly be formal discussion activities in the class rooms. Every student should be required to give his/ her opinion on the topic. He/ she also should be required to identify further necessary areas of investigation in the current topic. ii. There should be discussion groups who can choose different topics for the discussion. iii. Evaluation of students should be based on their participation level and their performance in the discussion activities. iv. For every discussion topic, all students should be required to write down their own analysis, opinions and conclusions in the form of thesis. v. However, half the class time can be devoted to lectures also. vi. Written examination system must have to be thoroughly changed. Only those subjects or topics should be evaluated in written examination which otherwise cannot be evaluated. Even in such conditions, written examination must have to be analytical oriented i.e. not just descriptive or calculation oriented. From The Desk Of Noman Khan
  8. 8. Page 8 of 30 Progressive information handling approach actually is simple and easy as compare to the static approach. In the static approach, one has to go through all the contents of, lets say, syllabus books because the maximum goal in this approach is to get satisfactory understanding of all the contents of that knowledge which is already available in those syllabus books. To acquire the understanding of all the contents of syllabus books, using the static approach is a tedious task. With relatively more effort, the maximum result is only a „satisfactory‟ understanding of the already existing knowledge. In the progressive approach, on the other hand, the progressive person only has to choose the issue or topic which is the most interesting for him. Then he has to analyze all its related aspects. He has to mentally organize all the related information in a proper, meaningful and in a systematic and consistent manner. For a progressive person, it is not difficult at all to choose the issue or topic for his analytical activities. Progressive person is the one who „thinks‟ by himself. In this way, the most „interesting‟ subject or topic for this person would be that issue or subject etc. about which he „thinks‟ in his spare time. Under this approach, since the progressive person has to choose that subject or topic, for his analytical activities, which happened to be the most interesting subject for him and since the most interesting subject for him is that one about which he already „thinks‟ in his spare time so in this way he would choose the subject, for his analytical activities, about which he already „thinks‟ in his spare time. As a result, this progressive person would acquire a definite purpose and a proper line of action for himself. Having a definite purpose in his mind, he himself shall search for maximum information about the subject or issue from whatever sources of information that shall include not only the syllabus books on the subject but shall include other non-syllabus sources of information that would include direct observations as well. In this way, he may have to go through all the contents of those syllabus books along with also consulting the non-syllabus sources of information. He also has to generate new ideas about the topic/ issue. The successful search of the information from all the available sources of information shall result in „linear expansion in knowledge‟ whereas the new ideas shall result in „parallel expansion in knowledge‟. He also has to critically analyze the issue which From The Desk Of Noman Khan
  9. 9. Page 9 of 30 shall result in „improvement‟ in knowledge because such critical analysis shall „improve‟ the „accuracy level‟ of knowledge on the issue. The above mentioned activities apparently may seem to be more tedious than to that of the static approach, but the fact is opposite. Since the person who is doing all the above mentioned things for the sake of a „definite purpose‟ i.e. analysis of issue/ topic/ subject etc. for which he is personally interested, so he shall take all these activities lightly. He has a definite purpose and a proper line of action. He does not have to memorize/ understand all the boring and un-interesting topics of syllabus books though he might has to go through even more new information materials as may be offered by any set of syllabus, for the performance of his analytical activities. It has been mentioned in this discussion that the progressive person, first chooses a subject of interest and then start analyzing various aspects of that „interesting‟ subject. It may seem that this progressive person shall keep himself confined up to the search and positive responsiveness towards only those information sources that are directly related to his own area of interest. This may be true as for as the so called „professionalism‟ is concerned but this, however is not true in the case of a progressive person. Progressive approach is different or rather opposite to this so called „professionalism‟. In this professionalism, efforts are made to get expertise/ specialization in only one field of study through reading/ analyzing only those subjects that are directly related to the main field of study. Subjects having no direct link/ relationship with the main field of study are considered to be „irrelevant‟. Study/ analysis of „irrelevant‟ subjects are avoided because it is considered just useless for the achievement of the main objective, which is to get expertise or specialization in only one field of study. In this way these „professionals‟ willingly keep themselves limited within the framework of their area of „specialization‟. As previously has been stated that the progressive person not only has to get maximum possible information on the topic, he also has to generate new ideas as well. In this way, he actually has to make „improvements‟ and „expansions‟ in knowledge. This objective is possible to achieve if his approach is compatible with the optimum functioning system of human mind. For the optimum functioning, human mind can accommodate any amount of information whether relevant or irrelevant provided that too much From The Desk Of Noman Khan
  10. 10. Page 10 of 30 burden of un-necessary memorization of the „material objective information‟ is avoided. This fact has been explained in another section of this thesis. Idea generation process does not require „material objective information‟ as its input but idea generation process shall function at optimum level if more and more information, whether relevant or irrelevant to the main subject, is continuously integrated in the mindset. For the optimum functioning of the idea generation process, it is only the „material objective information‟ which is not used as input but more and more „abstract objective or subjective information‟ however is compulsorily required irrespective of the fact that it has any direct relation with the main subject/ issue or not. Since a progressive person, unlike a „professional‟, also has to generate new ideas and since the optimum functioning of the idea generation process requires continuous additions of more and more, relevant or irrelevant information except only un-necessary (i.e. irrelevant) „material objective information‟, so in order to generate more new ideas, the progressive person shall not confine himself in getting only the „relevant‟ information. He would be requiring „irrelevant (abstract) information‟ also for the generation of more new ideas. Human mind‟s working principle is the „identification‟ of similarities and associations between various sets of information and then manipulating those „identified‟ similar or associated sets of information in a way which ultimately results in the formation of „knowledge‟. We know that the concepts of „similarity‟ and „association‟ do not have any rigid meanings. Human mind is able to identify (or detect) „similarities‟ and „associations‟ even in those sets of information that belong to totally different or even opposite fields of study. Thus we are able to detect similarities and associations in those two sets of information, let‟s say, one of which belongs to the study of Ethics and the other belongs to the study of Mechanics. Now consider a person who is a „professional‟ in the field of Mechanics and being a „professional‟, he considers the study of Ethics to be useless for him because the study of Ethics would be „irrelevant‟ to his profession. In this case, since this „professional‟ shall not study Ethics so he shall remain unable to identify that „similarity‟ or „association‟ which exists between the contents of Mechanics and Ethics. Since this „professional‟ does not identify the similarity (or association) between different sets of information so no From The Desk Of Noman Khan
  11. 11. Page 11 of 30 manipulation operation can be performed by his mind because mind can perform manipulation operations only on „identified‟ similar or associated sets of information. Since the ultimate result of the manipulation operations by the mind on the „identified‟ similar or associated sets of information would have to be the formation of particular „knowledge‟, so this ultimate result shall not be taken by this professional because in this case no such manipulation operation has been performed by the mind due to his nonidentification of existing similarity or association between the contents of Mechanics and Ethics. In this way this „professional‟ shall remain unable to conceive that new idea (most probably this new idea would have to be related to his own area of study) which was possible to be conceived by him if he did not avoid studying Ethics. As a result, this „professional‟ actually would be acquiring expertise/ specialization only in already existing theories of his subject and he would not actually be further identifying/ exploring more new issues related to his own subject. The task before the progressive person is not just to get expertise only in the already existing theories of his subject. The task before him is to move forward. To move forward, by himself, the progressive person has to look forward, beyond the boundary limits of already existing theories. He has to identify more new issues so that he may perform analysis of those newly identified issues. Proper analysis of those new issues is possible to do if the progressive person regularly conceives/ generates new ideas. As previously has been stated that optimum functioning of the idea generation process requires continuous additions of more and more, relevant or irrelevant information except only un-necessary (i.e. irrelevant) „material objective information‟. But only this continuous addition of more and more information of every sort alone cannot stimulate the idea generation process to function at optimum level. Idea generation process can be stimulated for its optimum performance by first having outstanding issues/ problems/ questions etc. in mind and then by regular and continuous acquisition of more and more, relevant or irrelevant information. Here, it should be noted that most of the times, it shall be the acquisition of that „irrelevant‟ information that would help in identifying new issues/ problems/ questions relating to the main subject of interest as has been explained in the previously stated example where the professional in the field of Mechanics From The Desk Of Noman Khan
  12. 12. Page 12 of 30 would possibly become able to find new issues in the subject of Mechanics just if he did not avoid studying Ethics. So the proper sequence of all this process identified here is that first the progressive person shall choose a subject of interest. Then he shall engage himself in acquiring more and more, relevant or irrelevant information. The acquisition of the „relevant‟ information shall result in „linear expansion in knowledge‟. The acquisition of „irrelevant‟ new information, on the other hand, shall help him in the identification of new issues/ problems/ questions etc. relating to the main subject of interest. By keeping these outstanding issues/ problems/ questions in mind, the progressive person shall continue to engage himself in acquiring of still more and more, relevant or irrelevant information. Now at this time, he would be fulfilling both the essential requirements of the optimum functioning of the idea generation process which is (I) presence of outstanding issues/ problems/ questions etc. in mind; and (ii) regular and continuous acquisition of more and more, relevant or irrelevant information. The new ideas that shall be resulting due to the „optimum functioning‟ of the idea generation process in this way would be having the basis, the important component of which was that newly acquired „irrelevant‟ information. In this way, the acquisition of „irrelevant‟ new information shall ultimately result in „parallel expansion in knowledge‟. We know that idea generation process basically is an analogical process. It means that it is not in the best interest of a person, who really wants expansions in his knowledge, to keep himself confined to the study of only one subject/ issue even if his main objective is to get expertise/ specialization in only that subject because if he studies other subjects also, he in this way, possibly can expand his knowledge about the main subject/ topic just by making analogies with even „irrelevant‟ topics. It means that more and more general knowledge can help in making him more and more specialist in any particular field, which usually has to be his own subject of interest. To become more specialists in his own subject of interest by adopting this strategy is possible when that person is acquiring more and more general knowledge while keeping the outstanding issues/ problems/ questions of his own subject of interest in mind. If the person studies only one topic, he expands his knowledge only in linear mode. But if he studies more and more topics/ subjects, he is expanding his knowledge about the From The Desk Of Noman Khan
  13. 13. Page 13 of 30 main subject of interest in both linear as well as in parallel mode. In linear mode also because the apparently irrelevant topic may have direct connections or relations with the main subject of interest. And in parallel mode also because by having more diverse sets of information in mind, he becomes able to draw more valid analogical inferences. We can conclude, on the basis of above discussion that progressive approach may prove to be more time consuming than to the static approach but this progressive approach, however is not tedious. Progressive approach offers more comprehensive results than can be offered by the static approach. Progressive person not only forms new knowledge, he also gets better, clear and more transparent level of understanding. That much transparent level of understanding is not possible to get in the static approach because in the static approach, analytical activities are missing. Only self analytical activities can give a better understanding level. We have seen previously that the progressive person has a definite purpose and a proper line of action for him. The „definite purpose‟ is to move forward, beyond the boundary limits of already existing theories and the „line of action‟ is to make expansions and improvements in his overall knowledge with particular emphasis on the main subject of interest, first by identifying new outstanding issues/ problems/ questions relating to main subject of interest and then by continuously acquiring of more and more, relevant or irrelevant information, and finally by doing analysis of the information so acquired, as well as of those new ideas that shall be conceived by him during all these processes. „To move forward‟ also have another sense and this is continuous „upward shift‟ in the „overall understanding‟ and „level of abilities‟. Up-grades in the „overall understanding‟, under progressive approach is relatively a routine matter because progressive approach is a continuous learning process and the process of learning involves up-grades in the overall understanding. Whereas the „upward shift in the level of abilities‟ has specific meanings in this context. As we already have identified that the task before the progressive person is to move forward. He has to move forward, not only beyond the boundary limits of already existing theories but also beyond the limits of his own maximum abilities. But can a person really go beyond his own maximum abilities? The answer to this important question would be No, if asked from us and we are to answer the question while From The Desk Of Noman Khan
  14. 14. Page 14 of 30 keeping in view the real implications of the static education system. Under this static education system if a student remains unable, even in some case – due to certain un-avoidable reasons, to get passing marks in the examinations, he would not be allowed to take admission in the next class even in case where courses offered for study in the next class happen to be relatively easier and more interesting for him than to that of the previous class. In this way that student would be considered, by this static education system, to be not able to do such a task which actually is at much below the level of his maximum abilities. The actual problem with this static education system is that this system cannot identify the levels of students‟ abilities and so cannot take any effective steps for the improvements in those levels. This system only can do whatever is more convenient to do. It is quite easy to devise a rigid syllabus, then to teach only the syllabus subjects to all the students, then to force all the students to get themselves familiar (only) with the contents of those subjects and then making „assessments‟ about the levels of students‟ abilities on the basis of such types of examinations which are quite easy to conduct and whose purpose is only to check the compliance of students‟ understanding with those syllabus contents. In this way if the „level of abilities‟ in case of a student is found to be „in compliance with‟ the syllabus requirements, then he would be considered to be able to go to next class. Being „able‟ to go to next class would be considered to be equivalent to the „upward shift in the level of abilities‟ of that student, under this static education system. In this way the answer to the question that whether a person can go beyond his own maximum abilities or not would be positively answered by this education system itself. In my opinion, the real answer to the question that whether a person can go beyond his own maximum abilities or not, would be yes but not in that sense in which this question is „positively‟ answered by the education system. A person can really go beyond his own maximum abilities if he actually achieves his own maximum level. To become able to go beyond his own maximum abilities, by a person, may not make proper sense at first instance. But to become able to achieve his own maximum level by that person does make proper sense. A person can achieve his own maximum level if he successfully performs that task/ activity etc. such that to perform that task/ activity was possible only if he would have applied his maximum From The Desk Of Noman Khan
  15. 15. Page 15 of 30 effort and ability. Once this maximum level is achieved, now onward it is no more the „level of maximum ability‟ of that person. Now onward, the „level of maximum ability‟ of that person would be located somewhere at a higher level than before. That person, as a result of this „upward shift‟ in his „level of maximum ability‟, becomes able to perform such a task/ activity which was impossible to be performed by him previously when his relatively lower level of „maximum ability‟ could not let him perform „higher level‟ tasks or activities. Now when he is at a „higher level of maximum ability‟, some of those „higher level‟ tasks/ activities are no more at „higher level‟ for him. And obviously there shall still be infinite number and kinds of those tasks/ activities which would still be beyond the scope of this new and improved level of abilities. Now again when this person shall „achieve‟ his new „maximum level‟, he would become able to perform still „higher level‟ tasks/ activities and this cycle shall continue in this way. A point, here, needs to be clarified. It has been stated that after when a person „achieves‟ his own maximum level, that person as a result becomes able to perform those tasks/ activities etc. which were impossible to be performed by him previously. This point actually does not give any such meanings as for example before when a syllabus book was not formally taught by the teacher, it was „impossible‟ for students to understand the contents of book. We earlier stated that „up-ward shifts in the level of abilities‟ have specific meanings in this context. In this example, if we keep „specific‟ meanings of „up-ward shift in the level of abilities‟ in mind, we shall not conclude that before when particular syllabus book was not formally taught by the teacher, it was „impossible‟ for the students to understand the contents of that book. By keeping the „specific‟ meanings in mind, our conclusion would be that it was within the range of normal abilities of students that if taught by a teacher, they were able to understand the contents of that book. So if students understand some new syllabus contents in this way they actually do not cross their „level of maximum ability‟. The maximum level for them is still at the same point where it was located previously. But what is that „specific‟ meaning of „upward shift in the maximum ability‟? First of all we should clarify that we are considering here, only the mental abilities and we are not addressing the issue of improvements in „physical‟ abilities of persons. By the term „mental abilities‟ we mean such From The Desk Of Noman Khan
  16. 16. Page 16 of 30 abilities of persons as ability to understand new and strange things/ situations, ability to handle and solve new and puzzling problems/ situations, ability to generate more complex new ideas and/ or to formulate new theories etc. Keeping in view the issue of improvements in these types of abilities which are related to mind‟s performance, the meaning of „upward shift in the maximum ability‟ can be considered to be like as to become able to understand those things/ situations, or to become able to handle and solve those problems/ situations, or to become able to generate more complex new ideas, and/ or to become able to formulate new theories such that previously it was out side the scope of maximum ability of the person to perform any of these tasks. Previously the person, in this case was not able to perform any of the above mentioned tasks. But now if he has become able to perform any of these tasks, then it means that actually he has crossed his previous level of maximum ability which also means that there has occurred „upward shift in the maximum ability‟ in case of this person. Thus in the case of example given in the previous paragraph, lets say that person first successfully handles a complicated issue such that to handle that issue was possible by him only if he applied his maximum efforts and skills. Before handling the issue, that person was in a state of doubt. He was not fully confident that he could successfully accomplish the task. If he did not apply his maximum effort and ability in order to accomplish the task, he would still remain in state of doubt in the possibility of successful accomplishment of that task by him. The state of doubt shall continue and the person shall remain in trap of his already existing vision. But if he apply his maximum efforts and in this way brings himself out of the trap of his previous limited vision, that person as a result would get a new broader vision about his next objectives. Those next objectives were outside the scope of his previous limited vision. Previous vision was limited because its corresponding objectives were still un-accomplished. Now when previous objectives have been accomplished the person‟s vision has been broadened due to the fact that he has got such new objectives for him who was simply outside the scope of his previous level of maximum ability. Now the level of his maximum ability would be located at some higher level. His new maximum vision would be showing him those objectives such that to accomplish those objects would have been considered by the person just From The Desk Of Noman Khan
  17. 17. Page 17 of 30 close to something impossible. He again would be in need to apply his (better) maximum ability in order to accomplish those near to impossible objectives. He would successfully accomplish those new objectives also when he would apply his new better maximum ability. He again would get still broader vision for him and some new objectives shall come within the range of new broader vision. In this way the person shall continue himself in a „forward‟ movement. So in order to move in forward direction in a real sense, a person should prefer to undertake to perform only those tasks which should appear to him close to impossible to be successfully accomplished by him. The tasks which may seem to be „close‟ to the impossibility actually are not quite impossible to do. Such tasks can possibly be performed provided the person uses his maximum effort and skill in order to accomplish those tasks. If the person continues to engage himself in the performance of just routine type of tasks such as those which are normally assigned to students by the static education system, he shall continue to remain at the same level of his maximum ability. He would be having his vision static and fixed at a particular level. He shall not undertake to accomplish the maximum possible objectives so those objectives may remain „close to impossible‟ throughout his career. From The Desk Of Noman Khan
  18. 18. Page 18 of 30 OUR FUTURE OW I SEE IT: INTRODUCTION: Exploring current images of Pakistan's futures is the task for this essay. Based on a literature review of Pakistani magazines, newspapers and journals as well as conversations with Pakistani scholars and interviews with members of the general public, we develop and evaluate five images or scenarios of the future. This essay concludes with suggestions for designing alternative futures for Pakistan. Before we articulate these images of the future, let us first examine the "futures approach" to the study of social reality. A futures view focuses primarily on temporality. Where are we going? What are the possibilities ahead? What strategies can we use to realize our goals? How can the image of the future help us better understand and change today? Who are the losers and winners in any particular articulation of time? The futures perspective is initially similar to traditional political analysis in that it begins with an exploration of economic, international and social events and the choices made by actors that make these events possible. However, the futures view also attempts to place events and choices within an historical dimension; that is, the larger and deeper structures that make these discrete events intelligible, such as core-periphery, urban-rural, gender, caste, and macro patterns of social change. Also important in the futures view is the post-structural dimension; the larger meaning system or the epistemological ground plan of the real as embedded in language that constitutes events and structures. Unfortunately, most efforts to understand the future remain in the predictive mode. It is often asked, what and when will a particular event occur and how can we profit or increase our power from a specific prediction? Economists and strategic analysts claim to excel at this task. Our efforts here--sensitive to the richness of reality and the need to decolonize the study of the future from narrow models of reality--is to explore images or scenarios of the future. Our task is not to predict and thereby make this essay political fodder for technocrats but to use the future to create real possibilities for change. We thus do not intend to give a familiar reading of Pakistan's future, as might be available in a five year plan, rather we enter into a discussion of alternative futures, of the many choices ahead as contoured by the structure of history and the modern boundaries of knowledge that frame our identity. In the images or scenarios that follow it should be remembered that these images are meant as tools for discussion and dialog; they are intended From The Desk Of Noman Khan
  19. 19. Page 19 of 30 to clarify the futures ahead not to reify social reality. Our goal is insight not prediction. As an initial caveat, an important failing of this essay is that the textual sources and conversations were entirely in English--one might get different images with local Pakistani languages. 1. DISCIPLINED CAPITALISTIC SOCIETY: The first image of Pakistan's future has many anchors; the most versions recent uses S. Korea as a compelling image of the future. Both countries were underdeveloped thirty years ago but now S. Korea has joined the ranks of the developed, it is become an integral part of the "Pacific Shift." Through state managed industrialization with strong private spin-offs (and the economic activity caused by the Vietnam war) Korea has dramatically raised its standard of living. Along with a strong Confucian ethic (respect for hierarchy, family, hard work, and an emphasis on education) Korea was a strong national ethic. However, given Pakistan's social structure perhaps North Korea is a better example of Pakistan‟s possible future as both have strong militaries. However, while North Korea has a strong totalitarian ideology, Pakistan does not. Islam is in many ways a legal/social doctrine and in that sense that it defies any particular authoritative interpretation rather it is up for grabs by a variety of ideologies. While a theocratic military state is possible so far this mixture has not occurred nor has a one-man state managed to succeed. The best way of stating this model of the future is the "disciplined capitalistic society." The military rules directly or indirectly under the guise of "law and order." Not only is civil society disciplined but so is labor. Labor exists to aid capital in its national and transnational accumulation. The Islam that is used is one that aids in societal discipline at the individual and social level. The head of the nation is then the strict father who knows what is best for the children. The mother is in this image is apolitical, remaining at home to take care of the nation's children so they can work for the larger good of capitalist development. However there is an important contradiction here. Among the reasons of the rise of East Asia was women labor. Females are thus essential for export oriented strategies that lead to capital accumulation; at the same time the Islamic dimension of this model demands their continued "home-inaction." They are to provide care to labor. This is the semi-proletarian existence which in the long run cheapens the cost of labor for capital since the informal sector helps support the formal "monies" capitalistic sector. Females are integral to this semi-proletarian structure. The other obvious contradiction is the role of the military. Besides the role of women, Confucianism, the historical particular juncture in the world From The Desk Of Noman Khan
  20. 20. Page 20 of 30 economy, East Asia developed because of low military expenditures and high social expenditures. Is Pakistan ready to put health and education before military expansion, that is, to redefine security? We have yet to see. In the meantime, the hope is that through discipline and privatization Pakistan can join the ranks of the rich. 2. ISLAMIC SOCIALISM: This image is partially influenced by interpretations of Islam that give weight to the syncretism personal dimension of Islam; that is, an Islam that does not the become the facilitator of the mullah's rise--not rote discipline but revelation. The rendering of Islam is populist as for example in the view that the land is perceived as belonging to the tillers not the landlords. This image is also partially influenced by the third world movement which has attempted to follow an alternative development path not based on multinational West run capitalism or on soviet party/military run communism. This view was made famous by Z.A. Bhutto in Pakistan. But let us be clear: this view is still industrial and growth oriented like the previous model, however, it has a strong emphasis on "roti, capra, makan," on basic needs and distributive justice. Nehru attempted a similar model but without the Islamic overtones as have numerous other third world leaders. In this model, the state softens the impact of local and transitional capital on individuals. At the macro level, import substitution and nationalization become key strategies. However, the larger problem of the world economic system as essentially capitalistic and politics nation-state oriented with Pakistan near the bottom of the global division of labor remains. The meaning of this image, however, does not come only from the economic as central is the religious. It is Islam that unites, it is Islam that gives direction, and it is Islam that integrates individual, family and nation. And although Islam is pervasive, it remains open and committed to distributive justice and individual spiritual growth--a soft Islam, if you will. National allies in this image come from other third world countries with collective self-reliance the long run goal--south/south cooperation on economic, cultural and political levels. Among other writers, Syed Abidi's writes that these two images take turns dominating Pakistan's politics. Exaggeration of one leads to individual and social frustration and then the rise of the other and visa versa. However, revisionist historians, such as Ayesha Jalal, argue that both are unsuccessful because of the nature of the Pakistani state, molded along authoritarian lines due to the circumstances of partition. From The Desk Of Noman Khan
  21. 21. Page 21 of 30 A third image based on individual and national identity attempts to transcend the earlier two, using the past as its gateway into the future. 3. THE RETURN OF THE IDEAL AND THE SEARCH FOR IDENTITY: The original image of Pakistan was that of a safe heaven and haven for Muslims: safe from both the Hindus of the east and later on from the Jews of the west (in Israeli and American forms). It was derived--at least in its popular myth--as the territory wherein Muslims would not be oppressed by the Hindus of India. While Jinnah's intent may have been political power (a share in the action when India was to be divided) for the Muslim League and later the creation of a secular state, it quickly became a state for Muslims of Muslims. Pakistan's self image was to a large degree defined by India. India has been the enemy that gives unity. Even after three devastating wars, military strategists still believe that Pakistan can defeat India. In this view, India has many gods, is bent on destroying Pakistan (the empirical evidence of the Bangladesh war), has nuclear weapons and is allied with godless Russia. But would Pakistan retain any sense of its identity without India since Pakistan knows itself through the other of India? Indeed, is Pakistan but not-India? India has survived thousands of years with and without Muslim domination, but Pakistan is still struggling to complete a half-century, to imagine itself as a nation, to find a coherent self. This image exists in many ways outside our earlier dimensions in that internal identity is more important than external reality. The image is that we reside in the land of the Pure, the place where there is no threat from the outside, wherein the purity of Islam can flourish. Other variables such as the type of political-economy, culture and geo-politics are less important. The moral dimension of Islam is central. Questions that arise from this view are: has Pakistan achieved this level of purity? Some Muslim scholars argue that each Islamic nation attempts to recover the polity of the initial Islamic state, the ideal of the original promise of the time of the Prophet--the revolution had occurred, prophecy had been delivered, the rightly guided caliphs ruled, and there was social justice and economic growth in Arabia. This ideal is then the image of the future for Pakistan; this is the time of partition when there was promise in the air, a great deal had been achieved through sacrifice, the British and the Hindus had been thrown back, and the Quad lived. The image of the future then is a return to a time of hope and dreams; of victory over struggles and of purity, before the politicians in the form of the military and the landlords co-opted the future. In this sense this image of the future is a search for an ideal past, a mythic past. From The Desk Of Noman Khan
  22. 22. Page 22 of 30 But while this image may be glorious, revisionist historians point out that the birth of Pakistan was already steeped in power politics, in feudal domination: there was never any purity to speak of, to begin with. If this is true then perhaps what is needed is a reimagination of Pakistan. A search for a new vision, a new purpose that makes sense of the last forty years of frustration and creates real visions of the future not dreams based on a past that is but a lie. This reimagination task could occur through a democratic process of collective future envisioning or it could come from the words or images of great artists or others marginal to the present established power structure. But while we await this reimagination of the future, in the meantime the present disintegrates. 4. THE END OF SOVEREIGNTY: This image is the most pervasive and has many variants and levels. The first is conquest by India leading to a greater India. This is possible through military conquest or through economic imperialism if the doors of trade are left wide open. The second is more sophisticated and deals not with military or economic imperialism but with cultural domination. The main villain is the West, especially the United States. Irrespective of US AID and other ties to Pakistan, religion and their distant locations in the world economy make Pakistan and the USA naturally antagonistic. Recent desires of the US to inspect Pakistan's nuclear development exacerbate this tension. But cultural domination comes in many forms: technology transfer from the green revolution to the microcomputer revolution--technology is not neutral but has many cultural codes and messages embedded in its hardware (the actual physical technology) and software (the rules that make it sensible). For example, certain technologies might promote individualism and the expense of family. Others might promote mobility. Education transfer also leads to cultural penetration, the widespread emigration to the USA for education and then for work is the obvious example. Electronic technology even in the ostensibly neutral form of CNN can but spread foreign views of what is significant and what is unimportant; that Pakistan is rarely covered is not inconsequential to cultural self-images. Travel to the West for tourism, conferences, and medical reasons are another example. While certainly there is a bit of cultural transfer mostly it is but one-way communication. Sovereignty then is clearly violated; the idea that a nation can exist given this level of cultural penetration is highly problematic. For instance, just as there is a world division of labor there is a world division of culture and news with some supplying modern culture others providing From The Desk Of Noman Khan
  23. 23. Page 23 of 30 exotic or traditional culture. We provide the data for their theories of the traditional. The responses to this form of penetration are obvious: fundamentalism in its strongest forms--a return to the historic text, a denial of physical and mental mobility, and a critique of all things foreign even those which increase the freedom and life chances of individual and family. This is the famous call by the ruling elite for a local form of "democracy" in which basic "universal" freedoms are denied so as to save traditional local culture. Liberals, thus, argue that the defense of cultural sovereignty of the nation is but the denial of the sovereignty of the individual and the reaffirmation of the power of the State. In the name of tradition, all sorts of injustices can be committed and rationalized. Other responses to Western penetration could be further Islamic penetration, for example, by Iran. This could lead to a Pakistan-Iran partnership with an increased Shia influence in Pakistan. It would increase the power of ulema in that they would have the power to define and narrate legitimate cultural and political activities. Conversely the end of sovereignty could become a positive image in that Pakistan could be forced to become an international blend of many cultures and technologies: a place where the future resides, a place where sovereignty finds itself renewed at a higher planter or spiritual or cultural levels not at a myopic national or local level. This is then a reaffirmation of the idea of the ummah but extended to the entire world in the form of a global community. Pakistan could then become a compelling image for other places to emulate. A receiver and sender of social technology and a creator of postmodern culture. But this direction would take a great deal of daring and courage as there are no models to follow only vague possibilities to explore. As problematic as cultural sovereignty is the loss of the sovereignty of the self. The self was previously constructed around familiar lines: heaven was above, hell below and God all around. One knew what one was to do with one's life: class and caste were clear. But with the world continuously being recreated by the science and technology revolution and with the problem of West continuously staring at the Pakistani "self," there no longer exists any clear cut self. Am I Sindhi first? A woman first? A Pakistani first? A wife first? A Muslim first? A feudal first? Where do my loyalties lie? Can I integrate these often contradictory fragments of identity? And where do these categories stand in the larger scheme of things? Moreover, the problem of the self can but become increasingly problematic with the feminist movement, increased exposure to the outside world through travel and the development of an overseas Pakistani community. Instead of one mutually agreed upon authoritative construction of self we may see many Pakistani selves all vying for individual and national dominance. From The Desk Of Noman Khan
  24. 24. Page 24 of 30 The next layer of sovereignty that is made problematic is internal territorial sovereignty, that is, the provinces increasingly wanting more autonomy and in some cases secession. The calls for an independent Sindh are the latest case in point. The image of this future is of all the provinces going their separate ways with Pakistan finally only being Punjab. The northwest might join with Afghanistan or the Phaktoons might form their own country. In addition, Baluchistan might join Iran, become its own nation, or join a loose confederation with Sindh. And in this image, Azad Kashmir would either join Punjab or unite with the rest of Kashmir to form its own nation. While this might lead to conquest by India most likely the same forces that would lead to end of national integration in Pakistan would also lead to the disintegration of India, from one India to many Indias. Also possible after a period of disintegration is reintegration into a united states of south Asia with Punjab as the most likely center of this loose regional federation. 5. CONTINUATION OF THE GRAND DISILLUSIONMENT: The last and we would argue most pervasive image of the future is that of the present continued or "no change." This is a general malaise, a grand disillusionment with the ideal of Pakistan, with the promises of the rulers, with the intentions of politicians. In this view, the power structure--so obviously unjust--appears unchangeable to individuals and groups. Given this malaise, there are then a range of strategies available. The first is individual spiritual development, an escape from the social and material worlds. The second is to flee the country to brighter horizons outside: "Dubai Chalo" or the fabled green card. The poor and middle class go to the Middle East and the rich and the upper middle class leave for the United States. Within the country the strategy is to find a job and then use one's personal influence to help others find work thus allowing the family as a whole to move up the economic ladder. Of course this is more difficult in times of contraction. During economic expansion, movement is easier. Another tactic is politicization in the form of joining political parties for the purpose of social transformation. However, this strategy is often quickly abandoned once the enormous weight of the historical structures at hand is made obvious (the military, the landlords, and the interpretive power of the ulema, mentioned earlier). What remains is politics as patronage. This regression from politics as social transformation to politics as patronage has a devastating influence on the national psyche. Individuals are forced into corruption and dishonesty (within their definitions of these two terms) and must live with their own moral failures in a land where From The Desk Of Noman Khan
  25. 25. Page 25 of 30 morality is central to personal and social valuation. Violence--individual, institutional and state--becomes routine and acceptable. Cities disaggregate; the rich secure themselves and the rest either form separate communities or create their own armies. What emerges is cynicism and pessimism, a breakdown in the immune system of the political and social body--a world ending with a whimper not a bang. For those in the position of leadership or responsibility the contradictions are even stronger and inasmuch as the local, national and international structures are too difficult to transform others are blamed: the foreign elements, the bad local elements, or the undisciplined youth, to name a few enemies. The oppression of the present bears down on leader and follower alike; both lose their humanity, both lose hope in any collective image of the future. Worse, there is no savior ahead: all models have failed; leaders have failed; religion has failed; capitalism has failed; socialism has failed; political parties have failed. CONCLUSION: DESIGNING THE FUTURE The need for reimagination of purpose, of identity, of vision from this dismal final vision is glaring. Part of provisioning is creating alternative structures. Among the points of departure for these new structures should be the centrality of difference. Pakistan has placed its strength on unity; a unity that has proved elusive. Perhaps we need to create institutions and models of change that use difference to create strength, that celebrate our uniqueness among each other and in the world. From an embracing of difference, a unity of self, family and a larger group identity then might be possible. As important as difference is decentralization, the creation of local practices to solve local problems, that is, endogenous development. Finally, we should not forget democracy, not in the trivial sense of voting--which has historically but strengthened statist politics--but in the more important sense of individual empowerment and community participation in the creation of preferred futures as contextualized by the social designs of others. In any case, designing the future at local and community and broader levels (through local and international social movements, for example) might be a more promising task than waiting for a politician or some other central authority to solve the problems ahead. Imagination does not mean, however, a forgetting of the material world and the real interests--structural, institutional and individual--that impede attempts to transform the present. The future must then be a sight that one moves toward as well as a site wherein the material and the creative meet. The future--like politics, economics and culture--must be decolonized and reappropriated by each one of us. Today. While the above represents an initial exploration of Pakistan's From The Desk Of Noman Khan
  26. 26. Page 26 of 30 images of the future, dimensions within these images have yet to be explored: the role of the environment, structural and direct violence, the role of children, images of health, the possibilities of growth and distribution, and the relative powers of various actors, such as nation-states, political parties and social movements. To conclude, one might ask: what is my image of the future for myself? For my family? For my community? For my nation? For the planet? And what am I doing to realize my personal and social image of the future? From The Desk Of Noman Khan
  27. 27. Page 27 of 30 Fear and Anger in Child: Fear and Anger are basic and “normal” human emotions. Fear is the reaction of the female (yin) energy within people; anger is the reaction of the male (yang) energy within people. Fear makes us cautious, anger makes us bold. We need caution to interpret situations and we need boldness to get into action. Our emotions tell us what we need. That is how easy it is. But it is not really easy, considering how we use these energies and what comes from it. We are collectively afraid of fear and anger, and collectively we use violence and cruelty to “structure” anger and fear. We are raised and are raising our children to “not be afraid” and “not be angry,” thus teaching them to compensate in all kinds of manners. Our schools are afraid that our children will not be interested in learning (forgetting that children without school learned to speak, walk, be social, etc). Schools use unhealthy competition, insults, threats, and punishment to compensate for that fear. Our country is afraid that it will not have enough, so it organizes violence in the form of army’s and warfare. People are afraid to speak their truth, so they smile in each others face and gossip behind their backs. Our companies are afraid that they will not have enough customers, so they lure you in with nice promises and try to get out from under their promises or charge exorbitant finance fees. Our religions use violence because they are afraid that people will or will not remember their spiritual nature, and threaten with hell and damnation when rules are not followed. Our society is so afraid of sexuality that is comes out as abuse and power plays. When we structure anger and fear, we make it impersonal. We make it so impersonal that being angry with a representative of any organization does not work because they are only doing their job. We make it so impersonal that our “enemies” are not human anymore, so we can easily kill them or hurt them. Instead of using “fear” as a sign to reconsider what is going on, and anger, irritation or frustration to consider what the right action could be, we snow it under and make an “impersonal” structure so that we don’t have to think about it. It takes courage to look into your fears. It takes dealing with fear to act courageously. The New Children -- the Indigos, Crystal, and Star Children -- are extremely sensitive to these compensated fears and angers. They come here to teach us to do it differently. What they need from their parents and teachers is training in how to deal with fear and anger. That is not easy, because neither parents nor teachers know exactly how to do that. Mind the amount of tranquilizers and other psychotropic medication that is being swallowed every day. From The Desk Of Noman Khan
  28. 28. Page 28 of 30 SOME SUGGESTIONS: First of all, make fear and anger personal again. Show children when you are afraid and when you are angry (they know anyway). Take time to look into these issues for yourself, they are also your teachers. Use gentleness and inquiry when there is fear. What do you see, what are you afraid of, what is the worst thing that could happen. Explain how things work, teach to count between a lightning flash and a thunder clap. Explain how automatically flushing toilets work. Let them explain what they see and teach them to send away dark spirits, or let their angels do it for them. When there is fear, there is a need for pioneer and scouting work. Are you afraid to die, to mess up your children’s life, to be left alone, to be homeless and poor, to go crazy… Be aware when you are angry, irritated or frustrated. Feel when and where it starts in your body. Do not judge it. It is a surge of energy. It is a sign of action not taken, a misinterpretation, and a call for wise action. Go run or jump, or announce that you are angry and need to yell or cannot be nice for a (short) while. Announce when the anger is over and you can talk about what happened, or can be nice again. If you stay in contact with your anger, it is like a wave. It comes and goes. Ask yourself what you are really angry or afraid about. Is there a better way to take action? When there is anger there is often despair, a hopelessness, a not knowing what to do anymore, a hidden fear. Do not judge it, do not push it down, and do not make a “structure” so you don’t have to deal with it. That is when you start compensating, manipulating, and hurting yourself and others, limiting your world. Teach your children to recognize their anger. Let them feel the wave of anger come up and release again. Ask them what they can do to feel better. Are you happy with that or would you like to learn to do it differently? Fear and anger are highly flammable. Fear and anger have a very strong resonance field. Use caution and be aware when you pick up fear and/or anger from your environment. From The Desk Of Noman Khan
  29. 29. Page 29 of 30 Essay on MY Idea of Ideal Life: INTRODUCTION: Happiness is the goal of all people and all wish to live a happy life. But what does happy life mean? The idea of a happy life differs from man to man. Some people think that happiness lies in luxurious living. So, they spend a lot of money over it. Some people think that happiness lies in amassing money. So, they keep a large amount of money in the saving bank and never spend a pie of it even for their bare necessities. Some people think, happiness lies in possession of gold. So, they keep a large mass of gold in their possession. Some people think happiness lies in worldly life. Some people think happiness lies in renunciation of worldly attachment, but my idea of happy life is not as theirs. My idea of happy life is as follows. MY IDEA OF HAPPY LIFE: I think, happiness lies in living a plain life within one's own means. If you follow the dictum 'cut you coat according to your cloth' and live within your own means, you will not need to trouble your head to get a loan of money or to pay back loan. Besides, you will not be a parasite or a dependant on others and your free mind will bring you immense happiness. Happiness lies not only in the life of plain living but also in the life of high thinking. So, a saying goes on 'plain living and high thinking'. If you live a life of high thinking the trifling worldly troubles will not disturb your mind. With your high mindedness and broad heartedness you will be able to excuse your small complaints and thereby you will be free from a lot of troubles. High-mindedness depends on plain living. If you do not be plain in your living you will fall in constant wants and you will become a self-seeker which will lead to low mindedness and meanness. So, in order to live a happy life, you should follow the dictum 'Plain living and high-thinking'. Health of body and peace of mind are necessary for living a happy life. You can get health of body and peace of mind by following the principles of hygiene and ethics. Idleness is the greatest enemy of happy life. So, you should cast off your idleness if any and do some useful and productive work. Adjustment, understanding, co-operation and tolerance are necessary for leading a happy life. So, also love, affection, sympathy and fellow feelings are necessary on your part for making your life happy. Now, I point out a very important thing for keeping a happy life. That is you cannot live happily if your neighbors are unhappy and sad. You cannot enjoy your full meal if neighbors of your lies in starved condition. Conversely, if you find that your neighbors are happy, happiness will automatically come to your mind. So, my idea of happy life is that one should conduct in such a way and live in such a manner that his neighbors will From The Desk Of Noman Khan
  30. 30. Page 30 of 30 not suffer in any way on one's account. You should not hurt them either in mind or in person or in property. Besides, you should sincerely try to alleviate their sorrow. Here lies the true sustenance of one's happy life. So, you should try to make others happy in order to live happy life for yourself. These are the sum total of my idea of happy life. CONCLUSION: My idea of happy life is not like an unattainable utopia. My idea of happy life is quite practicable. 1. Walk for 10-30 min daily.. 2. Sit quietly for at least 10 min daily in isolation.. 3. Try to make laugh at least 3 people daily... 4. Listen & Resite Quran daily to nourish your soul... 5. Drink green tea & plenty of water.. 6. Read more books than last year... 7. Life is too short to waste time hating someone... 8. Eat breakfast like king, lunch like a prince & dinner like beggar... 9. Don't compare your life with others. You have no idea of the highways they have travelled during their lives... 10. Nobody is responsible for your happiness except yourself... From The Desk Of Noman Khan