THE SECRETS OF        VIRAL ADS                       YORAM (JERRY) WINDThe Wharton School’s Future of Advertising Program
YORAM (JERRY) WIND            The Lauder Professor & Professor of Marketing            Director, SEI Center for Advanced S...
WHAT ARE THE KEY DETERMINANTS     of successful viral ads?
WHAT DO WE KNOW ABOUT   successful viral ads?
1. DO VIRAL STRATEGIES YIELDACTUAL BUSINESS RESULTS?  Yes        No        Unsure
1. DO VIRAL STRATEGIES YIELDACTUAL BUSINESS RESULTS?          •  Fame is a more powerful strategy than             emotion...
2. ARE EMOTIONAL ADS MOREEFFECTIVE THAN COGNITIVE ADS?  Yes        No       Unsure
2. ARE EMOTIONAL ADS MOREEFFECTIVE THAN COGNITIVE ADS?          •  2             Emotional strategies are more profitable....
3. ARE POSITIVE EMOTIONS MOREEFFECTIVE THAN NEGATIVE ONES?  Yes        No      Unsure
3. ARE POSITIVE EMOTIONS MOREEFFECTIVE THAN NEGATIVE ONES?          •  “Videos that elicit positive valence emotions      ...
4. DO CREATIVE DRIVERS SUCH ASENJOYMENT, INVOLVEMENT AND BRANDINGPREDICT ONLINE VIRAL VIEWING VOLUME?   Yes         No    ...
4. DO CREATIVE DRIVERS SUCH ASENJOYMENT, INVOLVEMENT AND BRANDINGPREDICT ONLINE VIRAL VIEWING VOLUME?           •  “The th...
5. DOES AD DISTINCTIVENESS POSITIVELYPREDIT ONLINE VIRAL VIEWING VOLUME?   Yes         No         Unsure
5. DOES AD DISTINCTIVENESS POSITIVELYPREDIT ONLINE VIRAL VIEWING VOLUME?           •  “Distinctiveness is identified as a ...
6. DO LEVELS OF CATEGORY AND BRANDINTEREST POSITIVELY PREDICT ONLINEVIRAL VIEWING VOLUME?   Yes         No        Unsure
6. DO LEVELS OF CATEGORY AND BRANDINTEREST POSITIVELY PREDICT ONLINEVIRAL VIEWING VOLUME?           •  The study does not ...
7. DOES CELEBRITY POPULARITYPOSITIVELY PREDICT ONLINE VIRALVIEWING VOLUME?   Yes         No        Unsure
7. DOES CELEBRITY POPULARITYPOSITIVELY PREDICT ONLINE VIRALVIEWING VOLUME?           •  Celebrity presence in ads builds W...
THE BASIS OF OUR KNOWLEDGE ON WHATMAKES SUCCESSFUL VIRAL ADS             Berger, Milkman. (2011)“What Makes Online Content...
TheWHARTON      Study
THE OBJECTIVE:1.  Identify the key differentiating characteristics of viral vs. non-viral ads.2.  Design new test and cont...
THE FIRST PHASE OF THERESEARCH DESIGN73 pairs of ads – high vs. low viral distributionfor the same brand and if possible t...
SELECTION OF THE ADS73 pairs of ads – successful vs. unsuccessful in getting viral distribution                           ...
SELECTION OF THE VIDEOS •  Criteria for selection of the viral advertisements     •  Used the top 100 viral advertisements...
Only 10 Brands had more than                     one viral video in the top 73.INDUSTRY BREAKDOWN                        B...
TOP 6
1. OLD SPICE                  VIRAL                                                    NON-VIRALTitle: Responses*         ...
2. VOLKSWAGEN            VIRAL                 NON-VIRALTitle: The Force         Title: That’s what he says?Aired on TV: Y...
3. DC SHOES           VIRAL                  NON-VIRAL                         Title: Epic Meal Time PresentsTitle: Gymkha...
4. MICROSOFT            VIRAL                         NON-VIRALTitle: 2009 Xbox Project Natal   Title: Kinect for XBOX 360...
5. OLD SPICE            VIRAL                         NON-VIRALTitle: Odor Blocker (campaign)   Title: Jungle WildernessAi...
6. EVIAN             VIRAL                  NON-VIRALTitle: Roller Babies       Title: Baby and New Evian Bottle*Aired on ...
BOTTOM 5
69. KIA            VIRAL                      NON-VIRALTitle: A New Way to Roll      Title: Night CourtAired on TV: Yes   ...
70. LANE BRYANT           VIRAL                     NON-VIRALTitle: Not What Mom Would                            Title: 3...
71. NIKE            VIRAL                      NON-VIRAL                              Title: Don’t Fear the SweeperTitle: ...
72. CHEVROLET            VIRAL                  NON-VIRALTitle: Misunderstanding   Title: Transformers 3 ‘Getaway’Aired on...
73. GOOGLE            VIRAL                  NON-VIRAL                           Title: Google Chrome: TheTitle: Gmail Mot...
TheANALYSISContent analysis by twoindependent coders based onliterature review
1. CONTENT ANALYSIS BY TWOINDEPENDENT CODERS BASED ONLITERATURE REVIEW
2. CONTENT CATEGORIES BASED ONANALYSIS OF PREVIOUS RESEARCH ONTHE CHARACTERISTICS OF SUCCESSFULVIRAL ADS  –  Superbowl    ...
3. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF THE DATAUSING A TWO PHASE APPROACH:•  Univariate analysis of the pairs using McNemar test•  Mul...
TheRESULTS
RESULTS (1): PAIR WISE MCNEMAR TEST•  The significant variables:   –  Super Bowl.....................11 viral and 0 non-vi...
RESULTS (2): MULTIVARIATE TEST—LOGISTIC REGRESSION•  Only 4 of the variables are significant    –  Surprise    –  Cute    ...
Discussion andCONCLUSIONS
NEXT STEPS:•  Moving forward in designing ads based on the study   and testing them for actual impact in the marketplace• ...
END OF STORYSMILE IF YOU LIKED ITYORAM (JERRY) WINDThe Lauder Professor andProfessor of MarketingDirector, SEI Center for ...
The Secrets of Viral Ads - Post-Advertising Summit 2012
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The Secrets of Viral Ads - Post-Advertising Summit 2012

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A presentation by Yoram (Jerry) Wind, Lauder Professor at the University of Pennsylvania Wharton School of Business and Director of the Future of Advertising Project.

The Future of Advertising program studied 73 pairs of ads from brands that achieved both high and low virality to determine why some ads go viral and some do not.

These findings were delivered as part of the Post Advertising Summit, hosted by brand storytelling agency Story Worldwide on March 29th, 2012 at Cult Studios in NYC.

For more information:
http://seicenter.wharton.upenn.edu/index.aspx
http://www.postadvertisingsummit.com
http://www.storyworldwide.com
http://www.postadvertising.com

Published in: Business, Technology
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The Secrets of Viral Ads - Post-Advertising Summit 2012

  1. 1. THE SECRETS OF VIRAL ADS YORAM (JERRY) WINDThe Wharton School’s Future of Advertising Program
  2. 2. YORAM (JERRY) WIND The Lauder Professor & Professor of Marketing Director, SEI Center for Advanced Studies in Management Academic Director, Wharton Fellows THE WHARTON SCHOOL UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA#PASummit
  3. 3. WHAT ARE THE KEY DETERMINANTS of successful viral ads?
  4. 4. WHAT DO WE KNOW ABOUT successful viral ads?
  5. 5. 1. DO VIRAL STRATEGIES YIELDACTUAL BUSINESS RESULTS? Yes No Unsure
  6. 6. 1. DO VIRAL STRATEGIES YIELDACTUAL BUSINESS RESULTS? •  Fame is a more powerful strategy than emotional involvement, rational or combined emotional and rational1 Yes •  Fame campaigns achieve the highest results for profit, price sensitivity, sales, loyalty and penetration1 •  “Fame” means WOM/buzz and turning consumers into brand advocates1
  7. 7. 2. ARE EMOTIONAL ADS MOREEFFECTIVE THAN COGNITIVE ADS? Yes No Unsure
  8. 8. 2. ARE EMOTIONAL ADS MOREEFFECTIVE THAN COGNITIVE ADS? •  2 Emotional strategies are more profitable. •  Emotional strategies yield stronger Yes business results in terms of sales, share, price elasticity, loyalty and penetration. 2 •  Emotional strategies build stronger brands in terms of awareness, fame (WOM), differentiation, commitment, image, quality and trust. 2 •  “More positive or more negative content is more viral than content that does not evoke emotion.” 1
  9. 9. 3. ARE POSITIVE EMOTIONS MOREEFFECTIVE THAN NEGATIVE ONES? Yes No Unsure
  10. 10. 3. ARE POSITIVE EMOTIONS MOREEFFECTIVE THAN NEGATIVE ONES? •  “Videos that elicit positive valence emotions (irrespective of arousal direction) were shared 20% more than those that elicited a negative valence emotion.” 2 Yes –  Positive High Arousal Emotions: Exhilaration, Hilarity, Astonishment, Inspiration –  Positive Low Arousal Emotions: Happiness, Amusement, Surprise, Calmness •  “Videos that elicit high arousal, positive valence emotions were shared considerably more on average per day (at minimum 30% more) than videos within any of the remaining arousal/valence groups.” 2 •  “Positive content is more viral than negative content.” 1
  11. 11. 4. DO CREATIVE DRIVERS SUCH ASENJOYMENT, INVOLVEMENT AND BRANDINGPREDICT ONLINE VIRAL VIEWING VOLUME? Yes No Unsure
  12. 12. 4. DO CREATIVE DRIVERS SUCH ASENJOYMENT, INVOLVEMENT AND BRANDINGPREDICT ONLINE VIRAL VIEWING VOLUME? •  “The three individual elements of enjoyment, involvement and branding Yes all had a significant positive correlation with our logged views per week measure..” •  “Involvement and enjoyment are clearly the more important of these measures, and will be the main mechanisms by which a film will have most of its effect online.”
  13. 13. 5. DOES AD DISTINCTIVENESS POSITIVELYPREDIT ONLINE VIRAL VIEWING VOLUME? Yes No Unsure
  14. 14. 5. DOES AD DISTINCTIVENESS POSITIVELYPREDIT ONLINE VIRAL VIEWING VOLUME? •  “Distinctiveness is identified as a key determinant of viral viewing.”1 Yes •  Intriguing content that fosters the imagination is linked to increased viral diffusion online.2
  15. 15. 6. DO LEVELS OF CATEGORY AND BRANDINTEREST POSITIVELY PREDICT ONLINEVIRAL VIEWING VOLUME? Yes No Unsure
  16. 16. 6. DO LEVELS OF CATEGORY AND BRANDINTEREST POSITIVELY PREDICT ONLINEVIRAL VIEWING VOLUME? •  The study does not conclude that levels of category and No brand interest positively predict online viral viewing volume. (p- value > 0.1)
  17. 17. 7. DOES CELEBRITY POPULARITYPOSITIVELY PREDICT ONLINE VIRALVIEWING VOLUME? Yes No Unsure
  18. 18. 7. DOES CELEBRITY POPULARITYPOSITIVELY PREDICT ONLINE VIRALVIEWING VOLUME? •  Celebrity presence in ads builds WOM.1 Yes •  Celebrity popularity positively predicts online viral viewing volume.2
  19. 19. THE BASIS OF OUR KNOWLEDGE ON WHATMAKES SUCCESSFUL VIRAL ADS Berger, Milkman. (2011)“What Makes Online Content Viral?” Izawa. (2010) “What Makes Viral Videos Viral?: Roles of Emotion, Impression, Utility and Social Ties in Online Sharing Behavior” Field. (2011) “The Link Between Creativity and Effectiveness” Porter, Golan. (2006) “From Subservient Chickens to Brawny men: A Comparison of Viral Advertising to Television Advertising” YOUREXPERIENCE Southgate, Westoby, Page. (2010) “Creative Determinants of Viral Video Viewing” PLUS: Teixeira. (2012) “The New Science of Viral Ads” Peretti, Frumin. “Viral Marketing for the Real World” Woerndl, Papagiannidis, Bourlakis. (2008) “Internet-Induced Marketing Techniques: Critical Factors in Viral Marketing Campaigns” Nelson-Field, K., Riebe, E. and Newstead, K. “Emotional Drivers of Video Sharing: A Multi-Study Approach,” (working paper, forthcoming 2012)
  20. 20. TheWHARTON Study
  21. 21. THE OBJECTIVE:1.  Identify the key differentiating characteristics of viral vs. non-viral ads.2.  Design new test and control ads based on these (and other) findings.3.  Test the new ads to validate our findings.
  22. 22. THE FIRST PHASE OF THERESEARCH DESIGN73 pairs of ads – high vs. low viral distributionfor the same brand and if possible the samecampaign.
  23. 23. SELECTION OF THE ADS73 pairs of ads – successful vs. unsuccessful in getting viral distribution INDSUTR TITLE AGENCY BRAND SOURCE VIEWS Y VisibleVIRAL Live Young Beverages Evian 160,576,979 BETC Euro MeasuresNON- Baby and New RSCGVIRAL Beverages Evian YouTube 352,542 Evian Bottle INDSUTR TITLE AGENCY BRAND SOURCE VIEWS Y Health & VisibleVIRAL Responses Weiden + Old Spice 81,054,872 Beauty Measures KennedyNON- Health & (Portland)VIRAL Farewell, Fabio Old Spice YouTube 332,401 Beauty
  24. 24. SELECTION OF THE VIDEOS •  Criteria for selection of the viral advertisements •  Used the top 100 viral advertisements according to the Visible Measures database •  Eliminated videos that were no longer available online •  Eliminated videos that did not have an appropriate non-viral pair •  Criteria for the selection of non-viral advertisements •  If the viral ad was aired on TV, the matched non-viral ad must have also aired on TV •  Must have fewer than 1,000,000 views according to YouTube •  Must have been released within 1 year of the corresponding viral ad 24
  25. 25. Only 10 Brands had more than one viral video in the top 73.INDUSTRY BREAKDOWN Beverages Health & Beauty Automotive Apparel & Accessories Electronics Food Telecommunications Financial Services Insurance Software Household Products Energy Dining Sports Media Retail Other 25
  26. 26. TOP 6
  27. 27. 1. OLD SPICE VIRAL NON-VIRALTitle: Responses* Title: Farewell, FabioAired on TV: No Aired on TV: NoViews: 81,054,872 Views: 332,401Comments: 86,877 Comments: 886 *In addition to the video shown here this data refers to all the videos in the Old Spice Responses campaign.
  28. 28. 2. VOLKSWAGEN VIRAL NON-VIRALTitle: The Force Title: That’s what he says?Aired on TV: Yes Aired on TV: YesViews: 59,262,107 Views: 10,482Comments: 36,720 Comments: 41
  29. 29. 3. DC SHOES VIRAL NON-VIRAL Title: Epic Meal Time PresentsTitle: Gymkhana 2 the Reasons why Gymkhana 4 is the BestAired on TV: No Aired on TV: NoViews: 59,169,659 Views: 337,685Comments: 33,425 Comments: 896
  30. 30. 4. MICROSOFT VIRAL NON-VIRALTitle: 2009 Xbox Project Natal Title: Kinect for XBOX 360Announcement EntertainmentAired on TV: No Aired on TV: NoViews: 54,071,560 Views: 555Comments: 198,987 Comments: 5
  31. 31. 5. OLD SPICE VIRAL NON-VIRALTitle: Odor Blocker (campaign) Title: Jungle WildernessAired on TV: Yes Aired on TV: YesViews: 52,808,713 Views: 355,459Comments: 51,112 Comments: 151
  32. 32. 6. EVIAN VIRAL NON-VIRALTitle: Roller Babies Title: Baby and New Evian Bottle*Aired on TV: Yes Aired on TV: YesViews: 160,576,979 Views: 352,452Comments: 55,111 Comments: 56
  33. 33. BOTTOM 5
  34. 34. 69. KIA VIRAL NON-VIRALTitle: A New Way to Roll Title: Night CourtAired on TV: Yes Aired on TV: YesViews: 7,944,479 Views: 239,683Comments: 13,863 Comments: 23
  35. 35. 70. LANE BRYANT VIRAL NON-VIRALTitle: Not What Mom Would Title: 3 TruthsWearAired on TV: Yes Aired on TV: YesViews: 7,822,518 Views: 17,133Comments: 8,643 Comments: 5
  36. 36. 71. NIKE VIRAL NON-VIRAL Title: Don’t Fear the SweeperTitle: Today Was a Good Day Tour: Part OneAired on TV: No Aired on TV: NoViews: 7,520,772 Views: 153,880Comments: 18,543 Comments: 591
  37. 37. 72. CHEVROLET VIRAL NON-VIRALTitle: Misunderstanding Title: Transformers 3 ‘Getaway’Aired on TV: Yes Aired on TV: YesViews: 7,449,159 Views: 388,027Comments: 2.931 Comments: 121
  38. 38. 73. GOOGLE VIRAL NON-VIRAL Title: Google Chrome: TheTitle: Gmail Motion Johnny Cash ProjectAired on TV: No Aired on TV: NoViews: 7,297,871 Views: 258,159Comments: 16,527 Comments: 76
  39. 39. TheANALYSISContent analysis by twoindependent coders based onliterature review
  40. 40. 1. CONTENT ANALYSIS BY TWOINDEPENDENT CODERS BASED ONLITERATURE REVIEW
  41. 41. 2. CONTENT CATEGORIES BASED ONANALYSIS OF PREVIOUS RESEARCH ONTHE CHARACTERISTICS OF SUCCESSFULVIRAL ADS –  Superbowl –  Celebrities –  Call to action –  Humor –  Cause –  Cute –  Co-creation –  Sex –  Mascot –  Rational Appeal –  Creative –  Emotional Appeal –  Children –  Facebook Likes –  Animals –  Twitter Followers
  42. 42. 3. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF THE DATAUSING A TWO PHASE APPROACH:•  Univariate analysis of the pairs using McNemar test•  Multivariate analysis using logistic regression
  43. 43. TheRESULTS
  44. 44. RESULTS (1): PAIR WISE MCNEMAR TEST•  The significant variables: –  Super Bowl.....................11 viral and 0 non-viral –  Creative…......................35 viral and 4 non-viral –  Surprise….....................18 viral and 1 non-viral –  Children…....................18 viral and 8 non-viral –  Humor…......................19 viral and 8 non-viral –  Cute…..........................19 viral and 2 non-viral –  Emotional....................15 viral and 3 non-viral –  Rational…...................4 viral and 16 non-viral
  45. 45. RESULTS (2): MULTIVARIATE TEST—LOGISTIC REGRESSION•  Only 4 of the variables are significant –  Surprise –  Cute –  Creative –  Emotional•  These results in 60 out of the 73 (82%) viral to be above the “best” cutoff and 52 out of 73 (71%) non- viral to be below the cutoff.
  46. 46. Discussion andCONCLUSIONS
  47. 47. NEXT STEPS:•  Moving forward in designing ads based on the study and testing them for actual impact in the marketplace•  Encouraging every one of you to design viral ads and test their impact.
  48. 48. END OF STORYSMILE IF YOU LIKED ITYORAM (JERRY) WINDThe Lauder Professor andProfessor of MarketingDirector, SEI Center for AdvancedStudies in ManagementThe Wharton Schoolwindj@wharton.upenn.edu

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