Accelerated Tissue Repair21st Century Strategies for Rapid Injury Recovery
Accelerated Tissue Repair                     Webinar Outline•   Understanding the Mechanisms•   Nutritional/Dietary Neces...
Understanding theMechanisms                 Regeneration vs. Repair•   Regeneration refers to the proliferation of cells a...
Understanding theMechanisms                Regeneration vs. Repair•   Repair most often consists of a combination of    re...
Understanding the Mechanisms                     Extra Cellular Matrix•ECM components are essential for wound healing, bec...
Understanding the Mechanisms                      Extra Cellular Matrix•The ECM is composed of three groups of macromolecu...
Understanding theMechanisms                       Growth Factors •The proliferation of many cell types is driven by polype...
Understanding theMechanisms         Transforming Growth Factor b (TGF-b)•TGF-b is a potent fibrogenic agent that stimulate...
Nutritional/DietaryNecessities•   Vitamins and Minerals•   Amino Acids•   Essential Fatty Acids•   Bioflavonoids/Antioxida...
Nutritional/DietaryNecessities                  Vitamins and Minerals•   Zinc, magnesium, and vitamin B-12 are key micronu...
Nutritional/DietaryNecessities                  Vitamins and Minerals•   Vitamins B-6 and B-2 along with copper are used f...
Nutritional/DietaryNecessities                        Amino Acids•   Long protein chains made from amino acids make up the...
Nutritional/DietaryNecessities               Essential Fatty Acids (EFAs)•   N-3 fatty acids are essential for normal grow...
Nutritional/DietaryNecessities               Essential Fatty Acids (EFAs)•   Beneficial Dietary Sources of long chain n-3 ...
Nutritional/DietaryNecessities               Bioflavonoids/Antioxidants•   Once known as "Vitamin P" and semi-essential   ...
Nutritional/DietaryNecessities                Bioflavonoids/Antioxidants•   Many of the biological effects of flavonoids a...
Nutritional/DietaryNecessities                 Anti-Inflammatory Foods•   “The first step in the treatment of a ligamentou...
Nutritional/DietaryNecessities                Anti-Inflammatory Foods•   Use anti-inflammatory spices liberally. Top choic...
Nutraceutical Agents forAccelerated Tissue Repair•   While the compounds previously discussed can be found in whole    foo...
Nutraceutical Agents forAccelerated Tissue Repair                          Colostrum•   Bovine colostrum is a fluid secret...
Nutraceutical Agents forAccelerated Tissue Repair                         Colostrum•   Growth factors and cytokines presen...
Nutraceutical Agents for    Accelerated Tissue Repair                          Colostrum•   The IGF-I in bovine colostrum ...
Nutraceutical Agents forAccelerated Tissue Repair                        Nucleotides•   What are Nucleotides? Nucleotides ...
Nutraceutical Agents forAccelerated Tissue Repair                        Nucleotides•   In a NASA-funded research project ...
Nutraceutical Agents forAccelerated Tissue Repair                     Deer Antler Velvet•   Factors contributing to deer a...
Nutraceutical Agents forAccelerated Tissue Repair                    Proteolytic Enzymes•   These are anti-inflammatory, p...
Nutraceutical Agents forAccelerated Tissue Repair                   Proteolytic Enzymes•   Serrapeptase has also proven in...
Nutraceutical Agents for    Accelerated Tissue Repair              Aloe barbadensis (Aloe vera)•   The pure inner gel of t...
Nutraceutical Agents for    Accelerated Tissue Repair               Aloe barbadensis (Aloe vera)•   Aloe Vera Gel appears ...
Nutraceutical Agents forAccelerated Tissue Repair                    Annatto Tocotrienol•   Annatto tocotrienol is better ...
Nutraceutical Agents forAccelerated Tissue Repair          Glucosamine & Chondroitin Sulfate•   Glucosamine Sulfate (GS) w...
Nutraceutical Agents forAccelerated Tissue Repair     Devil’s Claw (Harpagophytum Procumbens)•   Natives in the steppes of...
Nutraceutical Agents forAccelerated Tissue Repair            Cat’s Claw (Uncaria Tomentosa)•   A medicinal plant native to...
Nutraceutical Agents forAccelerated Tissue Repair                      Ecklonia Cava•   Ecklonia Cava is a seaweed. Its ex...
Nutraceutical Agents forAccelerated Tissue Repair                    Other Helpful Agents•   Cetyl Myristoleate (CMO) This...
Nutraceutical Agents forAccelerated Tissue Repair                   Other Helpful Agents•   Carnosine - Granulation is a t...
Nutraceutical Agents forAccelerated Tissue Repair                   Other Helpful Agents•   White Willow (Salix Alba) The ...
Exogenous Nutrients forAccelerated Tissue Repair
Exogenous Nutrients forAccelerated Tissue Repair            History of Fango- & Pelotherapy•   Fangotherapy•   ‘Fango’ is ...
Exogenous Nutrients forAccelerated Tissue Repair                    Types of Muds/Clays•   Peat    Peat magma, a carbon ma...
Exogenous Nutrients forAccelerated Tissue Repair
Exogenous Nutrients forAccelerated Tissue Repair             How do the muds/clays work?•   Scars, traumas and adipose tis...
Exogenous Nutrients forAccelerated Tissue Repair              How do the muds/clays work?•   Reported mechanisms of action...
Exogenous Nutrients forAccelerated Tissue Repair             How do the muds/clays work?•   (Flusser et al, 2002) conclude...
Exogenous Nutrients forAccelerated Tissue Repair                      Castor Oil Packs•   Two separate studies found that ...
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Accelerated tissue repair

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  • Kumar, V., MBBS, MD, FRCPath, Abbas,A. MBBS, Fausto,N. MD and Aster,J. MD. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease.(2010).Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.
  • Kumar, V., MBBS, MD, FRCPath, Abbas,A. MBBS, Fausto,N. MD and Aster,J. MD. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease.(2010).Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.
  • Kumar, V., MBBS, MD, FRCPath, Abbas,A. MBBS, Fausto,N. MD and Aster,J. MD. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease.(2010).Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.
  • Kumar, V., MBBS, MD, FRCPath, Abbas,A. MBBS, Fausto,N. MD and Aster,J. MD. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease.(2010).Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.
  • Of the myriad of cytokines that have been investigated in terms of wound healing, TGF- beta 1 has undoubtedly the broadest effects TGF-beta contributes to the fibrotic process by recruiting fibroblasts and stimulating their synthesis of collagens I, III, and V, proteoglycans, fibronectin and other ECM components Kumar, V., MBBS, MD, FRCPath, Abbas,A. MBBS, Fausto,N. MD and Aster,J. MD. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease.(2010).Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.
  • Vitamins and minerals are needed for the many enzymatic reactions involved in connective tissue rebuilding.
  • Bucci LR. Nutrition applied to injury rehabilitation and sports medicine.Boca Raton: CRC Press, 1995. Linder MC, ed. Nutritional Biochemistry and Metabolism 2nd ed. New York: Elsevier, 1991.
  • Fat intake was the most useful dietary factor in predicting future injury in female runners in several current studies that reported correlations between low-fat diets and incidence of stress fracture. These injured runners consumed a diet significantly lower in total fat and lower in percentage of total energy from fat. In addition, the studies revealed that runners consuming less than the commonly recommended 30 percent of total calories from fat were two-and-a-half times as likely to sustain an injury compared with runners consuming 30 percent or more. Interestingly, the higher fat intakes enjoyed the least injuries, as long as carbohydrate and protein needs were also met. These fatty acids also decrease the production of the classic inflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor, interleukin-1, and interleukin-6 and the expression of adhesion molecules involved in inflammatory interactions between leukocytes and endothelial cells. Calder, P. (July, 2006). Polyunsaturated fattyacids and inflammation.Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids.Volume 75, Issue 3, September 2006, Pages 197–202
  • A large amount of new evidence from in vitro studies indicates that LC n-3 PUFA significantly affect mechanisms relating to inflammatory processes, such as endothelial activation, modification of eicosanoid metabolism – including epoxygenation pathways, and inflammatory resolution
  • Flavonoids are a large family of polyphenolic compounds synthesized by plants Tixier JM, et al. Evidence by in vivo and in vitro studies that binding of pycnogenols to elastin affects its rate of degradation by elastases.Biochem Pharmacol 1984;33(24):3933-39.
  • In the last decade scientists have proven that some antioxidants have anti-inflammatory properties. In addition to scavenging free radicals, there are antioxidants that actually block inflammation. The antioxidant effect (the blocking of certain oxidizing proteins) lowers the activation of inflammatory signals. Scientists have also found that combinations of certain antioxidants have greater effect than single antioxidants on certain types of inflammation Grimble, RF. (1994). Nutritional antioxidants and the modulation of inflammation: theory and practice.New Horiz. 1994 May;2(2):175-85.
  • Nutritional Support For Ligamentous Injuries. G. Douglas Andersen, DC, DACBSP, CCN.Dynamic Chiropractic – June 6, 1990, Vol. 08, Issue 12
  • Jurenka, J. (2009). Anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin, a major constituent of Curcuma longa: a review of preclinical and clinical research.Altern Med Rev. 2009 Jun;14(2):141-53.
  • Colostrum and its benefits: a review F.O Uruakpa, M.A.H Ismond, E.N.T Akobundu.Nutrition research (New York, N.Y.) 1 June 2002 (volume 22 issue 6 Pages 755-767)
  • Colostrum: nature's gift to the immune system. Beth M. Ley-Jacobs, Beth M. Ley (1997). Colostrum is a very complex mixture containing many substances that have yet to be fully appreciated. Among these substances are a group of low molecular weight peptides collectively referred to as "growth factors". Growth factors are hormone-like peptides that either act alone or in conjunction with other substances to affect the growth (proliferation) and maturation of various cell types. For example some growth factors help epidermal cells (skin and digestive tract) grow faster while other growth factors stimulate muscle and bone cell proliferation and development. Of significant interest is the fact that bovine growth factors found in colostrum are almost identical to that of human in both structure and function In addition to growth factors there are also cytokines present in colostrum.
  • Colostrum: nature's gift to the immune system. Beth M. Ley-Jacobs, Beth M. Ley (1997). Colostrum is a very complex mixture containing many substances that have yet to be fully appreciated. Among these substances are a group of low molecular weight peptides collectively referred to as "growth factors". Growth factors are hormone-like peptides that either act alone or in conjunction with other substances to affect the growth (proliferation) and maturation of various cell types. For example some growth factors help epidermal cells (skin and digestive tract) grow faster while other growth factors stimulate muscle and bone cell proliferation and development. Of significant interest is the fact that bovine growth factors found in colostrum are almost identical to that of human in both structure and function In addition to growth factors there are also cytokines present in colostrum.
  • Nucleotides can stimulate cellular growth and repair, including the skin. Nucleotides help expedite wound healing and recovery of damaged tissue from trauma, burns, bedsores, surgery or inflammatory disease. Nucleotides as immunomodulators in clinical nutrition. Grimble, George K.; Westwood, Olwyn M. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care: January 2001 - Volume 4 - Issue 1 - pp 57-64 He Y, Chu SH, Walker WA.Developmental Gastroenterology Laboratory, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston. The Journal of Nutrition [1993, 123(6):1017-27]
  • They promote rapid cellular regeneration, increased vitality, healthy immune system, protein support and DNA repair. The role of nucleotides in human nutrition. Jane D. Carver. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry. Volume 6, Issue 2 , Pages 58-72, February 1995 L McNaughton, D J Bentley, P Koeppel.The effects of a nucleotide supplement on salivary IgA and cortisol after moderate endurance exercise.Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2006 Mar ;46 (1):84-9 16596104
  • Deer Antler Velvet has been used for thousands of years in traditional Oriental medicine as an aid to keep people in the peak of good health and overall wellness.  Recent studies have shown that the ancient remedy actually possesses a wide range of health benefits including the ability to support muscle strength, healthy joints and tendons, and recovery time after intense physical exertion. Deer Antler Velvet is a rich natural source of several human growth hormones including IGF-1 and IGF-2, as well as an array of minerals, trace-elements, glucosaminoglycans, lipids, peptides 13. Sim JS, Sunwoo HH. Canadian scientist study velvet antler for arthritis treatment. North American Elk . Fall 1998:123-125. 28. Kim YE, Lee SK, Lee MH. Pharmacologically effective components of antler (cervus nippon taiouanus). IV. Detection of prostalandins of antler velvet layer. Hanguk Saenghwa Hakhoe Chi . 1977;10:1-12
  • Exudate --fluid that filters from the circulatory system into lesions or areas of inflammation In one study, football players who suffered from ankle injuries found that proteolytic enzyme supplements accelerated healing and got the players back on the field 50 percent faster than athletes who received placebo tablets. Buck JE, Phillips N. Trial of Chymoral in professional footballers. Br J Clin Pract. 1970 Sep;24(9):375-7. Craig RP. The quantitative evaluation of the use of oral proteolytic enzymes in the treatment of sprained ankles. Injury. 1975 May;6(4):313-6. Fisher JD, Weeks RL, Curry WM, Hrinda ME, Rosen LL. Effects of an oral enzyme preparation, Chymoral, upon serum proteins associated with injury (acute phase reactants) in man. J Med. 1974;5(5):258-73.
  • This peptidase induces fragmentation of fibrinose aggregates and reduces the viscosity of exudates, thus facilitating drainage of these products of the inflammatory response and thereby promoting the tissue repair process
  • It has been suggested that mannose 6-phosphate, the principal sugar component of Aloe Vera Gel, may be partly responsible for the wound healing properties of the gel. Mannose 6-phosphate can bind to the growth factor receptors on the surface of the fibroblasts and thereby enhance their activity.Furthermore, acemannan, a complex carbohydrate isolated from Aloe leaves, has been shown to accelerate wound healing and reduce radiationinduced skin reactions. The mechanism of action of acemannan appears to be twofold. First, acemannan is a potent macrophage-activating agent and therefore may stimulate the release of fibrogenic cytokines (21, 22). Second, growth factors may directly bind to acemannan, promoting their stability and prolonging their stimulation of granulation tissue. Davis RH et al. Anti-inflammatory and wound healing of growth substance in Aloe vera. Journal of the American Pediatric Medical Association , 1994, 84:77–81. Tizard AU et al. Effects of acemannan, a complex carbohydrate, on wound healing in young and aged rats. Wounds, a compendium of clinical research and practice, 1995, 6:201–209. Roberts DB, Travis EL. Acemannan-containing wound dressing gels reduce radiation-induced skin reactions in C3H mice. International journal of radiation oncology, biology and physiology, 1995, 15:1047–1052.
  • The anti-inflammatory activity of Aloe Vera Gel has been revealed by a number of in vitro and in vivo studies. Acemannan Stimulates Gingival Fibroblast Proliferation; Expressions of Keratinocyte Growth Factor-1, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, and Type I Collagen; and Wound Healing. Suwimon Jettanacheawchankiti, Siriruk Sasithanasate, Polkit Sangvanich, Wijit Banlunara and Pasutha Thunyakitpisal. Journal of Pharmacological Sciences Vol. 109 (2009) , No. 4 pp.525-531
  • Annatto provides 90% delta-tocotrienol, which has been repeatedly shown to be the most potent. This is followed in potency by gamma-tocotrienol as close second, of which annatto contains 10%. Wherever tocotrienol isomers may be purified from (e.g., palm, rice, and annatto), the chemical identity of the isomers is still the same, and delta was repeatedly shown to work best. Tocotrienols Suppress Proinflammatory Markers and Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression in RAW264.7 Macrophages. Mun-Li Yam, Sitti Rahma Abdul Hafid, Hwee-Ming Cheng and Kalanithi Nesaretnam. Lipids Volume 44, Number 9, 787-797, DOI: 10.1007/s11745-009-3326-2
  • Glucosamine Sulfate is the preferred form of Glucosamine available today due to its ability to easily travel from your gut into your joint. The other forms of Glucosamine have very limited or no evidence of their ability to be absorbed by your body and to help your body heal itself.
  • Cameron M, Blumle A, Gagnier JJ, Little CV, Parsons T, Chrubasik S. 2009. Evidence of effectiveness of herbal medicinal products in the treatment of arthritis. Part 1: Osteoarthritis. Phytother Res 23: 1497–1515.
  • Treatment of THP-1 cells with Uncaria tomentosa extracts differentially regulates the expression if IL-1 β and TNF- α. Lisa Allen-Halla, b, Pablo Canoa, John T. Arnasonc, Rosario Rojasd, Olga Locke, Robert M. Lafreniea. Journal of Ethnopharmacology Volume 109, Issue 2, 19 January 2007, Pages 312–317
  • Phlorotannins in Eckloniacava extract inhibit matrix metalloproteinase activity. Moon-Moo Kima, Quang Van Tab, Eresha Mendisb, Niranjan Rajapakseb, Won-Kyo Junga, Hee-Guk Byunc, You-Jin Jeond, Se-Kwon Kima. Life Sciences Volume 79, Issue 15, 5 September 2006, Pages 1436–1443
  • Cetyl myristoleate is the cetyl ester of myristoleic acid . It has multiple biological properties, including as an anti-inflammatory and a pain reliever, as well as being an immune system modulator. As supplied, it is a naturally derived, highly purified, and refined waxy ester prepared for oral administration. Because it is an ester form, highly resistant to oxidation, it has a relatively long life in the body. No harmful short or long term effects have been observed in laboratory animals at high doses or in limited human experiments Medicinal properties of Hericium erinaceus (Bull.: Fr) Pers. ( H. erinaceus ), also known as Lion’s Mane, Monkey’s Head, Hedgehog Fungus, Satyr’s Beard, Pom Pom Blanc, Igelstachelbart and Yamabushitake have been well known for hundreds of years in traditional Chinese and Japanese cooking and herbal medicine to treat various human diseases. The fruiting bodies are composed of numerous constituents such as polysaccharides, proteins, lectins, phenols, hericenones, erinacines and terpenoids. Peripheral Nerve Regeneration Following Crush Injury to Rat Peroneal Nerve by Aqueous Extract of Medicinal Mushroom Hericium erinaceus. Kah-Hui Wong,Murali Naidu,Pamela David,Mahmood Ameen Abdulla,Noorlidah Abdullah,Umah Rani Kuppusamy and Vikineswary Sabaratnam. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative MedicineVolume 2011 (2011), Article ID 580752, 10 pages
  • Camosine is a naturally occurring, water-soluble dipeptide. It has buffering activities in excitable animal and human tissues, exhibits metal ions binding properties, antioxidant and antiglycating properties, extends the life-span of cultured human diploid cells, regulates sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-release channel activity. Carnosine may be a potential therapeutic agent (neurodegenerative, metabolic, cardiovascular diseases) mainly due to its antioxidant and antiglycating activities Realization of spontaneous healing function by carnosine.Nagai K, Suda T.Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 1988 Aug;10(8):497-507.
  • Willow bark (Salix alba) contains salicin, known for its antipyretic and pain relieving activity since ancient times Barnes et al., 2002J. Barnes, L.A. Anderson, J.D. Phillipson. Herbal Medicines: A Guide for Healthcare Professionals.(second ed.)Pharmaceutical Press, London (2002)
  • ‘ Fango’ is an Italian word for mud. In Fangotherapy, thermal muds from hot springs are used for their therapeutic purposes. In Italy and several European countries, mud spas have extremely long history and there are some mud therapy spas available in their natural hot springs with the United States. Scholars believe the Romans discovered “mud” clay therapy as early as 120 B.C. They found that therapeutic clays could help draw out toxins and impurities, inflammatory byproduct particles, excess heat and cool the body. Clay’s property of water solubility allows the skin to absorb nutrients and its ability to remove matter suspended in colloid matrixes assists the body in the systemic removal of many types of industrial chemicals that the body would otherwise be unable to eliminate. In 1928 in London there was a workshop where various types of healing mud were given the name "peloid", that in Greek means "pelo" - mud and "id" - has.  Pelotherapy is a term historically used for mud therapies using Bentonite, Illite (French green clay or Sea clay), or Montmorillonite (Red desert clay).
  • Kaolin clay is also known as China Clay or White Clay. It is the mildest of all clays and is suitable to add to products created for people with sensitive skin. The clay's mildly drying and disinfectant properties help heal existing blemishes and inflammations It helps stimulate circulation to the skin while gently exfoliating and cleansing it. Kaolin Clay is high in calcium, silica, zinc and magnesium. It also contains aluminosilicates that are known to trigger blood clotting, and in the use of kaolin clay on open wounds, nanoparticles effectively trap themselves at the site of the injury -- so they don't wind up wandering deep into the body. Shilajit, a natural mineral resin from high mountainous areas of India, rich in key detoxifying organic acids. contain at least 85 minerals in Ionic form, including triterpenes and aromatic carboxylic acid , as well as humic acid and fulvic acid . Unlike other soil humus, shilajit humus consists of 60-80% organic mass. The authenticity and therapeutic quality of shilajit is identified by the inclusion of oxygenated di-benzo alpha pyrones. It is important to use non-irradiated, pure, unheated, non-toxic substances in the mud baths and packs. You want to find formulas that combine these unique earth substances and create a strong synergy with a maximum cation binding capacity.
  • Kaolin clay is also known as China Clay or White Clay. It is the mildest of all clays and is suitable to add to products created for people with sensitive skin. The clay's mildly drying and disinfectant properties help heal existing blemishes and inflammations It helps stimulate circulation to the skin while gently exfoliating and cleansing it. Kaolin Clay is high in calcium, silica, zinc and magnesium. It also contains aluminosilicates that are known to trigger blood clotting, and in the use of kaolin clay on open wounds, nanoparticles effectively trap themselves at the site of the injury -- so they don't wind up wandering deep into the body. Shilajit, a natural mineral resin from high mountainous areas of India, rich in key detoxifying organic acids. contain at least 85 minerals in Ionic form, including triterpenes and aromatic carboxylic acid , as well as humic acid and fulvic acid . Unlike other soil humus, shilajit humus consists of 60-80% organic mass. The authenticity and therapeutic quality of shilajit is identified by the inclusion of oxygenated di-benzo alpha pyrones. It is important to use non-irradiated, pure, unheated, non-toxic substances in the mud baths and packs. You want to find formulas that combine these unique earth substances and create a strong synergy with a maximum cation binding capacity. we all live in an era where everyone is now exposed to many toxic elements – in the air we breathe, in our food and water, in common cleaning products and body care products. Our environment has become increasingly toxic. Over 20,000 new chemicals per year have entered our environment for the past 30 years. The result: more than 1 person in 2 in the U.S. is now chronically ill. In addition, there has been a 50% reduction in the antioxidant nutriture in our food over the last 25 years. This is unfortunate because adequate levels of antioxidants are one of the major nutritional defense resources for the body. Interestingly, in research studies, 100% of Americans tested by the EPA were shown to have toxic plastics such as styrene in their fat. These toxic chemicals increase our risk of cancer, diabetes, Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s and so much more, eroding our quality of life. In addition, these toxins can block key pathways in the body, such as particular organs and glands. Now more than ever, we need a simple yet elegant way to keep our bodies detoxified.   The buildup of many types of environmental toxins have lodged in our skin, fat layers and connective tissue Consequently, for most people, the connective tissue of their bodies have become saturated with many toxic chemical residues that have gradually deposited there over time. Proof of this was shown in an EPA study where 100% of tested subjects had accumulated toxic chemicals in their fat tissue, such as dioxins and pesticides. These stored toxins can act to disrupt normal body physiology and function. As our internal and external bioaccumulation increases, many of the body’s natural detox systems start to slow down and become “jammed”. Hence, the time has come where it is now essential to remove these toxins from the body on a regular basis.   The skin is an incredible “breathing” matrix and is the largest organ in the body. Whatever you put on your skin, is absorbed internally and goes into systemic circulation. Keeping the skin healthy and detoxified naturally promotes overall health of the entire body. One of the best ways to detox is through the skin.   Many of the minerals used in balneotherapy or mudding are rich silica , sulfur , selenium , and magnesium minerals which can be absorbed through the skin . The natural detoxifiers in the therapeutic clays and muds are highly negatively charged. Toxic, synthetic chemicals and scar tissue are positively charged. When the wetted mixture of the mud is applied to your skin, an osmotic pulling effect occurs where the positively charged ions of the chemical toxins, cell waste and congestions are attracted to the negatively charged ions of the natural clays, acting to draw them out of the body. If peat is present, it can deliver nutrients through the skin.
  • Shilajit: a review.Suraj P. Agarwal, Rajesh Khanna,*, Ritesh Karmarkar, Md. Khalid Anwer, Roop K. Khar. Phytotherapy Research. Volume 21, Issue 5, pages 401–405, May 2007 There is an enormous amount of research -- over 840 worldwide clinical research studies are available on PubMed alone -- which proves how extraordinarily effective mud and clay therapy are -- and how they work quickly, safely and effectively. Mud packs can quickly eliminate years of bio-accumulated toxins that impair nerve, lymphatic and the body’s energy flow (called “chi”). These accumulated toxins are known to delay healing or in many cases, prevent it altogether. For instance, this clinical trial in Switzerland was completed in 2000, proving the analgesic efficacy of the application of a sulfurated mud. In this study, 36 patients with osteoarthritis were enrolled and were randomized in two groups. Group A received a mud pack treatment and group B received thermal bath treatment. Assays were performed on sTNF-R55 and sTNF-R75 prior and after receiving treatments. They looked at these markers because binding of Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha on specific TNF receptors (sTNF-R) levels results int stimulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines that cause inflammation and cartilage damage. The results showed that the mud pack treatments interatcted with the most common factor of inflammatory and cartilage degradation to decrease the inflammation.   Bellometti S, Galzigna L, Richelmi P, Gregotti C, Bertè F. Both serum receptors of tumor necrosis factor are influenced by mud pack treatment in osteoarthrotic patients. Int J Tissue React 2002;24:57-64. 33. Bellometti S, Poletto M, Gregotti C, Richelmi P, Bertè F. Mud bath therapy influences nitric oxide, myeloperoxidase and glutathione peroxidase serum levels in arthritic patients. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 2000;20:69-80. 34. Bellometti S, Galzigna L. Serum levels of a prostaglandin and a leukotriene after thermal mud pack therapy. J Investig Med 1998;46:140-5.
  • Flusser D, Abu-Shakra M, Friger M, Codish S, Sukenik S. Therapy with mud compresses for knee osteoarthritis:comparison of natural mud preparations with mineral-depleted mud. J Clin Rheumatol 2002;8:197-203. Bellometti S, Galzigna L, Richelmi P, Gregotti C, Bertè F. Both serum receptors of tumor necrosis factor are influenced by mud pack treatment in osteoarthrotic patients. Int J Tissue React 2002;24:57-64. 33. Bellometti S, Poletto M, Gregotti C, Richelmi P, Bertè F. Mud bath therapy influences nitric oxide, myeloperoxidase and glutathione peroxidase serum levels in arthritic patients. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 2000;20:69-80. 34. Bellometti S, Galzigna L. Serum levels of a prostaglandin and a leukotriene after thermal mud pack therapy. J Investig Med 1998;46:140-5.
  • Accelerated tissue repair

    1. 1. Accelerated Tissue Repair21st Century Strategies for Rapid Injury Recovery
    2. 2. Accelerated Tissue Repair Webinar Outline• Understanding the Mechanisms• Nutritional/Dietary Necessities• Nutraceutical Agents for Accelerated Tissue Repair• Exogenous Nutrients for Accelerated Tissue Repair
    3. 3. Understanding theMechanisms Regeneration vs. Repair• Regeneration refers to the proliferation of cells and tissues to replace lost structures• If tissue injury is severe or chronic, and results in damage of both parenchymal cells and the stromal framework of the tissue, healing can not be accomplished by regeneration. Under these conditions, the main healing process is repair by deposition of collagen and other Extra Cellular Matrix (ECM) components, causing the formation of a scar.
    4. 4. Understanding theMechanisms Regeneration vs. Repair• Repair most often consists of a combination of regeneration and scar formation by the deposition of collagen.• Scar formation is the predominant healing process that occurs when the (ECM) is damaged by severe injury. Chronic inflammation stimulates scar formation because of local production of growth factors and cytokines that promote fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis, and because of accompanying damage to the ECM. The term fibrosis is used to describe the extensive deposition of collagen that occurs under these situations.
    5. 5. Understanding the Mechanisms Extra Cellular Matrix•ECM components are essential for wound healing, becausethey provide the framework for cell migration, maintain thecorrect cell polarity for the re-assembly of multilayerstructures,4 and participate in the formation of new bloodvessels (angiogenesis).•Cells in the ECM (fibroblasts, macrophages, and other celltypes) produce growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines thatare critical for regeneration and repair.•Tissue repair and regeneration depend not only on the activityof soluble factors, but also on interactions between cells andthe components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). The ECMregulates the growth, proliferation, movement, anddifferentiation of the cells living within it.
    6. 6. Understanding the Mechanisms Extra Cellular Matrix•The ECM is composed of three groups of macromolecules:fibrous structural proteins, such as collagens and elastins thatprovide tensile strength and recoil; adhesive glycoproteins thatconnect the matrix elements to one another and to cells; andproteoglycans and hyaluronan that provide resilience andlubrication. These molecules assemble to form two basic formsof ECM: interstitial matrix and basement membranes.• The basic structural unit of a collagen fiber consists of longprotein chains assembled from amino acids, such as proline,lysine,hydroxyproline, hydroxylysine, cysteine, and glycine•The replication of cells is stimulated by growth factors or bysignaling from ECM components through integrins (receptorsthat mediate attachment between a cell and the tissuessurrounding it.)
    7. 7. Understanding theMechanisms Growth Factors •The proliferation of many cell types is driven by polypeptides known as growth factors •Most important growth factors involved in tissue regeneration and repair: 7.Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) and Transforming Growth Factor a (TGF-a) 8.Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) 9.Platelet-Derived Growth Factor (PDGF) 10.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) 11.Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) 12.Transforming Growth Factor b (TGF-b) and Related Growth Factors (Cytokines)
    8. 8. Understanding theMechanisms Transforming Growth Factor b (TGF-b)•TGF-b is a potent fibrogenic agent that stimulatesfibroblast chemotaxis, and enhances the production ofcollagen, fibronectin, and proteoglycans. It inhibits collagendegradation by decreasing matrix proteases and increasingprotease inhibitor activities.•TGF-b has a strong anti-inflammatory effect but mayenhance some immune functions.•In vivo studies have confirmed that TGF-beta1 increasesgranulation tissue, collagen formation, and wound tensilestrength when applied locally or given systemically
    9. 9. Nutritional/DietaryNecessities• Vitamins and Minerals• Amino Acids• Essential Fatty Acids• Bioflavonoids/Antioxidants• Anti-inflammatory foods
    10. 10. Nutritional/DietaryNecessities Vitamins and Minerals• Zinc, magnesium, and vitamin B-12 are key micronutrients in the formation of RNA and DNA. Deficiencies of these nutrients block the initiation of collagen production.• Vitamin C is used to link amino acids in protein synthesis. Vitamin C also stimulates secretion of collagen from cells and is required for the hydroxylation of procollagen.• Manganese is a trace mineral which is pivotal in connective tissue production. In humans, manganese concentrations are highest in connective tissue.
    11. 11. Nutritional/DietaryNecessities Vitamins and Minerals• Vitamins B-6 and B-2 along with copper are used for the cross-linking of the collagen fibers which make this protein strong.• Vitamin E supplementation may reduce free radical damage and benefit wound healing and connective tissue repair.(Bucci, 1995)• A copper enzyme important to connective tissue is lysyl oxidase, which is involved in the cross-linking of elastin and collagen, a role that is necessary for proper collagen formation and maintenance (Linder, 1991)
    12. 12. Nutritional/DietaryNecessities Amino Acids• Long protein chains made from amino acids make up the basic structural unit of a collagen fiber.• Additional amounts of the sulphur containing amino acids are recommended, due to the fact that they are the three most important amino acids for the production of collagen, of which the ligaments are composed.• Vitamin C along with iron, is necessary for hydroxylation of proline and lysine, both essential amino acids in the formation of collagen.
    13. 13. Nutritional/DietaryNecessities Essential Fatty Acids (EFAs)• N-3 fatty acids are essential for normal growth and development and may play an important role in the prevention and treatment of coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes, arthritis, other inflammatory and autoimmune disorders, and cancer (Simopoulos et al., 1986; Galli and Simopoulos,1989; Simopoulos, 1991; Simopoulos et al., 1991; Galli et al., 1994a,b; Salem et al., 1996).• Consumption of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids decreases the amount of arachidonic acid in cell membranes and so available for eicosanoid production. Thus, n-3 polyunsaturated fattyacids decrease production of arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids (Calder, 2006).
    14. 14. Nutritional/DietaryNecessities Essential Fatty Acids (EFAs)• Beneficial Dietary Sources of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids include flax (ground or oil), fish and fish oils, eggs, wheat grass, EPA and DHA from micro algae sources.• Although the long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are needed more due to a lack in the typical Western diet, a balance between 3,6,9 fatty acids is still necessary for optimal physiology.
    15. 15. Nutritional/DietaryNecessities Bioflavonoids/Antioxidants• Once known as "Vitamin P" and semi-essential nutrients.4000 flavonoid compounds have been characterized and classified. Group of plant pigments that are largely responsible for colors of many fruits and flowers.• Most common categories are: Anthocyanidins, Citrus bioflavonoids (flavonones) and Flavonols (Quercetin , Polyphenols, etc.)• Bioflavonoids are thought to benefit connective tissue by binding to elastin, preventing its degradation by elastases released as a result of inflammation (Tixier et al, 1984).
    16. 16. Nutritional/DietaryNecessities Bioflavonoids/Antioxidants• Many of the biological effects of flavonoids appear to be related to their ability to modulate cell-signaling pathways, rather than their antioxidant activity.• Dietary sources of flavonoids include fruits (especially berries and citrus), vegetables, tea, red wine, cocoa and legumes.• Antioxidants reduce activation of NF kappa B, thereby preventing up-regulation of cytokine production by oxidants. This lends to the prevention of excess inflammation (Grimble, 1994).
    17. 17. Nutritional/DietaryNecessities Anti-Inflammatory Foods• “The first step in the treatment of a ligamentous injury is to decrease inflammation” (Anderson, 1990).• Anti-inflammatory dietary sources include: fruits (especially berries and citrus), vegetables (including sea vegetables), teas, good oils, certain nuts, seeds and spices.• Avoid the most pro-inflammatory foods like: refined sugar, trans fats, refined grains, most vegetable cooking oils (safflower, soy, corn, sunflower, etc.), pasteurized dairy, feedlot –raised meat, processed meats, food additives (MSG, Aspartame, etc)
    18. 18. Nutritional/DietaryNecessities Anti-Inflammatory Foods• Use anti-inflammatory spices liberally. Top choices include; Turmeric, Ginger, Cayenne, Black Pepper, Cinnamon, Rosemary, Basil, Cardamom, Chives, Cilantro, Cloves, Garlic and Parsley.• Curcumin from Turmeric lowers the levels of two enzymes in the body that cause inflammation and is also a powerful antioxidant.• Research has shown curcumin to be a highly pleiotropic molecule capable of interacting with numerous molecular targets involved in inflammation (Jurenka, 2009).
    19. 19. Nutraceutical Agents forAccelerated Tissue Repair• While the compounds previously discussed can be found in whole foods and should definitely be incorporated into the diet, quality and content can vary significantly.• For these reasons, and to enhance the potential of the various compounds to elicit more rapid tissue repair, we need targeted, standardized whole food nutraceutical supplements to augment and enhance the dietary intake.• Potency, digestibility, quality and method of manufacture are all important considerations when selecting nutraceutical agents for the most profound clinical outcomes.
    20. 20. Nutraceutical Agents forAccelerated Tissue Repair Colostrum• Bovine colostrum is a fluid secreted during the first few days following calving. It is rich in immunoglobulins, growth factors, cytokines, and confers immune protection to the newborn calf from opportunistic infections. Besides providing immune support, colostrum has remarkable muscular-skeletal repair and growth capabilities• Studies have shown that colostrum is the only natural source of two major growth factors namely, transforming growth factors alpha and beta, and insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2. These growth factors have significant muscle and cartilage repair characteristics. They promote wound healing with practical implications for trauma and surgical patients (Uruakpa et al., 2001).
    21. 21. Nutraceutical Agents forAccelerated Tissue Repair Colostrum• Growth factors and cytokines present in colostrum and their respective actions are as follows:• Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) Stimulates tissue repair & wound healing and maturation of the digestive tract• Insulin Growth Factor 1 & 2 (IGF1 & IGF2) Stimulates muscle and bone cell proliferation and development.• Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) Stimulates muscle and bone cell proliferation and development• Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF) Stimulates the proliferation and development of a wide range of cell types Transforming Growth Factor (TGF) Stimulates tissue repair & wound healing
    22. 22. Nutraceutical Agents for Accelerated Tissue Repair Colostrum• The IGF-I in bovine colostrum contains the identical amino acid segment on the front of the bovine molecule which, when split by digestive acids in the human stomach, releases a molecule identical to human IGF-I (Ley, 1997).• Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1) functions to stimulate muscle and bone cell proliferation and development - helps to build muscle and strong bones• It appears that joint-related problems, that originally were helped with glucosamine and then declined, improved when they were given colostrum. From research, it appears that IgF, is essential for the utilization of the glucosamine, and without adequate amounts of it, the continued use of glucosamine does not respond
    23. 23. Nutraceutical Agents forAccelerated Tissue Repair Nucleotides• What are Nucleotides? Nucleotides are highly bio- available nano-protein RNA and DMA factors which work best when combined with their essential phytonutrient synergists and co-factors.• Nucleotide supplementation has also been shown to improve some aspects of tissue recovery from ischaemia/reperfusion injury or radical resection (Grimble et al., 2001)• Nucleotide supplements may enhance normal enterocyte growth and maturation as well as spare the need for exogenous glutamine in cell maintenance and development (Chu & Walker, 2003).
    24. 24. Nutraceutical Agents forAccelerated Tissue Repair Nucleotides• In a NASA-funded research project conducted by Dr. Anil Kulkarni at University of Texas Medical School in Houston, nucleotides are being added to supplement the diet of astronauts.• “An exogenous source of NT may be particularly important for individuals whose dietary intake of NT is low and/or whose tissue needs are increased...” (Carver, 1995).• "...a nucleotide supplement, given chronically may offset the hormonal response associated with demanding endurance exercise." (McNaughton et al., 2006)
    25. 25. Nutraceutical Agents forAccelerated Tissue Repair Deer Antler Velvet• Factors contributing to deer antlers effects in growth, include the fact that the tissue contains many cell types besides nutrients such as fibroblasts, chrondroblast, and chondrocytes. Deer velvet has been shown to improve wound healing in a like manner.• The main glycosaminoglycan in velvet antler, chondroitin sulfate, binds to certain proteins to form proteoglycans (as do other lesser glycosaminoglycans [eg, decorin, keratin sulfate, hyaluronic acid, and dermatan sulfate]). These molecules regulate water retention and are important to proliferate and differentiate chondrocytes. Chondrocytes are cells that synthesize collagen and, eventually, cartilage
    26. 26. Nutraceutical Agents forAccelerated Tissue Repair Proteolytic Enzymes• These are anti-inflammatory, protein dissolving substances which help clear the protein exudate from the injured area.• Protease supplementation has been shown to attenuate soft tissue injury resulting from intense exercise by regulating leukocyte activity and inflammation• It also helps speed up recovery from sprains, strains, fractures, bruises, contusions, surgery and arthritis. Other trials have shown that supplemental proteolytic enzymes can help reduce inflammation, speed healing of bruises and other tissue injuries (including fractures), and reduce overall recovery time when compared to athletes taking a placebo
    27. 27. Nutraceutical Agents forAccelerated Tissue Repair Proteolytic Enzymes• Serrapeptase has also proven invaluable in accelerating the healing process for sprained muscles, torn ligaments and other traumatic injuries, leg ulcers, edema as well as post-operative inflammation.• The mechanisms of action of serrapeptase, at the sites of various inflammatory processes consist fundamentally of a reduction of the exudative phenomena and an inhibition of the release of the inflammatory mediators.• Studies suggest that serrapeptase has a modulatory effect on specific acute phase proteins that are involved in the inflammatory process.
    28. 28. Nutraceutical Agents for Accelerated Tissue Repair Aloe barbadensis (Aloe vera)• The pure inner gel of the Aloe barbadensis plant contains numerous plant phytonutrients and active components such as saponins and polysaccharides, essential for cell growth and renewal.• In vivo studies have demonstrated that Aloe Vera Gel promotes wound healing by directly stimulating the activity of macrophages and fibroblasts. Fibroblast activation by Aloe Vera Gel has been reported to increase both collagen and proteoglycan synthesis, thereby promoting tissue repair (Davis et al, 1994).
    29. 29. Nutraceutical Agents for Accelerated Tissue Repair Aloe barbadensis (Aloe vera)• Aloe Vera Gel appears to exert its anti-inflammatory activity through bradykinase activity and thromboxane B2 and prostaglandin F2 inhibition• Acemannan plays a significant role in the oral wound healing process via the induction of fibroblast proliferation and stimulation of KGF-1, VEGF, and type I collagen expressions (Jettanacheawchankit et al., 2009).
    30. 30. Nutraceutical Agents forAccelerated Tissue Repair Annatto Tocotrienol• Annatto tocotrienol is better in the sense that it is tocopherol-free, and hence there is no risk for interference with benefits by alpha-tocopherol. In addition, annatto tocotrienol provides only the most potent delta- and gamma-tocotrienol isomers.• Tocotrienols control inflammatory processes and markers, including reduction of atherogenic lipoprotein(a)[Lp(a)]• Collectively, the data suggested that tocotrienols are better anti-inflammatory agents than α-tocopherol and the most effective form is δ-tocotrienol (Yam et al., 2009)
    31. 31. Nutraceutical Agents forAccelerated Tissue Repair Glucosamine & Chondroitin Sulfate• Glucosamine Sulfate (GS) works by stimulating the production of the Glycosaminoglycans (GAG) which produce proteoglycans that hold and hydrate connective tissue.• GS is a major constituent of hyaluronic acid and increases production of chondroitin sulfate in the body. GS supplementation, therefore leads to the rehydration of cartilage, resulting in increased lubrication and shock absorbing capability.
    32. 32. Nutraceutical Agents forAccelerated Tissue Repair Devil’s Claw (Harpagophytum Procumbens)• Natives in the steppes of South and Southwest Africa use the secondary root tubers of DC for the treatment of various diseases, including musculoskeletal complaints• It contains anti-inflammatory compounds, called iridoid glycosides, which have been shown to possess anti- rheumatic, analgesic, anti-arrhythmic and hypotensive actions• A number of animal studies have demonstrated the antiinflammatory and analgesic effects of HP preparations.In vitro, HP is a potent COX-2 inhibitor and inhibits LOX, proinflammatory cytokines and elastase (Cameron et al., 2009).
    33. 33. Nutraceutical Agents forAccelerated Tissue Repair Cat’s Claw (Uncaria Tomentosa)• A medicinal plant native to Peru, which has been used for decades in the treatment of various inflammatory disorders. Uncaria tomentosa (UT)can be used as an antioxidant, has anti-apoptotic properties, and can enhance DNA repair, however it is best know for its anti- inflammatory properties.• Treatment with Uncaria tomentosa extracts inhibits the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNF-α, which is a critical mediator of the immune response (Hall et al., 2006)
    34. 34. Nutraceutical Agents forAccelerated Tissue Repair Ecklonia Cava• Ecklonia Cava is a seaweed. Its extract (ECe) contains fat-soluble polyphenols and phlorotannins.• Both Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression and activity in cells can be inhibited by EC extract. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitors have been identified as potential therapeutic candidates for metastasis, arthritis, chronic inflammation and wrinkle formation (Kim et al., 2006).• Degradation of collagen and other ECM proteins is achieved by matrix metalloproteinases (MMP). Net collagen accumulation, however, depends not only on increased collagen synthesis but also on decreased degradation.
    35. 35. Nutraceutical Agents forAccelerated Tissue Repair Other Helpful Agents• Cetyl Myristoleate (CMO) This oil/fatty acid based nutrient seems to act as a joint "lubricant" and anti- inflammatory agent. In fact, it is patented in its use for osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis• Hericium Erinaceus stimulation of nerve growth factor (NGF) synthesis by hericenones from fruiting bodies and erinacines from mycelium. Patients who receive H. erinaceus may experience a more expeditious improvement in the quality of life and a more complete functional recovery after injury (Wong et al., 2011).
    36. 36. Nutraceutical Agents forAccelerated Tissue Repair Other Helpful Agents• Carnosine - Granulation is a tissue response with high potential of immunity and tissue repair. Carnosine was found to be a physiological stimulator that promotes granulation, and as carnosine and beta-alanine were shown to not only stimulate granulation but also accelerate wound healing, modulate immunoresponse, and non- specifically increase immunocompetence (Nagai & Suda, 1988).• Since beta-alanine, the other degradation product of carnosine, was found to stimulate the biosynthesis of nucleic acids and collagen, histamine derived from carnosine is considered to have enhanced the process of wound healing by stimulating effusion at the initial stage of inflammation.
    37. 37. Nutraceutical Agents forAccelerated Tissue Repair Other Helpful Agents• White Willow (Salix Alba) The role of salicylates in inflammation and pain management is well documented in medicine.The bark of this plant contains salicin.Following oral administration of salicin, it was found in serum mainly in the form of salicylic acid.• Pharmacologically, the willow exhibits anti-inflammatory, anti-rheumatic, antipyretic, antidotic, antigesic, and antiseptic properties (Barnes et al., 2002).
    38. 38. Exogenous Nutrients forAccelerated Tissue Repair
    39. 39. Exogenous Nutrients forAccelerated Tissue Repair History of Fango- & Pelotherapy• Fangotherapy• ‘Fango’ is an Italian word for mud.• Thermal muds from hot springs are used for therapeutic purposes.• Pelotherapy• A term historically used for mud therapies using Bentonite, Illite (French green clay or Sea clay), or Montmorillonite (Red desert clay).
    40. 40. Exogenous Nutrients forAccelerated Tissue Repair Types of Muds/Clays• Peat Peat magma, a carbon matrix humate, rich in humic and fulvic acids, delivering critical nutrients to help the body heal itself.• Kaolin Kaolin Clay is high in calcium, silica, zinc and magnesium. It also contains aluminosilicates that are known to trigger blood clotting• Shilajit Shilajit, a natural mineral resin from high mountainous areas of India, rich in key detoxifying organic acids. contain at least 85 minerals in ionic form
    41. 41. Exogenous Nutrients forAccelerated Tissue Repair
    42. 42. Exogenous Nutrients forAccelerated Tissue Repair How do the muds/clays work?• Scars, traumas and adipose tissue on the body contain toxic materials and cell wastes.• Therapeutic clays chelate toxins that may be jamming the electrical circuits of the body by absorbing waste through osmotic effect.• The mineral-rich clay provides essential nutrients transdermally.
    43. 43. Exogenous Nutrients forAccelerated Tissue Repair How do the muds/clays work?• Reported mechanisms of action of mud-pack therapy are decrease in the levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF- α) resulting in decreased inflammatory reaction and cartilage damage, maintenance of cartilaginous hemostasis through decreasing serum levels of nitric oxide and myeloperoxidases,and decrease in serum concentrations of inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) (Bellometti et al, 2002).• “Shilajit was also found to have potent anti-inflammatory activity in all three models of acute, sub acute and chronic inflammation” (Suraj et al, 2007.)
    44. 44. Exogenous Nutrients forAccelerated Tissue Repair How do the muds/clays work?• (Flusser et al, 2002) concluded that mud-pack therapy could be used as a complementary method to conventional therapies in knee osteoarthritis. Treatment of knee osteoarthritis with intra-articular hyaluronic acid injections or mud-pack therapy yielded similar results in the short-term in terms of functional improvement and pain relief.
    45. 45. Exogenous Nutrients forAccelerated Tissue Repair Castor Oil Packs• Two separate studies found that patients using abdominal castor oil packs had significant increases in the production of lymphocytes compared to those using placebo packs. Lymphocytes are the disease-fighting cells produced by your immune system and housed mainly in lymphatic tissue• When castor oil is absorbed through the skin, the flow of lymph increases throughout the body. This speeds up the removal of toxins surrounding the cells and reduces the size of swollen lymph nodes. The end result is a general overall improvement in organ function

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