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Do values matter?   Stewart Forsyth    January 2012
Do values matter?    Values are common place in individual’s explanation of their    attitudes and behaviour, and in what ...
Values predict academic performanceThe grades of undergraduate US management students were moderately predicted by ‘goal s...
What are values?                                                                                                          ...
Defining valuesMeg Rohan:‘Used as a verb, value refers to the process of ascertaining the merit of anentity with reference...
Is there a values ‘value chain’?      The values of                                                       Customers and ot...
Where do values come from?   Possibly the ‘human super organism’ that is a part of our evolutionary history:       “The ne...
MoralsThe evolution of morals (from Pinker, 2011) Shweder’s          Divinity                         Community           ...
Are morals a subset of values? It’s          complicated…“Values reflect what people believe to be good or bad, and what s...
Morals and values• To paraphrase Sverdlik and colleagues – morals are more absolute,  and attract punishment if broken (th...
Some empirical resultsSverdlik’s positive and negative correlations (>.30) between Haidt’s moral dimensions andSchwartz’s ...
Values seem to be the basis of people     getting along, and fitting inPeople get along more on the basis of matching valu...
Value fit                                     Teacher’s                                      Alignment of teacher’s  Teach...
Which values? Some examples:                                                      Leadership                        Recogn...
Schwartz’s theory of universal values“Ten motivationally distinct value orientations that people in all cultures recognize...
Some results                                             More than 35,000                                             resp...
Potential match to organisational            culture                                                      Internal        ...
National culture                     UniversalismAchievement         Self-direction                      Stimulation      ...
Changing valuesAt the level of individual or team or organisational development it is relevant to consider how to influenc...
Leveraging valuesPeople strive to maintain consistency between values and behaviour, and avoid‘hypocrisy’; so identifying ...
Leveraging valuesIs leadership effectiveness behaving effectively in a way that other’s may see as‘moral’, or is it aligni...
•Are there ‘universal’ or agreed values? The Schwartz model and associatedresearch suggest, ‘Yes’.•How do you measure them...
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Do values matter 1.12

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I was wondering - what, exactly are values, and how relevant are they to what we do, and what we want to encourage others to do...here's my attempt to answer those questions. Cheers, Stewart

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Do values matter 1.12

  1. 1. Do values matter? Stewart Forsyth January 2012
  2. 2. Do values matter? Values are common place in individual’s explanation of their attitudes and behaviour, and in what organisations espouse as their approach to doing business. Values are clearly potentially powerful in influencing people in complex environments such as network organisations (where ‘command and control’ is counter-productive). But has the potential of the power of values blinded us to important questions?• Are there ‘universal’ or agreed values?• How do you measure them?• Can values be developed or changed?• Do they make a difference to what people do? The next slide indicates that, holding personality constant, values can influence performance…I also attempt to answer the other questions… Stewart Forsyth | © FX Consultants January 2012 | 2
  3. 3. Values predict academic performanceThe grades of undergraduate US management students were moderately predicted by ‘goal striving’, which was inturn influenced by (the personality factor of) conscientiousness, by the students’ achievement goals and theiryears in school (Solid lines indicate statistically significant relationships). Achievement goals were stronglyinfluenced by achievement values (Parks and Guay, 2012) Stewart Forsyth | © FX Consultants January 2012 | 3
  4. 4. What are values? Corporate “trans-situational goals that personality: vary in importance and serve as honesty, guiding principles in the life of a prestige, person or a group” (Schwartz, innovation, 2007) power (Otto et al, 2011) Morals PersonalityRelationship Personality and ValuesOpenness Self-direction, UniversalismConscientiousness Achievement, ConformityExtraversion Achievement, StimulationAgreeableness Benevolence, TraditionNeuroticism (v. Emotional Stability)Roccos et al (2002), and: “...Values may influence more strongly attitudes and behaviors thatare under cognitive, volitional control (e.g., values have a stronger relationship withreligiosity than personality traits) whereas traits may affect more strongly tendencies and Stewart Forsyth | © FX Consultants January 2012 | 4behaviors subject to little cognitive control” (e.g., stronger correlations with ‘wellness’)
  5. 5. Defining valuesMeg Rohan:‘Used as a verb, value refers to the process of ascertaining the merit of anentity with reference to an abstract system structure. Used as a noun, valuerefers to the result of this process. These value judgments may be formedor amended when people encounter new entities or existing judgments arechallenged.’For example ‘I value that ring’ (verb); ‘security is an important value for me’ (noun).(2000, P 258; A rose by any name? The values construct) Stewart Forsyth | © FX Consultants January 2012 | 5
  6. 6. Is there a values ‘value chain’? The values of Customers and other Innovation, service individual employees Task and team stakeholders view of and other valued and the organisation’s behaviour the organisation’s deliverables values ‘personality’ or brand The four dimensions of corporate personality (empirically developed – Philipp Otto and others, 2011): Honesty Prestige Innovation Power Fair, helpful, Luxurious, high Fresh, energetic, Dominant, supportive vs. tacky, status, formal vs. fashionable vs. established, popular exploitative cheap, tacky formal, sleepy vs. cheap, tacky Correlates business Correlates business size (.56), and profit sales growth over 3 (.75) years (.52) Stewart Forsyth | © FX Consultants January 2012 | 6
  7. 7. Where do values come from? Possibly the ‘human super organism’ that is a part of our evolutionary history: “The new theory suggests that all moral actions are based on the fundamental need to ‘police’ society in order to keep the ‘super organism’ functioning properly, and that everyone in human social groups inadvertently plays the role of ‘unofficial policeman’ by making judgements about how others behave. “Moral action, according to this theory, is driven by the expectation of punishment if we don’t properly carry out our roles within the ‘super organism’ properly.” ... http://www.bbc.co.uk/labuk/articles/morality/Also - http://www2.econ.iastate.edu/classes/econ362/hallam/Readings/HaidtScienceArticle.pdf Stewart Forsyth | © FX Consultants January 2012 7 |
  8. 8. MoralsThe evolution of morals (from Pinker, 2011) Shweder’s Divinity Community Autonomy Ethics Haidt’s Purity / Sanctity In-group loyalty Authority / Respect Harm / Care Fairness / Reciprocity Moral Foundations Fiske’s Communal Sharing Authority Ranking Equality Matching Market Pricing / Relational Rational-Legal Models Small, conservative groups Modern, educated societies Stewart Forsyth | © FX Consultants January 2012 | 8
  9. 9. Are morals a subset of values? It’s complicated…“Values reflect what people believe to be good or bad, and what should or shouldnot be done (Hitlin & Piliavin, 2004). Values, however, are not identical to moralprinciples: They are cognitive representations of basic motivations and broadpersonal goals. Therefore, they may refer to a broader spectrum of guidingprinciples than what is usually encompassed by theories of morality.” (Sverdlik,Roccas and Sagiv, undated pdf; quote and table below): Stewart Forsyth | © FX Consultants January 2012 | 9
  10. 10. Morals and values• To paraphrase Sverdlik and colleagues – morals are more absolute, and attract punishment if broken (think murder), however what one group sees as a moral issue, another might see in terms of a value (young men being urged to enlist, not to kill people but to do their duty to their country).• Conflict between groups can result when one proposes actions that another sees as immoral (e.g., genetic engineering, coal-fired power, civil unions between gays) – morals are a part of our ‘core self-definition’ – so transgressions are a blow against our self- defined self.• Conflict resolution is helped when this is explicitly brought into the process; Ginges and others (2007) found that when Palestinians and Israelis were presented with a compromise solution to the current conflict they were more likely to accept it if they understood that the other side was not only also making a compromise, but that they were actually trading of something that was “sacred to them”. Stewart Forsyth | © FX Consultants January 2012 10 |
  11. 11. Some empirical resultsSverdlik’s positive and negative correlations (>.30) between Haidt’s moral dimensions andSchwartz’s (1992) values: Haidt Fairness / Harm/Care In-group / Authority / Purity / Reciprocity Loyalty Respect Sanctity Schwartz: Universalism Universalism Tradition Security Tradition Positive Conformity correlations Tradition Negative: Hedonism Universalism Hedonism Self-direction Self-direction Self-direction Stewart Forsyth | © FX Consultants January 2012 | 11
  12. 12. Values seem to be the basis of people getting along, and fitting inPeople get along more on the basis of matching values than matching personality(young people’s shared taste in music indicated similar values; Boer et al, 2011). Presumably this is the basis of ‘social acceptance’ leading to new hires performing successfully, being satisfied with their job, committed to their organisation and both intending to remain and not leaving (Antonacopoulou & Guttel, 2010) Stewart Forsyth | © FX Consultants January 2012 12 |
  13. 13. Value fit Teacher’s Alignment of teacher’s Teacher’s views of perceptions predicted reportedpersonal value job stress, job commitment and school’s value satisfaction priorities system Principal’s Not such a good relationship with these views of outcomes for alignment of teacher’s personal value perceptions and the school’s value Principal’s views of the school’s value system system (Rohan and Maiden, 2000 - unpublished) Stewart Forsyth | © FX Consultants January 2012 | 13
  14. 14. Which values? Some examples: Leadership RecognitionAchievement Efficiency Location ReligionAdventure Ethical practice Loyalty Empathy ReputationAffection (love & caring) Market position Excellence Meaningful work Responsible/ accountableArts Excitement Merit ScienceChallenging problems Modesty SecurityChange and variety Fame Nature Self-respectClose relationships Financial gain Openness Freedom SerenityCommunity Order Fun Peace SophisticationCompetence Spirituality Growth Personal developmentCompetition Physical challenge Stability FamilyCooperation Pleasure Status Helping other peopleCountry Power and authority Time freedom Humour PrivacyCreativity Truth Honesty Public serviceDecisiveness Wealth Independence PurityDemocracy Quality of what I take part in Wisdom Influencing othersEcological awareness Quality relationships Work under pressure Inner harmonyEconomic security Recognition Work with others Integrity ReligionEffectiveness Working along Intellectual status Involvement Justice Knowledge Stewart Forsyth | © FX Consultants January 2012 | 14
  15. 15. Schwartz’s theory of universal values“Ten motivationally distinct value orientations that people in all cultures recognize” (quote and figure: Schwartz, undated).Used with over 270 samples in 70 countries with different measurement instruments. The values are ordered according totwo dimensions: Self Transcendence v. Self Enhancement; and Openness to Change v. Conservation. Values are positivelyrelated if they are close together, and antagonistic if they are on opposite sides of the circle. Stewart Forsyth | © FX Consultants January 2012 | 15
  16. 16. Some results More than 35,000 respondents to the European Social Survey in 2002-3 survey (ESS), who completed a values scale, were asked the extent to which they agreed with the following statement: “Gay men and lesbians should be free to live their own life as they wish.”From (Schwartz, undated).Note: SVS is Schwartz Value Survey (Schwartz, 1992); recentresearchers have added items to scales to improve internal consistencyreliability (Parks and Quay, 2012), while Spini (2003), found thatmeasurement consistency across cultures is compromised by thenumber of items in the SVS; and other researchers have found an 11 thdimension (‘Self-Fulfilled Connection’ – a measure of post-materialwellbeing; Vauclair, 2011). Stewart Forsyth | © FX Consultants January 2012 | 16
  17. 17. Potential match to organisational culture Internal Security Power Conformity Achievement Feudal Bureaucracy Tradition Control Flexible Benevolence Self-direction Universalism Stimulation Network Team Hedonism ExternalSchwartz values (green) superimposed on organisational culture model: Internal v. Externalorientations, and Control and Flexible priorities (based on Charles Handy, 1996; Fons Trompenaars,1998; and Geert Hofstede, 1990). Stewart Forsyth | © FX Consultants January 2012 17 |
  18. 18. National culture UniversalismAchievement Self-direction Stimulation HedonismConformityTradition BenevolenceSecurityPower Schwartz values (green) superimposed on national culture model: the World Values Survey Stewart Forsyth | © FX Consultants January 2012 18 |
  19. 19. Changing valuesAt the level of individual or team or organisational development it is relevant to consider how to influencevalues, and related behaviours. While a lot of work has been done in this area, there is a lack of empiricalevidence (Bardi and Goodwin, 2011).A possible model, with some suggestive evidence: Related goal- Related belief directed behaviour Salience- Value enhancement Salience can be enhanced in a coaching session (or workshop), for example by asking for behavioural examples of a value. There is evidence that preparing people to argue for a value (or reading supportive evidence) generalises their support for related attitudes (Bernard et al, 2003). Of course very effective salience-enhancements are provided by leader and group behaviours. As Stan Slap says, “the purpose of leadership is to change the world around you in the name of your values” (2010). Stewart Forsyth | © FX Consultants January 2012 | 19
  20. 20. Leveraging valuesPeople strive to maintain consistency between values and behaviour, and avoid‘hypocrisy’; so identifying inconsistency between values and behaviour can motivatebehaviour change.A: Personal behaviour (e.g., recent examples, diary record, 360-degree feedback; may indicate not acting independently, insteadfollowing ‘cookie-cutter’ approaches)B: Values (e.g., highest ranked from Schwartz ‘universal’ summary; Self-Direction, particularly freedom of action and thought)C: Development of more creative, independent behaviours will contribute to better alignment of behaviour with priority personalvaluePolonius:‘This above all: to thine own self be true,And it must follow, as the night the day,Thou canst not then be false to any man.’Hamlet Act 1, scene 3, 78–82; http://www.enotes.com/shakespeare-quotes/thine-own-self-true Stewart Forsyth | © FX Consultants January 2012 20 |
  21. 21. Leveraging valuesIs leadership effectiveness behaving effectively in a way that other’s may see as‘moral’, or is it aligning with the values of the organisation, or is it showingalignment between behaviour and values, no matter what those values might be?Authentic leadership, as defined by Bruce J. Avolio includes:Self Awareness: To what degree is the leader aware of his or her strengths, limitations, how others see him or her and howthe leader impacts others?Transparency: To what degree does the leader reinforce a level of openness with others that provides them with anopportunity to be forthcoming with their ideas, challenges and opinions?Ethical/Moral: To what degree does the leader set a high standard for moral and ethical conduct?Balanced Processing: To what degree does the leader solicit sufficient opinions and viewpoints prior to making importantdecisions?Effective leaders are seen to behave in ways that are aligned with ‘spiritual’ values,including integrity, honesty and humility (Reave, 2005) Stewart Forsyth | © FX Consultants January 2012 | 21
  22. 22. •Are there ‘universal’ or agreed values? The Schwartz model and associatedresearch suggest, ‘Yes’.•How do you measure them? Various researchers have built on Schwartz’stool, there are reliable and valid measures available.•Can values be developed or changed? Yes – the research on attitude change,including ‘cognitive dissonance’ is relevant.•Do values make a difference to what people do? Yes; they are not the onlyinfluence – social context matters (and expectations about what values areoperating in that context), but people seem to operate on the assumptionthat there is a strong relationship between what they value and what they do,and often this is the case.The title page image: “This masterpiece contains inherent human values as exhibited by a human figure we see atright with an expression of sadness. His tears are of gold and represent the value of our sacrifices in the beginning ofa struggle to set goals. Colors symbolize debility and anguish: the guitar without strings and death depicted in itsnatural states represent the prioritization of necessities in this constant struggle. In this same sense, three humanfigures manifest the facets of just one person. The environment around these figures gives a sense of peace,movement, and life”... http://primimodernismo.com/page02.htm Stewart Forsyth | © FX Consultants January 2012 | 22

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