Chapter 3-minerals


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  • Hi Steven.... enjoyed your presentation... hate to be
    picky but you need to alter slide 4. I know what you mean, but you cannot say '...there is no carbon present in minerals...'. Obviously there is in the carbonates !(calcite, dolomite etc.) and what about diamond !
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Chapter 3-minerals

  1. 1. Chapter 3 Minerals
  2. 2. Section 3-1 H.W. pg 66 ques.1-4 & pg 84 ques. 2,4,8,11,12,15 <ul><li>Minerals are very important in everyday life. Minerals, bricks, and glass are some examples of how we use minerals. </li></ul><ul><li>Mineral - is a naturally occurring, inorganic solid with a definite chemical composition and an orderly arrangement of atoms. </li></ul><ul><li>There are about 4,000 minerals on Earth. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Mineral Characteristics <ul><li>All minerals are formed by natural processes. These processes occur on or inside the Earth with no human interaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Salt forms by the natural evaporation of salt water. This type of salt comes from a mineral called Halite. </li></ul><ul><li>Salt water solution made in a lab is not a mineral. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Mineral Characteristics <ul><li>2) Minerals are inorganic- this means that there is no Carbon is present in minerals. </li></ul><ul><li>3) Every mineral is an element or compound with a definite chemical composition. </li></ul><ul><li>4) All minerals are crystalline solids . And all crystals have a definite volume and shape. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Crystals <ul><li>Crystal atoms are arranged in a pattern that is repeated over and over again. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Graphite atoms are arranged in layers. </li></ul><ul><li>Opal- is not a mineral because it has no repeated atom patterns. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Structure of Minerals <ul><li>All minerals are crystalline solids. </li></ul><ul><li>Crystalline solids - are solids in which the atoms are arranged in an orderly repeated fashion. </li></ul><ul><li>This does not mean that all minerals look like crystals. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Rose quartz doesn’t look like a crystal because it develops in tight spaces. </li></ul><ul><li>Clear quartz forms in open spaces and its appearance is clearly crystal shaped. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Crystal vs. Non-Crystal
  8. 8. Crystal Formation <ul><li>Crystals form in two ways: </li></ul><ul><li>From cooling Magma </li></ul><ul><li>Could form in solution </li></ul>
  9. 9. Mineral formation from Magma <ul><li>Magma is hot melted rock material, that cools when it reaches the Earth’s surface. </li></ul><ul><li>However in some cases it could cool before it reaches the surface. </li></ul><ul><li>When magma cools its atoms lose heat and energy. When this happens the atoms move closer together and begin to form compounds. </li></ul><ul><li>During this cooling period is when atoms of minerals begin to form repeating patterns. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Crystal Formation from Magma <ul><li>The type of atoms present and the amount will determine what mineral is produced. </li></ul><ul><li>When magma cools slowly large crystals form. </li></ul><ul><li>When magma cools quickly then small crystals form. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Crystal Formation from Solution <ul><li>Crystals form minerals dissolved in water. </li></ul><ul><li>When water evaporates, ions are left behind that can combine to form crystals like halite. (salt) </li></ul><ul><li>Or </li></ul><ul><li>If there is too much substance in solution the crystals could form in the solution </li></ul>
  12. 12. Silicates <ul><li>The most common rock forming minerals belong to a group called the silicates. </li></ul><ul><li>Silicates are minerals that contain the elements O and Si (oxygen and silicon) </li></ul><ul><li>These two elements combine the rocks of the Earth’s crust and mantle. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: of Silicates are Quartz and Feldspar </li></ul>
  13. 13. Quartz and Feldspar Pics
  14. 14. How to Identify Minerals Section 3-2 H.W. pg. 72 ques. 1-4 & pg. 84 ques. 1,3,5,7,10,13,14,16,17 <ul><li>We identify minerals by some very specific physical features and properties. </li></ul><ul><li>Color is one way to tell the difference between two minerals but color alone is not enough. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Gold and pyrite both have the same color, but they are two very different minerals. Pyrite has very little value compared to gold. </li></ul><ul><li>So to tell these two apart you have to look at other properties. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Gold and Pyrite
  16. 16. 5 Major properties used to distinguish between minerals <ul><li>Hardness </li></ul><ul><li>Luster </li></ul><ul><li>Specific gravity </li></ul><ul><li>Streak </li></ul><ul><li>Cleavage/ fracture </li></ul>
  17. 17. 5 major properties <ul><li>Hardness- This is the measure of how easily a mineral can be scratched. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Talc, a very soft mineral can be scratched with just your finger nail. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Hardness of Minerals <ul><li>Diamonds, on the other hand are the hardest mineral. </li></ul><ul><li>The only this that can scratch a diamond is another diamond. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember scratch and break are not the same. If hit hard enough a diamond will shatter. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Mohs Scale <ul><li>In 1812 the Mohs scale of mineral hardness was devised by the German mineralogist Frederich Mohs (1773-1839), who selected the ten minerals because they were common or readily available. The scale is not a linear scale, but somewhat arbitrary. </li></ul><ul><li>Hardness of some other items: </li></ul><ul><li>2.5 Fingernail </li></ul><ul><li>2.5–3 Gold, Silver </li></ul><ul><li>3 Copper penny </li></ul><ul><li>4-4.5 Platinum </li></ul><ul><li>4-5 Iron </li></ul><ul><li>5.5 Knife blade </li></ul><ul><li>6-7 Glass </li></ul><ul><li>6.5 Iron pyrite </li></ul><ul><li>7+ Hardened steel file </li></ul>
  20. 20. 5 major properties <ul><li>2) Luster - This is the way a mineral reflects light. </li></ul><ul><li>This reflection could be metallic, meaning it shines like a metal, or non-metallic or dull or glassy looking. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Luster
  22. 22. 5 major properties <ul><li>3) Specific Gravity- This is the ratio of the minerals weight compared to the weight of an equal volume of water. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Specific Gravity of Gold is 19:1 or 19. </li></ul><ul><li>This means that gold is 19x heavier that water. </li></ul><ul><li>How could you find out the volume of a solid? </li></ul>
  23. 23. 5 major properties <ul><li>4) Streak - Is the color of a mineral when it is in powder form. </li></ul><ul><li>So if we have a solid mineral we would streak it across a piece of porcelain to see what color is left behind. </li></ul>
  24. 24. 5 major properties <ul><li>5) Cleavage/ Fracture- this is the way a mineral breaks. </li></ul><ul><li>Minerals that break along a smooth flat surface have cleavage. </li></ul>
  25. 25. 5 major properties <ul><li>Cleavage/ Fracture- Minerals that break unevenly, or with rough jagged surfaces have fracture. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Other unique properties <ul><li>Magnetite- is attracted to metal like a magnet. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Other unique properties <ul><li>Calcite - When light passes through this mineral 2 rays form and it allows you to see a double image. </li></ul><ul><li>Also when you add HCl to it fizzes. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Uses of Minerals Section 3-3 H.W. pg 84 ques. 6,9 & pg. 86 ques. 6,7-10 <ul><li>Gems - Gems are highly prized minerals due to their rareness and beauty. </li></ul><ul><li>They are clearer brighter and more colorful then common minerals. </li></ul><ul><li>Gems always come from other minerals. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Amethyst is a gem that comes from Quartz. Because it has less iron in it than quartz does it has a beautiful purple color. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Some important gems Taken from Minerals are: <ul><li>Emeralds from Beryl </li></ul><ul><li>Ruby from Spinel </li></ul><ul><li>Blue Sapphire from Corundum </li></ul><ul><li>More are on the chart on pg. 75 </li></ul><ul><li>Some gems are more prized than others. </li></ul><ul><li>Cullinan Diamond- The largest diamond ever found. (3,106 karats) </li></ul><ul><li>Hope Diamond- Owned by Henry Philip Hope. (45.5 karats) </li></ul>
  30. 30. Useful Gems <ul><li>Some gems are very useful like diamonds. </li></ul><ul><li>They are not only used to make beautiful jewelry but since they are the hardest mineral on Earth they are also used for cutting tools like saw blades. </li></ul><ul><li>Rubies are used to create lasers. </li></ul><ul><li>Quartz is used in watches and clocks. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Useful elements that are found in minerals <ul><li>Gems are the most popular use of minerals but they are not the most important. We use minerals for other very important uses. </li></ul><ul><li>Ores- An ore is a mineral or rock that contains a useful substance that can be mined. </li></ul><ul><li>Iron ore is used in almost everything from frying pans to ships and it comes from the mining of the minerals Hematite & Magnetite. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Useful elements that are found in minerals <ul><li>Aluminum - is mined from Bauxite as aluminum oxide powder. </li></ul><ul><li>We make the powder in things like aluminum sheets by a process called smelting or melting at very high temps. </li></ul><ul><li>We use aluminum in soda cans, siding for homes, air planes, baseball bats. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Useful elements that are found in minerals <ul><li>2) Vein Minerals- mineral deposits left behind that fill the open spaces of rocks. </li></ul><ul><li>Under certain conditions minerals dissolve in solution. This mineral/water mixture will travel through weak cracks in rocks and be deposited in these spaces. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Vein Minerals <ul><li>Sometimes vein mineral deposits fill in empty spaces after rocks collapse. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Sphalerite, which comes from zinc and is used in batteries. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Useful elements that are found in minerals <ul><li>3) Minerals that contain Titanium- Titanium is a durable, light weight, metallic element that derived from rutile and ilmenite. </li></ul><ul><li>We use titanium in car bodies planes, eyeglass frames, tennis rackets, bikes and wheel chairs. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Test on Chapter 3 in one week!!!!!!