Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Chapter 12-Intro to animals


Published on

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

Chapter 12-Intro to animals

  1. 1. Introduction to animals Chapter 12
  2. 2. Animal Characteristics <ul><li>Animals are multi-celled animals, whose cells carry out many functions. </li></ul><ul><li>Animals have specialized structures called nuclei and other organelles. </li></ul><ul><li>Animals are consumers, and rely on their environment for food. </li></ul><ul><li>Animals digest food and move the macromolecules from food into their cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Most reproduce sexually, some asexual. </li></ul><ul><li>Animals are able to move from place to place </li></ul>
  3. 3. Adaptations for getting energy <ul><li>Over years animals have adapted to eating whatever food is available to them in their environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Herbivores- eat only plants and plant parts. They eat more often and in greater amounts because plants don’t supply much energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Carnivores- these animals only eat other animals. Meat gives more energy and these animals do not eat as often. </li></ul><ul><li>Omnivores- are animals that that eat both plants and flowers. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Physical & Behavioral adaptations <ul><li>Some animals have adapted physically to their environment. This includes camouflage, armored skin and venom for protection. </li></ul><ul><li>Some animals use behavioral adaptations to avoid predators, like when a squid shoots ink to avoid a predator. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Animal classification <ul><li>When classifying animals we look at some major characteristics. </li></ul><ul><li>Vertebrae- this is a bone structure that supports and protects the spinal chord of animals. </li></ul><ul><li>The spinal chord connects the brain to every nerve in the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Invertebrates- are animals without a backbone. 97% of all animal species are invertebrates. </li></ul><ul><li>These animals have other protective structures, like shells and exoskeletons. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Animal classification <ul><li>Symmetry-this deals with the way an animals body parts are arranged. </li></ul><ul><li>An animal with an irregular shape, like a sponge is considered asymmetrical. </li></ul><ul><li>Radial symmetry- body parts are arranged around a center point. Like hydra, or sea urchins. </li></ul><ul><li>Bilateral symmetry- here body parts on either side of the body are similar. </li></ul><ul><li>H.W pg 339 ques. 1-4 </li></ul>
  7. 8. Sponges & Cnidarians Invertebrates <ul><li>Sponges play an important role in their environments. </li></ul><ul><li>They serve as food for fish and other sea creatures. </li></ul><ul><li>They also contain photosynthetic bacteria that produce oxygen in the water and removes wastes from the sponge. </li></ul><ul><li>It is being shown that sponges have medicinal values as well. They are being used to make antibiotics to fight bacteria, and also arthritis. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Sponges <ul><li>Sponges range in size from very small, to the size of a small car. </li></ul><ul><li>They could be symmetrical or asymmetrical, and adult sponges live in one place for a long time before they are moved by waves or strong currents. </li></ul><ul><li>These sponges that stay in one place are called sessiles, and are usually found in large colonies of sponges. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Sponge body structure <ul><li>A sponge has a hollow body that is open at one end and closed at the other. </li></ul><ul><li>The outside of the body contains small holes called pores. They have no tissues or organs. </li></ul><ul><li>Sponges have sharp spicules, that are spike like to held ward off predators. </li></ul><ul><li>Also, they could be made of spongin, which is a skeleton of fibrous material that also serves for protection. </li></ul>
  10. 12. Food and reproduction of Sponges <ul><li>They obtain food by cycling bacteria, protists, and algae through their pores. </li></ul><ul><li>Most species of sponges are hermaphrodites, and produce both sperm and eggs. (sexual reproduction) </li></ul><ul><li>A sponge cannot fertilize its own egg. When an egg is fertilized it turns into a ciliated larva. </li></ul><ul><li>Some reproduce by budding. (asexual) </li></ul>
  11. 13. Cnidarians <ul><li>These include hydra, jellyfish, anemones, and man of wars. </li></ul><ul><li>They live in salt water and fresh water, and some live as individuals or they live in colonies. </li></ul><ul><li>They can have a polyp body form, shaped like a vase, or a medusa shape or a bell shape. </li></ul>
  12. 14. Cnidarians <ul><li>All of these have one body opening and radial symmetry. They have 2 body layers, where a sponge only has one. </li></ul><ul><li>They have tissues that form a digestive cavity. Each cell is able to take Oxygen from the water and convert it to CO2. </li></ul><ul><li>They have nerve systems called nerve nets, that carry impulses throughout its body. </li></ul>
  13. 15. Cnidarians <ul><li>Most of these have tentacles that have stinging cells for protection from predators. </li></ul><ul><li>Some organisms like small fish live symbiotically with the cnidarians in among their tentacles. </li></ul><ul><li>They are predators and can stun and poison their prey using their stinging cells. </li></ul>
  14. 16. Cnidarians <ul><li>They reproduce sexually and asexually. </li></ul><ul><li>Polyp forms reproduce asexually by budding and sexually by producing sperm and eggs. </li></ul><ul><li>Medusa forms release sperm or eggs into the sea. When they fertilize it drops to the ground and forms as a polyp. (sexual stage) </li></ul><ul><li>After this, a medusa buds off the polyp and the cycle begins again.( asexual stage) </li></ul><ul><li>H.W. pg 360 ques. 1-10 </li></ul>
  15. 18. Worms <ul><li>Worms are invertebrates with soft bodies and bilateral symmetry. </li></ul><ul><li>They have 3 tissue layers that are organized into tissues and organ systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Flatworms have flattened bodies, and are free living or parasitic in nature. </li></ul><ul><li>Flatworms include planarians, flukes, and tapeworms. </li></ul>
  16. 19. Flatworm
  17. 20. Planarians <ul><li>Planarians are free living worms with triangular shaped heads that have 2 eye spots. </li></ul><ul><li>It has a one body opening, a mouth, and a pharynx that connects it to its digestive system. </li></ul><ul><li>They are covered in cilia that help it move, and range from 3-30mm in length. </li></ul><ul><li>They reproduce sexually by dividing in two, and sexually by the use of sperm and ova. </li></ul>
  18. 22. Flukes <ul><li>All flukes are parasites, that mostly reproduce sexually. </li></ul><ul><li>The male fluke deposits his sperm in the female and the female lays the eggs inside the host. </li></ul><ul><li>The host passes the eggs in its feces or urine. </li></ul><ul><li>The newly born worms can then burrow into the skin of hosts such as humans and cause serious disease. </li></ul>
  19. 23. Tapeworms <ul><li>These are parasites also, but the use hooks to attach itself to the digestive track of its host. </li></ul><ul><li>They have no mouth or digestive system, but it absorbs food from the host. </li></ul><ul><li>They grow by producing a new segment that is placed immediately behind its head. </li></ul><ul><li>Each segment has both male and female organs. When a segment gets filled with fertilized eggs it breaks off and passes out of the host. </li></ul>