Chapter 12-Intro to animals


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Chapter 12-Intro to animals

  1. 1. Introduction to animals Chapter 12
  2. 2. Animal Characteristics <ul><li>Animals are multi-celled animals, whose cells carry out many functions. </li></ul><ul><li>Animals have specialized structures called nuclei and other organelles. </li></ul><ul><li>Animals are consumers, and rely on their environment for food. </li></ul><ul><li>Animals digest food and move the macromolecules from food into their cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Most reproduce sexually, some asexual. </li></ul><ul><li>Animals are able to move from place to place </li></ul>
  3. 3. Adaptations for getting energy <ul><li>Over years animals have adapted to eating whatever food is available to them in their environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Herbivores- eat only plants and plant parts. They eat more often and in greater amounts because plants don’t supply much energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Carnivores- these animals only eat other animals. Meat gives more energy and these animals do not eat as often. </li></ul><ul><li>Omnivores- are animals that that eat both plants and flowers. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Physical & Behavioral adaptations <ul><li>Some animals have adapted physically to their environment. This includes camouflage, armored skin and venom for protection. </li></ul><ul><li>Some animals use behavioral adaptations to avoid predators, like when a squid shoots ink to avoid a predator. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Animal classification <ul><li>When classifying animals we look at some major characteristics. </li></ul><ul><li>Vertebrae- this is a bone structure that supports and protects the spinal chord of animals. </li></ul><ul><li>The spinal chord connects the brain to every nerve in the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Invertebrates- are animals without a backbone. 97% of all animal species are invertebrates. </li></ul><ul><li>These animals have other protective structures, like shells and exoskeletons. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Animal classification <ul><li>Symmetry-this deals with the way an animals body parts are arranged. </li></ul><ul><li>An animal with an irregular shape, like a sponge is considered asymmetrical. </li></ul><ul><li>Radial symmetry- body parts are arranged around a center point. Like hydra, or sea urchins. </li></ul><ul><li>Bilateral symmetry- here body parts on either side of the body are similar. </li></ul><ul><li>H.W pg 339 ques. 1-4 </li></ul>
  7. 8. Sponges & Cnidarians Invertebrates <ul><li>Sponges play an important role in their environments. </li></ul><ul><li>They serve as food for fish and other sea creatures. </li></ul><ul><li>They also contain photosynthetic bacteria that produce oxygen in the water and removes wastes from the sponge. </li></ul><ul><li>It is being shown that sponges have medicinal values as well. They are being used to make antibiotics to fight bacteria, and also arthritis. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Sponges <ul><li>Sponges range in size from very small, to the size of a small car. </li></ul><ul><li>They could be symmetrical or asymmetrical, and adult sponges live in one place for a long time before they are moved by waves or strong currents. </li></ul><ul><li>These sponges that stay in one place are called sessiles, and are usually found in large colonies of sponges. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Sponge body structure <ul><li>A sponge has a hollow body that is open at one end and closed at the other. </li></ul><ul><li>The outside of the body contains small holes called pores. They have no tissues or organs. </li></ul><ul><li>Sponges have sharp spicules, that are spike like to held ward off predators. </li></ul><ul><li>Also, they could be made of spongin, which is a skeleton of fibrous material that also serves for protection. </li></ul>
  10. 12. Food and reproduction of Sponges <ul><li>They obtain food by cycling bacteria, protists, and algae through their pores. </li></ul><ul><li>Most species of sponges are hermaphrodites, and produce both sperm and eggs. (sexual reproduction) </li></ul><ul><li>A sponge cannot fertilize its own egg. When an egg is fertilized it turns into a ciliated larva. </li></ul><ul><li>Some reproduce by budding. (asexual) </li></ul>
  11. 13. Cnidarians <ul><li>These include hydra, jellyfish, anemones, and man of wars. </li></ul><ul><li>They live in salt water and fresh water, and some live as individuals or they live in colonies. </li></ul><ul><li>They can have a polyp body form, shaped like a vase, or a medusa shape or a bell shape. </li></ul>
  12. 14. Cnidarians <ul><li>All of these have one body opening and radial symmetry. They have 2 body layers, where a sponge only has one. </li></ul><ul><li>They have tissues that form a digestive cavity. Each cell is able to take Oxygen from the water and convert it to CO2. </li></ul><ul><li>They have nerve systems called nerve nets, that carry impulses throughout its body. </li></ul>
  13. 15. Cnidarians <ul><li>Most of these have tentacles that have stinging cells for protection from predators. </li></ul><ul><li>Some organisms like small fish live symbiotically with the cnidarians in among their tentacles. </li></ul><ul><li>They are predators and can stun and poison their prey using their stinging cells. </li></ul>
  14. 16. Cnidarians <ul><li>They reproduce sexually and asexually. </li></ul><ul><li>Polyp forms reproduce asexually by budding and sexually by producing sperm and eggs. </li></ul><ul><li>Medusa forms release sperm or eggs into the sea. When they fertilize it drops to the ground and forms as a polyp. (sexual stage) </li></ul><ul><li>After this, a medusa buds off the polyp and the cycle begins again.( asexual stage) </li></ul><ul><li>H.W. pg 360 ques. 1-10 </li></ul>
  15. 18. Worms <ul><li>Worms are invertebrates with soft bodies and bilateral symmetry. </li></ul><ul><li>They have 3 tissue layers that are organized into tissues and organ systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Flatworms have flattened bodies, and are free living or parasitic in nature. </li></ul><ul><li>Flatworms include planarians, flukes, and tapeworms. </li></ul>
  16. 19. Flatworm
  17. 20. Planarians <ul><li>Planarians are free living worms with triangular shaped heads that have 2 eye spots. </li></ul><ul><li>It has a one body opening, a mouth, and a pharynx that connects it to its digestive system. </li></ul><ul><li>They are covered in cilia that help it move, and range from 3-30mm in length. </li></ul><ul><li>They reproduce sexually by dividing in two, and sexually by the use of sperm and ova. </li></ul>
  18. 22. Flukes <ul><li>All flukes are parasites, that mostly reproduce sexually. </li></ul><ul><li>The male fluke deposits his sperm in the female and the female lays the eggs inside the host. </li></ul><ul><li>The host passes the eggs in its feces or urine. </li></ul><ul><li>The newly born worms can then burrow into the skin of hosts such as humans and cause serious disease. </li></ul>
  19. 23. Tapeworms <ul><li>These are parasites also, but the use hooks to attach itself to the digestive track of its host. </li></ul><ul><li>They have no mouth or digestive system, but it absorbs food from the host. </li></ul><ul><li>They grow by producing a new segment that is placed immediately behind its head. </li></ul><ul><li>Each segment has both male and female organs. When a segment gets filled with fertilized eggs it breaks off and passes out of the host. </li></ul>