Chapter 1- scientific method, classification


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Chapter 1- scientific method, classification

  1. 1. Chapter 1 Exploring and Classifying Life
  2. 2. Science and Technology Section 1-1 H.W. pg.13 Ques. 1-4 <ul><li>What is Science </li></ul><ul><li>Science is the process of trying to understand the world around you. </li></ul><ul><li>● What do you call someone who practices science? </li></ul><ul><li>A scientist </li></ul><ul><li>● We use science to create technology. </li></ul><ul><li>Technology is the use of knowledge learned through science </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Computers, machines, cars. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Types of Science <ul><li>Many different types of science exist. And they are all named based on the subject matter they are studying. </li></ul><ul><li>-Ex: </li></ul><ul><li>Biology = the study of life </li></ul><ul><li>Earth Science = study of Earth and Space </li></ul><ul><li>Chemistry = the study of the composition and structure of matter. </li></ul><ul><li>Biochemistry = study of chemical composition of biological forms. </li></ul><ul><li>Physics = study of the interactions between matter and energy </li></ul>
  4. 4. Doing Science <ul><li>Whenever you do science you want to solve a problem . What are some problems that you can solve? </li></ul><ul><li>- Why does a plant grow?, How do we use oxygen? </li></ul><ul><li>In order to solve your scientific problem you must conduct an experiment , which a series of tests that you perform in order to solve your problem. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Conducting Experiments <ul><li>In order to conduct an experiment you must use the Scientific Method . </li></ul><ul><li>The scientific method is a series of steps taken during an experiment in order to solve a problem. </li></ul><ul><li>• There are four stages of the scientific method: </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare </li></ul><ul><li>Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Do </li></ul><ul><li>Conclude and apply </li></ul>
  6. 6. Scientific Method <ul><li>1) Prepare : </li></ul><ul><li>- First Identify the problem (what you want to solve). </li></ul><ul><li>Next form a hypothesis . What's a hypothesis ? </li></ul><ul><li>A hypothesis is a statement or educated guess that can be tested about a problem. (Why you think this problem exists). </li></ul><ul><li>Lets think of some problems and hypothesis's. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Scientific Method (continued) <ul><li>2) Plan : </li></ul><ul><li>Here we design an experiment in order to test our hypothesis. </li></ul><ul><li>3) Do : </li></ul><ul><li>Test our hypothesis & Observe and record the results of our experiment. </li></ul><ul><li>4) Conclude and Apply : </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze our results (why our results occurred) </li></ul><ul><li>& </li></ul><ul><li>Draw conclusions (what can say about our experiment. Did it work? Why, Did it fail? Why? </li></ul><ul><li>And if so, what can we do next time to make it work? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Important things to consider when using the scientific method <ul><li>Trials, variables, Controls and Data Tables </li></ul><ul><li>Trials are repeated experiments, performed in order to make sure that your results are consistent. (the more trials you perform the truer the results.) </li></ul><ul><li>Why else would you perform more than just one trial? </li></ul><ul><li>-Human error, faulty material </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Variables are factors in an experiment that can change. </li></ul><ul><li>Independent Variables- are variables that change during an experiment. (If you wanted to see what soap cleaned dishes the best, all the different soaps used would be independent variables.) </li></ul><ul><li>Dependant variables- are the variables being measured. (So you would measure how clean the dishes are after using a specific soap. That result is dependant on the soap used to clean that dish.) </li></ul><ul><li>Data Tables- these organize your observations and results into columns and rows. </li></ul><ul><li>We make data tables in order to keep track of results and be able to communicate them to others. </li></ul><ul><li>Controls- Controls are variables that never change over the course of an experiment. (Here it would be the amount of soap used to clean the dishes, you would always use the same amount.) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Developing Theories <ul><li>After a scientist completes an experiment and analyzed his/her data they than can propose a scientific theory . </li></ul><ul><li>A theory is an explanation of things or events based on scientific knowledge that is the result of an experiment. </li></ul><ul><li>A scientific law however, is a statement about how things work in nature that seems to be true all the time. </li></ul><ul><li>-Ex: gravity </li></ul>
  11. 11. Measuring with Scientific Units <ul><li>An important part of experimentation in science is making accurate measurements . </li></ul><ul><li>Everyday things that we use are or have been measured. The ingredients of the food you will eat, your shoe size, the amount of electricity use to power this computer. </li></ul><ul><li>● And the way all of these things are measured all over the world are in Scientific Units or SI Units . </li></ul>
  12. 12. SI Units
  13. 13. Living Things Section 1-2 H.W. pg 18 ques.1-4 <ul><li>What are some examples of living things? </li></ul><ul><li>- Humans </li></ul><ul><li>-Plants </li></ul><ul><li>-bugs </li></ul><ul><li>● What about these things? </li></ul><ul><li>Rocks, bicycles, books </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>What are living things Called? </li></ul><ul><li>- They are called organisms, a living thing that posses the traits of life. </li></ul><ul><li>● What is a trait ? </li></ul><ul><li>A trait is a specific feature of something. What are some human traits? </li></ul><ul><li>Hair color, eye color, height </li></ul>
  15. 15. How to distinguish a living thing from a non living thing. <ul><li>If something expresses one of traits of life it is considered to be alive. The traits of life are: </li></ul><ul><li>Response </li></ul><ul><li>Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Growth and development </li></ul>
  16. 16. Traits of Life <ul><li>1) Response - organisms have the ability to react to their environments. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: When an animal runs away from a loud noise. Or when a plant grows in the direction of sunlight. (external responses) </li></ul><ul><li>When you run your body temperature rises so your body sweats to cool you down. (internal response) </li></ul><ul><li>- This is an example of Homeostasis , the maintaining of a proper internal condition. </li></ul><ul><li>● What is an environment and what is included in an organisms environment? </li></ul><ul><li>- An environment includes everything in its surroundings. It includes other organisms, water, weather, temperature, soil, sound and light. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Traits of Life (continued) <ul><li>2) Movement- all organisms show some form of movement which requires the use of energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Humans and animals - run, walk, fly </li></ul><ul><li>Plants - they grow out in the direction of sunlight and water. </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria and Algae - use things called flagella and pseudo pods for movement. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Traits of Life (continued) <ul><li>3) Organization - All living things are made up of parts that are organized. </li></ul><ul><li>All organisms are made of cells , the smallest unit of living things. </li></ul><ul><li>Some organisms only contain one cell. ( bacteria ) </li></ul><ul><li>& </li></ul><ul><li>- Some organisms contain many cells. ( Plants and animals ) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Traits of Life (continued) <ul><li>4) Reproduction - All living things reproduce, meaning they make more of their own kind. </li></ul><ul><li>Two types of reproduction: </li></ul><ul><li>A) Sexual reproduction - Here two parents are needed, a male and female, to create one of their own kind. (Animals) </li></ul><ul><li>B) Asexual reproduction - Here only one parent is needed to reproduce itself. (bacteria) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Traits of Life (continued) <ul><li>5) Growth and development - All organisms express changes that take place over the course of their lives, this is known as development. </li></ul><ul><li>- An example would be how a frog is conceived and born. </li></ul><ul><li>- A frog begins as a single cell in a fertilized egg and then grows into a tadpole and eventually into a fully grown frog. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Needs of living things <ul><li>Energy - needed for all of the traits of life. Without energy an organism could not survive. Food and Sunlight) </li></ul><ul><li>Water - Every living thing needs a constant supply of water. Our body is 70% water and our cells use water to carry out specials tasks like breaking down food. Plants need water to make their own food. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Needs of living things <ul><li>Oxygen - Living organisms use oxygen in order to release energy from food. We get Oxygen from the air what about fish, where does their Oxygen come from? </li></ul><ul><li>Minerals - Chemicals found in the water soil, and air and can not be made by living things, however living things need minerals to survive. (we get them from eating plants and animals, plants get them from the soil.) </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Calcium and Potassium </li></ul>
  23. 23. Where does life come from? Section 1-3 H.W. pg. 21 ques.1-4 <ul><li>At first scientists believed that living thing things came from non living things. </li></ul><ul><li>This theory was called spontaneous generation. </li></ul><ul><li>Then in the mid 1800’s a man named Pasteur disproved this theory and it was replaced with a stronger theory called biogenesis , which states that all living things can only come from other living things. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Urey- Miller Experiment <ul><li>In 1924 two scientists named Stanley Miller and Harold Urey conducted an experiment to see how life on Earth formed. </li></ul><ul><li>It was thought that early Earth had no life forms or O2, but it did have ammonia, hydrogen and water. </li></ul><ul><li>The scientists hypothesized that these gasses could have combined to form more complex compounds found in living things, thus giving rise to life on Earth. </li></ul><ul><li>The results they got proved that more complex compounds could be made with these gasses but it did not prove that life on Earth began this way. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Classifying Life Section 1-4 H.W pg. 26 ques. 1-4 <ul><li>In a grocery store all of the items that are sold are usually grouped together by similarities. </li></ul><ul><li>- Milk and cheese with dairy </li></ul><ul><li>- Hamburgers and cold cuts with meats etc….. </li></ul><ul><li>- Why? Because it makes it easier for the consumer to find what they are looking for. </li></ul><ul><li>- We need to do this with living things as well and we call it classification , the grouping of objects or information based on common traits. </li></ul>
  26. 26. How organisms are classified. <ul><li>Animals are classified into groups based on shared traits. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Some animals have bones and some don’t. (fish) </li></ul><ul><li>Some animals live in water and on land (amphibians) </li></ul><ul><li>Some animals have hair (mammals) and some have feathers. (birds) </li></ul>
  27. 27. The Kingdoms of Life <ul><li>All organisms are separated into six large groups called Kingdoms . </li></ul><ul><li>A kingdom is a large group of organisms that share certain features. </li></ul><ul><li>There are six kingdoms of life and within each kingdom is an even more specific classification schemes, the smallest of which is called a species . </li></ul><ul><li>A species is a group of organisms that have the ability to mate with each other and produce offspring. (two organisms that are of different species or kingdoms cannot mate and produce offspring) </li></ul>
  28. 28. The Kingdoms of Life (continued) <ul><li>Organisms are placed into a kingdoms based on these four features: </li></ul><ul><li>How many cells they are made up of. </li></ul><ul><li>What there cells look like. </li></ul><ul><li>Whether or not they can move from place to place. </li></ul><ul><li>How they get energy. </li></ul>
  29. 29. The Kingdoms of Life (continued) <ul><li>The six Kingdoms are: </li></ul><ul><li>Archaebacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Eubacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Protists </li></ul><ul><li>Fungi </li></ul><ul><li>Plants </li></ul><ul><li>Animals </li></ul>
  30. 30. The Kingdoms of Life (continued) <ul><li>The breakdown from Kingdom to species is as follows: (ex: dolphin) </li></ul><ul><li>Kingdom- Animal </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum- Chordata </li></ul><ul><li>Class- Mammal </li></ul><ul><li>Order- Cetacea </li></ul><ul><li>Family- Delphinidae </li></ul><ul><li>Genus- Tursiops </li></ul><ul><li>Species- Tursiops truncatus </li></ul><ul><li>The breakdown from Kingdom to species is as follows: (ex: human) </li></ul><ul><li>Kingdom- Animal </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum- Chordata </li></ul><ul><li>Class- Mammal </li></ul><ul><li>Order- Primate </li></ul><ul><li>Family- Hominidae </li></ul><ul><li>Genus- Homo </li></ul><ul><li>Species- Erectus </li></ul>
  31. 31. How do we get these scientific names? <ul><li>All scientific names are taken from either Latin or Greek origin. </li></ul><ul><li>We use a two-word naming system called Binomial Nomenclature to name organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>The first word indicates the genus the organism belongs to. And the second name tells you something about the organism. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Homo erectus- Homo means man & erectus means upright. Upright man. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Why we use Binomial Nomenclature <ul><li>1) We use scientific names in order to limit confusion and to avoid mistakes. </li></ul><ul><li>2) Also, it allows us to know if two organisms are related. If the first of the two names is the same with both organisms than we know that they belong to the same genus, and are related. </li></ul><ul><li>3) These scientific names give descriptions of the species in the second of the two names. </li></ul><ul><li>4) These names allow the scientific world as a whole to classify all living things in an easy way. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Test on Chapter 1 in one Week!!!!!