6th Grade Chapter 13


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6th Grade Chapter 13

  1. 1. Electricity and Magnetism Chapter 13
  2. 2. Electricity H.W pg 351 ques. 1-4 <ul><li>In today's day and age almost nothing would be possible without electricity. </li></ul><ul><li>Listening to the radio watching TV or keeping food cold or frozen would be very difficult. </li></ul><ul><li>Electricity is the change from potential electric energy to the kinetic energy of an atoms charge in motion. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Charges <ul><li>Everything on Earth has what we call a charge or an electrical unit. </li></ul><ul><li>These charges can be positive or negative just like in protons and electrons. </li></ul><ul><li>It is important to know that opposite charges attract each other, like a magnet to metal. </li></ul><ul><li>In an atom the nucleus is positive and the negative electrons around it are held there by the attraction between the opposite charges. </li></ul><ul><li>The electrons closer to the nucleus are held tighter than the ones further away. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Charges <ul><li>We saw that charges can change when something looses or gains electrons. The loos of them will make an atom positive. </li></ul><ul><li>And a gain of them will cause the atom to be negative. </li></ul><ul><li>When atoms buildup or loose electrons what is created is potential electric energy called static electricity. </li></ul><ul><li>So if your hand happen to gain a couple of extra electrons from say your cloths and you go to touch a door, the electrons leap from your hand to the door knob and give you a shock. </li></ul><ul><li>When the electrons leap from one place to another and cause a spark its called static discharge. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Circuits <ul><li>A circuit is a complete, unbroken pathway for electrons to follow. They can have many paths for electrons to follow. </li></ul><ul><li>Metal wires are used to make circuits because they are good conductors of electricity. </li></ul><ul><li>They are covered by rubber to protect from electrocution. So rubber is a bad conductor of electricity. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Circuits <ul><li>Electrons always move from an area of more to an area of less electrons. And circuits control this flow from one place to another. </li></ul><ul><li>Circuits start and stop the flow using a switch, when closed the flow stops. </li></ul><ul><li>They have a source, like a battery or generator. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Circuits <ul><li>The source, or the battery actually separates the positive and negative charges of a chemical. (battery acid made of zinc) </li></ul><ul><li>When they are separated they have potential energy and when the switch is flipped they are made into kinetic electricity by moving the electrons to a place with less amounts of electrons. </li></ul><ul><li>We measure electricity in volts. A volt is the amount of energy that lies between the charges or ends of a battery. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Circuits <ul><li>Certain machines need more volts than others. And therefore might need more batteries. </li></ul><ul><li>Like a walkman and a remote control car. </li></ul><ul><li>The currents of batteries only run in one direction. From + to -, and is called a Direct current (DC) </li></ul><ul><li>Things that don’t use batteries, like TV’s, refrigerators and computers use what we call alternating currents (AC) . </li></ul>
  9. 9. Alternating Currents H.W. pg 359 ques 1-4 <ul><li>An alternating current has electricity running through it in one direction for a period of time, then that current turns around and runs in the opposite direction. </li></ul><ul><li>This type of electricity comes from an outlet, which is connected to a source like a generator and you plug whatever you want to be powered into it with a plug. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Magnets <ul><li>A magnet is an object that has a magnetic field . Due to oppositely charged ends. </li></ul><ul><li>A magnet has a North and South poles or a + or – end that are attracted to each other. </li></ul><ul><li>For something to be magnetic all of the atoms of that material have to point in the same direction. </li></ul><ul><li>This allows all of the electrons to cause a magnetic field in one direction and the protons cause the opposite charge in the other direction. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Magnets <ul><li>If all of the atoms pointed in different directions the protons and electrons would cancel each other out and the item would not be magnetized. </li></ul><ul><li>An electromagnet is a magnet that is made from an iron rod that is wrapped in metal wire and is hooked up to a battery. </li></ul><ul><li>These work just like regular magnets, but they have the ability to be turned on and off. Ex: doorbell. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Sources of electricity <ul><li>Power plants use generators to change different types of energy into electrical energy with turbines. </li></ul><ul><li>Water energy is made into hydroelectric energy with damns and turbines. </li></ul><ul><li>Solar energy with solar cells & wind energy with windmills. </li></ul><ul><li>H.W. pg. 370 ques. 1-10 </li></ul>
  13. 13. TEST IN ONE WEEK!!!!!