Community research


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Community research

  1. 1. Property of Learning Links – 2012
  2. 2. Course Summary This course is divided into three units as follows: How to Plan your Collecting Data Presenting Findings ProjectUnit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Property of Learning Links – 2012
  3. 3. Unit 1Introduction to Community Research ‘How to plan your project’ Property of Learning Links – 2012
  4. 4. IntroductionThis course is designed to give you the tools you need to conductcommunity research. During this first unit we will discuss the following:• What are the benefits to community research?• What will be the topic of our research?• Who will I engage with, what will I ask them? Property of Learning Links – 2012
  5. 5. What is a community?‘A group of people with diverse characteristics who arelinked by social ties, share common perspectives, andengage in joint action in geographical locations orsettings.’ Property of Learning Links – 2012
  6. 6. Class DiscussionWhat do you think are the benefits to using members of the communityto decide upon, design and carry out a research project?Working in groups of two or three, see how many benefits you can comeup with. Property of Learning Links – 2012
  7. 7. The benefits of Community ResearchCommunity-engaged research takes place underreal world conditions, which increases theapplicability of its findings to practicalapplications that improve human health. Property of Learning Links – 2012
  8. 8. The benefits of Community ResearchMeaningful community involvement can alsoimprove the research process itself, and thereforethe ultimate findings. Property of Learning Links – 2012
  9. 9. Community Research.............• Helps to develop research questions concerning health issues ofconcern to the community• Help in recruiting participants – people more likely to supportthe research and researchers when they understand the purposeof the research and how the results may affect them• Improves information gained through community input toproduce appropriate, culturally sensitive, accurate and validopinions and information• Gives greater opportunity to build trust and respect betweenorganisations and communities. This may lead to a greaterexchange of information where the community itself has a voice Property of Learning Links – 2012
  10. 10. P lanning andP reparationP reventsP oorP erformance Property of Learning Links – 2012
  11. 11. What is my task? How can I prepare for it? During this phase of Healthwatch, we require members from all areas of the community to choose a title for their research project, we encourage you to ‘Buddy’ up with a colleague so you can share ideas, discuss particular areas you may be interested in. Using the IT facilities available, spend the next fifteen minutes brainstorming, searching and generating ideas for your topic. Example: How easy is it for people to access dentistry services in Portsmouth? Property of Learning Links – 2012
  12. 12. Who will I engage with?Now we have started to think about what we might like toresearch, we have to start thinking about WHO we would like toengage with.Using your preliminary research question as a guide, lets see howmany different community groups we can identify.Keep in your minds these few pointers:• How can I ensure I engage with a large cross section of thecommunity e.g. We want as diverse a sample as possible.• To make the information gained as diverse as possible, what ageranges of community members will you be targeting Property of Learning Links – 2012
  13. 13. Time Management & Deadlines Some questions you may ask yourself during the planning phase of your research project: • How will I manage my time effectively? • What would be the best time of day to engage with my chosen groups? • How long will it take to gather my information and resources? • How long will I spend analysing my Data? • Do I have a deadline to work to? • What resources will I need? • Will you keep a diary specific to this task? This could make your final report easier to compile. Property of Learning Links – 2012
  14. 14. Unit 1 – Summarising our findings We should now be able to answer the following questions: • What is Community Research? • What are the benefits to community research? • What will be the topic of my research project? • Who will I engage with? After our tea-break we will progress onto Unit 2 – Collecting Data. Property of Learning Links – 2012
  15. 15. Unit 2Conducting our Research ‘Collecting Data’ Property of Learning Links – 2012
  16. 16. IntroductionIn this unit we will look at the following:• What is Data?• The Eight Principles of Data Protection• Methods of Data Collection• Recruitment of Participants• How to engage with and recruit community members• Interviewing Tools and Ideas (Communication) Property of Learning Links – 2012
  17. 17. What is Data?Data is a collection of facts, such as values ormeasurements.It can benumbers, words, measurements, observations oreven just opinions and descriptions.The information / data that we will be collectingduring our research project can placed into two verydifferent sections: Qualitative and Quantitative Property of Learning Links – 2012
  18. 18. Qualitative DataQualitative data is ‘descriptive’ – It describessomething.This information is ‘subjective’, it represents thethoughts and opinions of someone.Qualitative data can be difficult to interpret, it ismore time consuming to analyse but the results atthe end will be broader and more diverse than just aquantitative approach.e.g. Why do you think there are delays in HospitalTreatment? Property of Learning Links – 2012
  19. 19. Quantitative DataQuantitative data is numerical information.It usually relates to facts and figures, compared toQualitative data, Quantitative data can be easy torepresent, it can show trends and it can be collectedin a non face to face way e.g. Printed questionnaires.It could be that you receive a lot of Qualitativedata, and after analysis decide to find out how manyother people feel the same way, this can then becollected as quantitative data.e.g. How long did you have to wait for your initialhospital appointment. Property of Learning Links – 2012
  20. 20. What information do we want?When gathering information, we only want to askspecific questions. During our planning phase thesequestions need to be generated.By including too large a range of either questions oroptions, the data can easily become difficult torepresent or interpret. Remember your timescales!Do we want numerical data? Opinions and thoughts?Numbers or figures? I would suggest you re-visit yourresearch project aims and pick questions specific tothat area. Property of Learning Links – 2012
  21. 21. Sensitive InformationWe will be asking people to provide informationregarding health related issues.For most people this is a very personal and sensitivesubject, so we will have to be very careful when wepresent this.A community member must ‘trust’ us not to breakthis confidentiality and they may have concernsabout who, or where this information is going.This relationship between you and them must at alltimes be build around a mutual understanding. Property of Learning Links – 2012
  22. 22. Data ProtectionAs we have seen, the information we gather may bepersonal and sensitive. We have to adhere to TheData Protection Act 1998, which is an act ofParliament which outlines how we should processpersonal information from members of society.This is a good tool to understand, as people may havequestions surrounding who will see theirinformation, you can put people at ease bymentioning this. This will also help you build rapportwith your audience. Property of Learning Links – 2012
  23. 23. The Data Protection Act 1998…is a piece of national legislation that…governs how information about us is held. Property of Learning Links – 2012
  24. 24. Holding Personal Data1 Personal data must be processed fairly and lawfully Personal data must be obtained for specified and2 lawful purposes Personal data must be adequate, relevant and3 not excessive4 Personal data must be accurate and up to date Property of Learning Links – 2012
  25. 25. Holding Personal Data5 Personal data must not be kept any longer than is necessary Personal data must be processed in accordance6 with the right of the individual7 Personal data must be kept securely Personal data must not be transferred out of the8 country without adequate protection Property of Learning Links – 2012
  26. 26. Methodology – How will I collect my DataThis is one of most important aspects of yourplanning phase. HOW you are going to collect yourData will depend on your chosen topic.Group Exercise – How many different ways ofgathering / collecting information can you identify inyour groups? Property of Learning Links – 2012
  27. 27. Data CollectionQuestionnaires – Are a good source of bothqualitative & quantitative dataSurveys – If conducted with random members of thepublic, pay attention to time constraints – It may bebeneficial to use these to gather quantitative dataFocus Groups – These are a fantastic way tonetwork, build relationships with the community andare an excellent source of qualitative data. These cancover perceptions, beliefs, opinions and attitudestowards a topic. Property of Learning Links – 2012
  28. 28. Data CollectionReports – It could be that you are conducting someresearch yourself, or existing data is available toyou, if so how will you relate this to your researchquestion / topic?Social Media – Have you considered ChatRooms, Facebook Pages (Excellent and Free), Blogs oreven Twitter?Remember: The questions you ask will invoke ananswer from your participant, try to be impartialwhen designing these, as you may inadvertently skewthe result in a particular direction Property of Learning Links – 2012
  29. 29. Recruitment of participants & accessibilityHow will you go about recruiting people to takepart in your project?When will your target audience beavailable, what are the age ranges, what wouldbe an appropriate method based on theirdemographic?Working in your same groups see how manyways you can come up with Property of Learning Links – 2012
  30. 30. Recruitment of participantsHistoric studies show that the reason communityengagement works is because the community feeltheir voice is being heard and that they can seethe results around them.Taking the time to explain the benefits ofHealthwatch or why you have chosen thetopic, will interest the participant.Will there be some form of incentive for them totake part, have a look at the Healthwatch printedflyer, has this got an incentive for people to showinterest? Property of Learning Links – 2012
  31. 31. Sample sizeDuring the planning phase you will need to decide how many peopleyou will engage with.A Census is where you ask everyone in a particular group to takepart e.g. You go to a local church group and ask every attendee to fillout a survey. While this approach will produce the most Data, youhave to think about practical issues, timescales, likelihood ofparticipation.A Sample, differed as it is a pre-defined amount, e.g. I will aim toengage with 1/5 people, or 20% of a particular group. This may bemore achievable.Remember: The larger the sample the greater the range ofinformation. Have we seen this on TV adverts recently? Property of Learning Links – 2012
  32. 32. Interviewing TipsWhen engaging with people, we can use a number ofdifferent techniques to encourage the interview /conversation to flow.Although basic these ‘tools’ will help you put your targetaudience at ease, help you gain the best quality datapossible and hopefully leave a positive and lastingimpression upon the people you engage with. Property of Learning Links – 2012
  34. 34. Interviewing TipsWhen planning our questions for our project, we will need to lookat the type of question we are asking.Using a mixture of ‘Open’ and ‘Closed’ Questions:Open – “Why do you think it was difficult to get an appointment”Closed – “Did you get an appointment easily”As you can see ‘open’ questions invoke a response from thesubject that is unique to them, this leads to a flow ofinformation, this is very much qualitative data.Closed questions usually lead to a ‘Yes’ or ‘No’ situation, which isgood if you want specific information, quantitative. Property of Learning Links – 2012
  35. 35. Interviewing TipsPeople are encouraged when they feel they are being listened toor understood, these techniques really help the interview toflow, putting the subject at ease.Active Listening – Showing the subject you understand by the useof NVC’s, Gestures and prompts.Starter Questions – Can you prompt the subject into a new line ofquestioning? Or can you ask them to elaborate on informationprovided so you can gain more detail?Paraphrasing – You repeat back certain key points to show yourunderstanding.Remember to thank them afterwards for their time Property of Learning Links – 2012
  36. 36. Diverse customer needsKeep in mind that all customers:• are individuals• have differing needs and expectations• may be from different countries, religions & age groupsPersonal values are formed as you grow up and areaffected by:• Birthplace• Where you live• Upbringing• Friends• Family Property of Learning Links – 2012
  37. 37. Rapport Building and Networking Rapport – This is then two or more people connect with each other, they feel they are on the same wavelength. Techniques to build Rapport: Mirroring – You match either their tone of voice, body language (positioning, the way they are sat, eye contact) Empathy – Understanding something from another’s point of view (understanding, not necessarily agreeing) In order to cultivate lasting relationships you will need use as many techniques as possible. Will you offer to feedback information to them / update them? Property of Learning Links – 2012
  38. 38. Interview taskWorking as individuals I would like you to come up with fivequestions which may or may not be centred around your researchquestion. I would like you to include four ‘closed’ questions and afinal ‘open’ question.Working your way around the room, please interview the othercandidates. We will reflect on our findings afterwards.Remember: Tone ofvoice, positioning, engagement, rapport, paraphrasing, prompting,active listening and please thank your participant. Property of Learning Links – 2012
  39. 39. Unit 3‘Presenting our Findings’ Property of Learning Links – 2012
  40. 40. Writing the Final ReportWe have looked at WHO we will be engaging with, we then lookedat HOW we will go about accessing that information.Now we need to look at WHAT our findings are.When we are presenting our final report, we always have to haveour research question in the forefront of our minds. Property of Learning Links – 2012
  41. 41. Writing the Final ReportWhat audience will be viewing our information? How can wemake it accessible to all?In what way can we present our information.Working in groups, see if you can come up with five different waysof presenting our information Property of Learning Links – 2012
  42. 42. Writing the Final ReportThe University of Portsmouth has produced a fantastic pro-formafor you to structure your final report on.This is a chance for you to bring everything together and presentyour findings.How you choose to represent your information is your owndecision, however you may wish to follow the flow that thetemplate outlines.Will you use text? Charts (Pie, Bar, Line)? Data Sheets? Property of Learning Links – 2012
  43. 43. Writing the Final ReportUnderstanding our results is very important, did we answer ourresearch question?What decisions did you make along the way, how did this help /hinder your project?Do we need a larger sample? Could this study be mimicked inother areas.Critical Analysis – What went well, what didn’t. Did you encounterany barriers along the way, how did you overcome them. Property of Learning Links – 2012
  44. 44. Presenting our findingsWe would love for you to come back in a month’s time to presentyour findings.This half a day session will bring all our projects together, you willhave an opportunity to present or share your thoughts andfindings. I will be available to give any assistance you may need inconcluding your report.We will promote feedback, which will flow to Healthwatch andPortsmouth City Council, as this is a pilot scheme you may becontributing to moulding an entire new way of promotingHealthwatch in the community. Property of Learning Links – 2012