C H A P T E R TWENTY-FIVE                                                      FRUITS                              “      ...
After studying this unit                                                                             2                    ...
Identifying Fruits                                                                                   3                    ...
Berries                                                                                              4                    ...
Citrus                                                                                               5                    ...
Exotics                                                                                              6                    ...
Grapes                                                                                               7                    ...
Melons                                                                                               8                    ...
Pomes                                                                                                9                    ...
Stone Fruit (Drupes)                                                                               10                     ...
Tropicals                                                                                          11                     ...
Hybrids, Varieties andHeirlooms                                                                                          1...
Nutrition                                                                                          13                     ...
Purchasing Fresh Fruit                                                                             14                     ...
Grading                                                                                             15                    ...
Preserving Fruits                                                                                   16                    ...
Cooked Preserved Fruits                                                                            17                     ...
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Chapter 25

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On Cooking
Fruits

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Chapter 25

  1. 1. C H A P T E R TWENTY-FIVE FRUITS “ Talking of pleasure, this moment I was writing with one hand, and with the other holding to my mouth a nectarine–how good how fine. ” It went down all pulpy, slushy, oozy, all its delicious embonpoint melted down my throat like a large beautified strawberry. – John Keats, English poet (1795-1821) Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint]Labensky • Hause • Martel
  2. 2. After studying this unit 2 FRUITS You will be able to: – Identify a variety of fruits – Purchase fruits appropriate for your needs – Store fruits properly – Understand how fruits are preserved – Prepare fruits for cooking or service – Apply various cooking methods to fruits Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  3. 3. Identifying Fruits 3 FRUITS Fruits are divided into eight categories – Berries – Citrus – Exotics – Grapes – Melons – Pomes – Stone fruits – Tropical Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  4. 4. Berries 4 FRUITS Small, juicy fruit Grow on vines and bushes Thin-skinned with tiny seeds Can be eaten plain Can be cooked or added into other items Make fine jams and compotes Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  5. 5. Citrus 5 FRUITS Characterized by thick rinds with bitter white pith Thin exterior layer of colored skin known as zest Citrus fruits are acidic Flesh is segmented and juicy Flavors vary from bitter to tart to sweet Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  6. 6. Exotics 6 FRUITS Becoming increasingly available Some have become very popular and are readily available Others are only available through specialty purveyors Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  7. 7. Grapes 7 FRUITS Single largest fruit crop in the world – Due to the production of wine Berries that grow in large clusters Classified by color as white or black Color and most flavor is found in the skin Usually eaten raw Dried grapes are raisins Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  8. 8. Melons 8 FRUITS Members of the gourd family Divided into two general types – Sweet (or dessert) melons – Watermelons All melons are almost 90% water Usually not cooked Should be allowed to ripen on the vine Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  9. 9. Pomes 9 FRUITS Tree fruits Thin skin and firm flesh surrounding a central core containing small seeds called pips or carpels Pomes include: – Apples, Pears, Quince Each type has many varieties Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  10. 10. Stone Fruit (Drupes) 10 FRUITS Grown on shrubs or trees Thin skin, soft flesh and one woody stone or pit, tend to be fragile and bruise easily Originated in China, grown worldwide Excellent dried, often used in liqueurs and brandies Stone Fruits include: – Apricots, Cherries – Peaches, Nectarines, Plums Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  11. 11. Tropicals 11 FRUITS Native to the world’s hot, tropical or subtropical regions Readily available in the United States All can be eaten fresh, without cooking Go well with rich or spicy meat, fish and poultry Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  12. 12. Hybrids, Varieties andHeirlooms 12 FRUITS Hybrids are crossbreed from species genetically unalike Varieties are breed from fruits (or vegetables) of the same species Heirloom refers to genetically-diverse, older varieties no longer widely grown Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  13. 13. Nutrition 13 FRUITS Most fruit are quite nutritious; they have a high water content (usually 75 to 95%) are low in fat and protein Fruits are an excellent source of fiber and the natural sugar in fruits is a good source of energy Citrus, melons, strawberries contain large amounts of vitamin C, which may be destroyed by cooking Deep yellow and green colored fruits – apricots, mangoes and kiwis – are high in vitamin A Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  14. 14. Purchasing Fresh Fruit 14 FRUITS May be shipped ripe or unripe Sold by weight or count Packed in crates, bushels, cartons, cases, lugs or flats Before purchasing, consider – Size of each fruit – Grade – Quality – Ripeness on delivery Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  15. 15. Grading 15 FRUITS USDA voluntary grading program Based on size and uniformity of shape, color and texture – U.S. Fancy – U.S. No. 1 – U.S. No. 2 – U.S. No. 3 Most fruits purchased for food service operations are U.S. Fancy Lower grade fruits are good for sauces, jams, jellies or preserves Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  16. 16. Preserving Fruits 16 FRUITS Irradiation – Subjected to ionizing radiation Acidulation – Enzymatic browning can be retarded by immersing cut fruit in an acidic solution Canning – Solid pack – little or no water added – Water pack – added water or fruit juice – Syrup pack – light, medium or heavy sugar syrup Freezing – Many fruits are packed IQF Drying – Oldest known technique to preserve fruits Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  17. 17. Cooked Preserved Fruits 17 FRUITS Jams – Fruit gel made from fruit pulp and sugar Jellies – Fruit gel made from fruit juice and sugar Marmalades – Citrus jelly that also contains unpeeled slices of citrus fruits Preserves – Fruit gel that contains large chunks of whole fruits Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel

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