But, given all the changes theworld is experiencing …Given all the pressures ofpopulation and consumption…Given all the conflicting demandsfor ecosystem services …Protected areas don’tprotect themselves
How we go about providingopportunities for high qualityvisitor experiences whileprotecting the resource?
Presented byStephen McCoolThe University of MontanaMissoula, Montana
Shortcourse Goals Understand consequences of growing tourist demandfor South African parks and protected areas Provide a framework for thinking about management Build awareness of the science and practice of visitormanagement A focus more on the why rather than the what or how
ShortcourseOrganization/Procedures Facilitated discussion Participants provide examples, opportunities andchallenges from real world Facilitator provides a sense of principles from theliterature and experience Organization Protected Areas and Tourism in a Changing World Identification of Issues Presentation and Discussion of Principles
Stewardship Responsibilities Developing a vision Protect values and resources Enhance quality of life Provide opportunities for employment and income Designing a pathway to achieve it What actions are effective, efficient, and equitable? Monitoring the journey along the pathway Is what we thought would happen, really happening?
How do we meet these responsibilitieswith respect to tourism and visitation? Use best knowledge available, including science andour experience, we manage:CompetingDemandsJoint LearningRelationshipswithConstituencies
But, we know there are obstacles toaddressing any of the above tasks Funding Politics Organizational learning, technical proficiency Lack of trust Institutional design Procedural orientation
And we know that protected areastewardship exists within A dynamic, often contentious political context, Groups vie and compete for “veto” power overprotected area actions, Disagreements over goals of protected areas exist, There is often scientific uncertainty about cause-effectrelationships, The power to plan and the power to implement plansare often distinct and separated, and Inequities in access to information exist
Thus, protected area stewardship Is a wicked problem Framing the question of management itself isproblematic And a messy situation There are no solutions (e.g., answers) Just resolutions (e.g., agreements) Problems are interconnected Problems return because the context changes Cannot proceed as normal Finally, the future is not like the past
What is the world like? The PLUS world of the past Predictable Linear Understandable Stable The DICE World of the future Dynamic Impossible to understand completely Complex Ever-changing
Small Group Assignment What do you see as the key issue in the provision ofvisitor and tourism opportunities on SANParksadministered lands over the next decade? Short phrases Take 30 minutes Each group reports on three most significant
So, What Principles will Help AddressThese Issues in a DICE World …So We Can be Better Stewards?
Some Principles for Managing Visitorsin Protected Areas – A Preface Making tradeoffs between protection andvisitation/tourism What objective ultimately constrains tourismdevelopment? Determine how much change is acceptable Making tradeoffs, but involves more than just the biophysical,also includes the experiential, how much change is acceptable Principles derived from science
In a Messy World … Need a framework to work through issues, challengesand opportunities Principles help us do the working through Principles are not answers, but they serve as aframework to structure our thinking
Principle 1:Appropriate Management DependsUpon Objectives Objectives tell us what to achieve Help organize action Reflect social agreement on purpose of protectedarea
Objectives Provide Vision of theFuture But, whose future?PresentVarious futuresDesired
Typical objectives “protect the resource” “provide a diversity of recreation opportunities” Do not provide specific enough direction for decisions Do not provide for benchmarks to measure progress Not specific enough, lead to an illusion of agreementwhen in fact there is significant disagreement
What are the characteristics ofgood objectives? Specific – not vague (e.g., protect the resource) Output-oriented – what is the desired result? Type of experience, biophysical condition Quantitative – how to measure the objective so we know ifit is achieved So many people have achieved adventure, challenge, etc. No more than 80% of the campsites have more than 50 sq. metersof barren soil Realistic – the objective is attainable with some effort Time-bound – the time frame for achieving the objective isspecified
Principle 2:Diversity in Biophysical and SocialConditions Is Inevitable and May beDesirable Human induced changes vary by location Such changes also vary in acceptability Is such variation desirable? If so, allocating areas to different opportunities is auseful technique--allocation termed zoning
Example:Expected outcomes for visitors inGlacier National Park Nature appreciation Solitude Introspection Security Challenge/Adventure Group cohesiveness Personal Control
Motivations Occur in Packages Escapists High on personal control and solitude Naturalists Scenery, introspection and wildlife Parkists Introspection, security and personal control Frustrated Solitude Seekers Solitude, security and scenery
Visitor Data Glacier National ParkEscapistsNaturalistsParkistsFrustrated Solitude0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0Percent of Respondents36.714.719.521.9
Variability in AcceptabilityOutdoor Recreation PlanningCapstone 6 -- Fall 2002EscapistsNaturalistsParkistsFrustrated Solitude0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0Percent of RespondentsPreferredAcceptablePercent selecting picture with nine or more people, Swiftcurrent
Thus, No such thing as an average visitor!! Acceptability of conditions varies by visitor type Who is the park managed for? Finally, management is driven by variability more thanaverages
Zoning as a means of protection forboth biophysical and social conditions Allocates land to different opportunities andconditions Controls the spread of the types and amounts ofimpacts Protects unique and highly valued opportunities
Principle 3:Management is Directed atInfluencing Human-Induced Change Ecosystems are dynamic, change always occurring Human use occurs within context of change Underlying assumption that human uses threaten parkvalues Protected area planning is directed toward the location,type and intensity of human-induced change
Some Visitor ManagementProcesses for Dealing with Change Carrying (Visitor) Capacity based Frameworks –1960s + Social, Biophysical, Facility Recreation Opportunity Spectrum basedFrameworks Recreation Opportunity Spectrum – 1970s Tourism Opportunity Spectrum – 1990s Water Recreation Opportunity Spectrum – 2000s
Some Visitor ManagementProcesses for Dealing with Change Limits of Acceptable Change based Frameworks Limits of Acceptable Change – 1980s Visitor Impact Management – 1980s Visitor Experience and Resource Protection – 1990s Tourism Optimization and Management Model– 1990s The Benefits Based Management Framework –1990s Placed-based Frameworks – 2000s
Any level of use leads to some kind of impact Can managers prevent visitor impacts from occurring?Principle 4:Impacts on Resources and SocialConditions are Inevitable Consequencesof Human Use
What is the relationship betweenuse level and impact?Use LevelImpact
Given this relationship … How much change is acceptable? How would you decide? Is this a technical question or a value judgment?
But, Setting Standards Means MakingChoices Among Visitor ExperiencesUse LevelImpactWhat standard should we use?How do we decide?Setting standards is a function ofhuman values.
Principle 5:Impacts may be Spatially orTemporally Discontinuous Impacts often occur offsite Impacts may take a long time to appear Secondary and tertiary effects difficult to ascertain andattribute Need to think regionally, the Whack a MolePhenomenon
An example Campsite impacts too high, Thus, closing campsites to reduce impacts seems to be areasonable action. But, didn’t work Visitors create new campsites Thus, the total impact is actually larger This represents a focus on the event (campsiteimpacts, not understanding the system)
A “Fixes that Fail” SystemCurrent CampsiteConditionDesiredConditionGapClose CampsitesPeople createnew campsitesDelayDelayUnintendedConsequence
Principle 6:Many Variables Influence theUse/Impact Relationship Use level may be important in influencing amount ofimpact, but Other variables often more significant behavior season type and size of group biophysical characteristics
Principle 7:Many Management Problems areNot Use Density Dependent Visitors seek many different things during a visit to aprotected area Motivations such as solitude, adventure, learning,appreciating and learning about nature, familycohesiveness not all of the above are adversely affected by number ofvisitors Other problems--littering, etc.
Principle 8:Limiting Use is Only One of ManyManagement Options Limiting use may be one management tool, but … It may not be effective in dealing with problems It controls use levels, but does it control impacts The problem of problem displacement
Managers have a box of “tools” available,but … to what extent do we want regulationand intrusive measures?
How Systems Thinking Can Help AvoidTraps when Limiting UseLimit UseUnacceptable ImpactsVisitor Behavior andDevelopment PatternsSide Effects:Implement More RulesShift Use ElsewhereImpact Visitor Experience
Principle 9:Monitoring is Essential toProfessional Management Periodic remeasurement of key information variablesor indicators Followed by evaluation and reflection Key attributes feasible objective timely
Monitoring Plan is an Essential Partof Management Description of procedures How data will be analyzed, displayed and evaluated How does monitoring data influence planning andmanagement? Personnel assignments
Monitoring Principles Where conditions are at or in violation of standards Where conditions are changing rapidly Where values are threatened by visitation Where effects of management are unknownSource: Cole 1989
Principle 10:The Decision-Making ProcessShould Separate TechnicalDescription from Value Judgments What is is not necessarily what should be Separate inventory from decisions about what shouldbe done in time
Principle 11:Consensus among Affected Groupsis Needed for Implementation Shared problem definition Problem can be resolved through public involvement Inclusive Live with results Knowledge distributed equally Permission to act
Implementation of plan Understanding social acceptability Representativeness Learning Ownership Relationships
Many visitor management issues confrontingSANParks Principles serve as a framework for thinkingthrough Not answers, but ways to reflect In the long run, reflection leads to moreefficient management
Thank YouStephen.McCool@umontana.eduPerspectives on Protected Area Planninghttp://pasqueflowerparadigms.blogspot.com