Protected Areas … Special Places …
Key Values
Biodiversity
CulturalHeritage
Spirituality
Scenery
Recreation …and Fun
This is what Planning is all           about …This is what We are all about
So, how do we protect these places?
But, given all the changes the worldis experiencing …Given all the pressures ofpopulation and consumption …Given all the c...
How we go about developingplans for protection impacts theeffectiveness of our plans
Building Protected Area Stewardship in an           Era of Complexity and Messiness                                       ...
Presentation Goals   Discuss the global forces affecting protected    areas and their impacts on planning   Identify a n...
Global Forces Create  Change, Complexity and Uncertainty                          Governance   Public                     ...
The Practical Implications   Resource Scarcity   Increased Uncertainty   Emergent Complexity   Growing and Diversifyin...
An Abbreviated History of          Protected Area Planning   A short journey to understand the challenges    confronting ...
Three Waves of Planning   Each makes assumptions about the world,    planning purposes and functions   Each represents a...
First Wave Planning   Application of technical expertise   Take politics out of planning   Procedurally oriented   Soc...
Second Wave Planning   Recognition of Connectedness   Ecosystem Management   Pre-eminence of Science   Compartmentaliz...
Development of Third Wave Planning   Global forces stretch 2nd wave planning   How to deal with uncertainty, surprises, ...
What is Protected Area Planning                All About?   Framing the problem or issue parks are    confronted with   ...
Thus,   Planning must       Create opportunities for learning       Work to build consensus       Use science to infor...
Third Wave Planning   Recognition that challenges are “wicked”       Confusion/conflict over goals       Little science...
The Four Practices of Planning   Planning as Building Technical Proficiencies   Planning as Organizational Learning   P...
Which Way Forward?
To Build the Starship, We Need to …   Frame parks as integral components of social-    ecological systems   Practice man...
Frame parks as integral components of     social-ecological systems   Recognize global and local forces   Recognize inte...
Practice Management as Learning;          Build New Institutions   Monitoring and evaluation play critical roles   Adapt...
Develop Learning Platforms to           Enhance Competencies   Academic research and instruction   Continuing education ...
Conclusion   What we did in the past is no longer adequate   Must change our mental model of planning   View planning m...
Thank YouSteve.McCool@CFC.UMT.EDU
Building protected area stewardship in an era of complexity and messiness
Building protected area stewardship in an era of complexity and messiness
Building protected area stewardship in an era of complexity and messiness
Building protected area stewardship in an era of complexity and messiness
Building protected area stewardship in an era of complexity and messiness
Building protected area stewardship in an era of complexity and messiness
Building protected area stewardship in an era of complexity and messiness
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Building protected area stewardship in an era of complexity and messiness

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Presentation before a workshop involving Icelandic park managers

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Building protected area stewardship in an era of complexity and messiness

  1. 1. Protected Areas … Special Places …
  2. 2. Key Values
  3. 3. Biodiversity
  4. 4. CulturalHeritage
  5. 5. Spirituality
  6. 6. Scenery
  7. 7. Recreation …and Fun
  8. 8. This is what Planning is all about …This is what We are all about
  9. 9. So, how do we protect these places?
  10. 10. But, given all the changes the worldis experiencing …Given all the pressures ofpopulation and consumption …Given all the conflicting demands forecosystem services …Protected areas don’t protectthemselves
  11. 11. How we go about developingplans for protection impacts theeffectiveness of our plans
  12. 12. Building Protected Area Stewardship in an Era of Complexity and Messiness STEPHEN MCCOOL THE UNIVERSITY OF MONTANA MISSOULA, MONTANAÞjóðgarðastjórnun – Gildi þekkingar ogmenntunar11 October 2010
  13. 13. Presentation Goals Discuss the global forces affecting protected areas and their impacts on planning Identify a new paradigm for protected area planning Suggest a way forward
  14. 14. Global Forces Create Change, Complexity and Uncertainty Governance Public Values Decision Technology Making EconomicPopulationDynamics RestructuringClimateChange Muliplying Increasing Growing Greater Higher Stakes Contentiousness Volatility Accountability Scrutiny
  15. 15. The Practical Implications Resource Scarcity Increased Uncertainty Emergent Complexity Growing and Diversifying Expectations Planning as Management of Competing Demands Great Opportunities
  16. 16. An Abbreviated History of Protected Area Planning A short journey to understand the challenges confronting protected area planning Lessons of the past are the keys to the future
  17. 17. Three Waves of Planning Each makes assumptions about the world, planning purposes and functions Each represents a different paradigm Each wave represents a response to dissatisfaction with earlier waves And later planning waves incorporate good ideas from earlier waves
  18. 18. First Wave Planning Application of technical expertise Take politics out of planning Procedurally oriented Societal agreement on goals Scientific agreement on cause-effects
  19. 19. Second Wave Planning Recognition of Connectedness Ecosystem Management Pre-eminence of Science Compartmentalization of Planning and Management
  20. 20. Development of Third Wave Planning Global forces stretch 2nd wave planning How to deal with uncertainty, surprises, changing expectations all at once Must Rethink the Whole Notion of Planning
  21. 21. What is Protected Area Planning All About? Framing the problem or issue parks are confronted with Developing and assessing responses to these problems Implementing actionsPlanning is all about changing the future
  22. 22. Thus, Planning must  Create opportunities for learning  Work to build consensus  Use science to inform rather than direct Thus, protected area planning in the Third Wave is adaptive, inclusive, emphasizing learning and consensus building that provide a basis for societal action
  23. 23. Third Wave Planning Recognition that challenges are “wicked”  Confusion/conflict over goals  Little science at scales of interest Planning problems are “messy”  Problems are connected  Scientific disagreement “facts are uncertain, values in dispute, stakes high, and decisions urgent” Hard science and soft value judgments are replaced with hard policy decisions made with little science available
  24. 24. The Four Practices of Planning Planning as Building Technical Proficiencies Planning as Organizational Learning Planning as Constructing Public Interests Planning as the Application of Knowledge These Practices are Integrated
  25. 25. Which Way Forward?
  26. 26. To Build the Starship, We Need to … Frame parks as integral components of social- ecological systems Practice management as learning; build new institutions Develop learning platforms to enhance competencies
  27. 27. Frame parks as integral components of social-ecological systems Recognize global and local forces Recognize interaction with people Understand that parks/protected areas provide benefits to people Use systems thinking
  28. 28. Practice Management as Learning; Build New Institutions Monitoring and evaluation play critical roles Adaptive management not just a matter of adding a new checkbox to the list Management encourages a culture of  Curiosity  Reflection  Critical thinking
  29. 29. Develop Learning Platforms to Enhance Competencies Academic research and instruction Continuing education based on adult learning principles Develop community of practice  Sites  Universities  NGOs  Consultancies Develop confidence
  30. 30. Conclusion What we did in the past is no longer adequate Must change our mental model of planning View planning more holistically and strategically Need cadres of managers with professional competencies Develop opportunities for learning
  31. 31. Thank YouSteve.McCool@CFC.UMT.EDU

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