Gentrification AS Geog


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Gentrification AS Geog

  1. 1. Gentrification
  2. 2. <ul><li>The rehabilitation of a deteriorated neighbourhood by new residents who are wealthier than the long-time residents. This can cause an increase in housing prices and lead to displacement of the long-time residents. </li></ul><ul><li>The process in which a neighbourhood is transformed from low-value to high-value properties. </li></ul><ul><li>The renovation of poor and working class urban neighbourhoods and the displacement of the original residents. </li></ul><ul><li>The trend and process of neighbourhood renewal by way of widespread architectural upgrading, the so-called &quot;rehabilitation&quot; of substandard and average rental housing and commercial properties and infrastructure, and the general development of new buildings or expansion thereof. </li></ul><ul><li>The process by which middle- and upper-class incomers displace established working-class communities. Often associated with new investment in the built environment, gentrification may be small-scale and incremental (ie instigated by individual incomers), or be associated with major redevelopment and regeneration schemes. </li></ul><ul><li>The rehabilitation of low-income housing into higher income housing, which results in the displacement of lower-income residents and generally occurs when an older neighbourhood is revitalized. </li></ul><ul><li>Gentrification refers to the physical, social, economic, and cultural phenomenon whereby working-class and/or inner-city neighbourhoods are converted into more affluent middle-class communities by remodelling buildings and landscaping, resulting in increased property values and in the displacement of the poor. </li></ul>Definitions of Gentrification
  3. 3. <ul><li>Gentrification is a term with inherent class connotations, and was coined by the sociologist Ruth Glass in London in 1964; </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;One by one, many of the working-class quarters of London have been invaded by the middle-classes - upper and lower. Shabby, modest mews and cottages - two rooms up and two down - have been taken over, when their leases have expired, and have become elegant, expensive residences....Once this process of 'gentrification' starts in a district it goes on rapidly until all or most of the original working-class occupiers are displaced and the whole social character of the district is changed.&quot; </li></ul>
  4. 5. Filtering and Gentrification
  5. 6. What can I see? <ul><li>A stroll along Bellevue Road, Wandsworth and its surrounding streets offers a taste of a process which has been happening all over London since the 1960s. Gone are the working classes and the establishments that served them. Bellevue Road now has delicatessens, wine bars, picture galleries, 'alfresco' diners and three estate agencies. </li></ul><ul><li>Terraces of Mid-Victorian cottages show no evidence of the uniformity which existed twenty years ago - not one house has the same façade. Some have had their 'period features' restored, others painted bright pastel colours in a deliberate attempt to dispense with the distinctive grey or red bricks of a different era. </li></ul><ul><li>Streets once lined with Mark I Ford Escorts and Vauxhall Astras now sport Jeep Cherokees and convertible Alfa Romeos. During the week, nannies and au pairs look after the children of merchant bankers, advertising executives and 'new media' professionals who have all played some part in the transformation of the area into &quot;Bellevue Village&quot;. At the weekend, children dressed in 'Gap Kids' clothing run along Wandsworth Common in front of parents wearing wraparound Ray Bans, engaged in a debate about the merits of their Sunday newspapers or in a heated discussion about the long-term damage that the New Labour government might be doing to London's public transport system. </li></ul><ul><li>(Tom Slater) </li></ul>
  6. 7. Tooting Spitalfields
  7. 8. Once the rough hewed Bedford Arms, now the über-loungey Clapham North. Deli’s, designer boutiques, wine bars, specialist food shops – butchers, fishmongers Traffic control measures inc. resident only parking
  8. 9. The geography of Gentrification Zone 2 on the underground is the area experiencing gentrification, especially to the South and West of London. Why?
  9. 10. In south London, following the course of the Northern Line tube above ground is a bit like following the path of a gentrification brush. It started sweeping Clapham North in the late 1980s and is now steaming through southern Tooting on a seemingly relentless march towards Morden in Surrey (the end of the line). There is a very distinguishable pattern of increasing property prices (a 3-bed Victorian cottage near Tooting Broadway tube station recently went for £250,000, over double its value two years ago) and 'new middle-class' service establishments ('trendy' cafes, bars, delicatessens, health and fitness clubs - virtually unthinkable in a place like Tooting as recently as five years ago) as one follows the Northern Line’s southbound progress.
  10. 11. Gentrified houses in Islington Possibly, these changes in Islington provided fewer opportunities for other incoming 'migrant' groups to develop the neighbourhoods for their own and actually a lower proportion of Islington's population comes from ethnic minorities than other nearby boroughs. The type of flats the previous residents may have moved to. When they lived in the houses they were very run down and they may have been pleased to move to modern flats.
  11. 12. Positive Negative Displacement through rent/price increases Secondary psychological costs of displacement Stabilisation of declining areas Community resentment and conflict Increased property values Reduced vacancy rates Loss of affordable housing Unsustainable speculative property price increases Homelessness Increased local fiscal revenues Greater take of local spending through lobbying/articulacy Encouragement and increased viability of further development Commercial/industrial displacement. Reduction of suburban sprawl Increased cost and changes to local services Displacement and housing demand pressures on surrounding poor areas Increased social mix Loss of social diversity (from socially disparate to rich ghettos) Decreased crime Increased crime Rehabilitation of property both with and without state sponsorship Under-occupancy and population loss to gentrified areas
  12. 13. Public Opinion <ul><li>Locals fight back against gentrification of Broadway Market, London </li></ul>Gentrification is found in North America and Western Europe – France, Germany
  13. 14. Why are people so upset by Gentrification?