Design and Assessment ofthe Haptic Creature’s Affect DisplaySteve Yohanan and Karon E. MacLeanSPIN Research Group • Depart...
Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display - Steve Yohanan - HRI 2011 2The Haptic Creature ProjectSocia...
Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display - Steve Yohanan - HRI 2011 3The Haptic Creature ProjectSocia...
Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display - Steve Yohanan - HRI 2011 4The Haptic Creature ProjectResea...
Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display - Steve Yohanan - HRI 2011 5The Haptic Creature ProjectResea...
Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display - Steve Yohanan - HRI 2011 6The Haptic Creature ProjectResea...
Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display - Steve Yohanan - HRI 2011 7Research Questions● In what mann...
Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display - Steve Yohanan - HRI 2011 8Highlights● Describe the Haptic ...
Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display - Steve Yohanan - HRI 2011 9Overview➢ Related Robots● Affect...
Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display - Steve Yohanan - HRI 2011 10Related Robots● Intersection of...
Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display - Steve Yohanan - HRI 2011 11Overview● Related Robots➢ Affec...
Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display - Steve Yohanan - HRI 2011 12Affect Display DesignAffect Spa...
Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display - Steve Yohanan - HRI 2011 13Affect Display DesignAffect Spa...
Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display - Steve Yohanan - HRI 2011 14Affect Display DesignAffect Spa...
Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display - Steve Yohanan - HRI 2011 15The Haptic CreatureAffect Displ...
Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display - Steve Yohanan - HRI 2011 16The Haptic CreatureAffect Displ...
Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display - Steve Yohanan - HRI 2011 17Overview● Related Robots● Affec...
Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display - Steve Yohanan - HRI 2011 18Assessment of Affect DisplayStu...
Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display - Steve Yohanan - HRI 2011 19Assessment of Affect DisplayRes...
Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display - Steve Yohanan - HRI 2011 20Assessment of Affect DisplayRes...
Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display - Steve Yohanan - HRI 2011 21Assessment of Affect Display● 3...
Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display - Steve Yohanan - HRI 2011 22Assessment of Affect DisplayEmo...
Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display - Steve Yohanan - HRI 2011 23Overview● Related Robots● Affec...
Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display - Steve Yohanan - HRI 2011 24ResultsEmotion LabelingMatching...
Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display - Steve Yohanan - HRI 2011 25ResultsEmotion LabelingMatching...
Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display - Steve Yohanan - HRI 2011 26ResultsEmotion Labeling● Robot ...
Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display - Steve Yohanan - HRI 2011 27ResultsPerceived Valence and Ar...
Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display - Steve Yohanan - HRI 2011 28Overview● Related Robots● Affec...
Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display - Steve Yohanan - HRI 2011 29Suggested ImprovementsBreathing...
Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display - Steve Yohanan - HRI 2011 30Suggested ImprovementsBreathing...
Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display - Steve Yohanan - HRI 2011 31Suggested ImprovementsPurringPu...
Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display - Steve Yohanan - HRI 2011 32In Summary● Described the Hapti...
Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display - Steve Yohanan - HRI 2011 33QuestionsMerci!
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HRI 2011 — Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display

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Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display. Presented at HRI '11: The 6th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction. Lausanne, Switzerland; March 6-9 2011. More info at http://yohanan.org/steve/projects/haptic-creature/.

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HRI 2011 — Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display

  1. 1. Design and Assessment ofthe Haptic Creature’s Affect DisplaySteve Yohanan and Karon E. MacLeanSPIN Research Group • Department of Computer Science • University of British Columbia
  2. 2. Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display - Steve Yohanan - HRI 2011 2The Haptic Creature ProjectSocial HRI through Affective Touch● Emotion communication isan important aspect of socialinteraction.● Predominately displayedthrough facial expression orspeech prosody.● Touch is an under-exploredmodality for affect display.Emphasis on Companionship & Therapy
  3. 3. Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display - Steve Yohanan - HRI 2011 3The Haptic Creature ProjectSocial HRI through Affective Touch● Small, fur covered robot thesize of large cat or small dog.● Emotion Expression– Ears– Breathing– Vibrotactile Purr● Emotion Sensing– Touch Sensors– AccelerometerThe Haptic Creature
  4. 4. Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display - Steve Yohanan - HRI 2011 4The Haptic Creature ProjectResearch ApproachAffect Display from Robot
  5. 5. Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display - Steve Yohanan - HRI 2011 5The Haptic Creature ProjectResearch ApproachAffect Display from Human
  6. 6. Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display - Steve Yohanan - HRI 2011 6The Haptic Creature ProjectResearch ApproachInfluence of Affect DisplayFull Cycle of Interaction
  7. 7. Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display - Steve Yohanan - HRI 2011 7Research Questions● In what manner might the Haptic Creature communicate itsemotional state through touch?● How effective is the Haptic Creature at communicating itsemotional state through touch?● Does gender or experience with animals affect perception ofthe Haptic Creatures emotional state?Affect Display from Robot
  8. 8. Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display - Steve Yohanan - HRI 2011 8Highlights● Describe the Haptic Creatures affect display design.– Arousal: ear stiffness & breathing rate.– Valence: breath symmetry & purring.● Present a hybrid technique developed for assessingeffectiveness of affect display.● Found robot communicated arousal more clearly than valence.● Provide suggestions for improvement.
  9. 9. Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display - Steve Yohanan - HRI 2011 9Overview➢ Related Robots● Affect Display Design● Assessment of Affect Display● Results● Suggested Improvements
  10. 10. Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display - Steve Yohanan - HRI 2011 10Related Robots● Intersection of ...– socially interactiverobotics,– zoomorphic,– touch interaction, and– affect display.● Haptic Creature focuses onaffect display solely throughtouch.● Haptic Creature does notrepresent a specific animal.ShibataShibata StiehlStiehlUgobeUgobe SonySonySaldien & GorisSaldien & Goris
  11. 11. Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display - Steve Yohanan - HRI 2011 11Overview● Related Robots➢ Affect Display Design● Assessment of Affect Display● Results● Suggested Improvements
  12. 12. Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display - Steve Yohanan - HRI 2011 12Affect Display DesignAffect SpaceValence and ArousalAdapted fromRussell (1980, 1989)
  13. 13. Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display - Steve Yohanan - HRI 2011 13Affect Display DesignAffect SpaceEmotional State => (v,a)Current Emotion
  14. 14. Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display - Steve Yohanan - HRI 2011 14Affect Display DesignAffect SpaceBehavior Specified by Key ExpressionsCurrent EmotionKey ExpressionBehavior Interpolation
  15. 15. Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display - Steve Yohanan - HRI 2011 15The Haptic CreatureAffect Display ParametersBehavior DevelopmentBehaviorRefinementBehaviorRefinementBehaviorRefinementAnimalModelsInformalPilotsMini-StudyInformalPilots
  16. 16. Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display - Steve Yohanan - HRI 2011 16The Haptic CreatureAffect Display ParametersBreathing RateEar StiffnessArousalBreathing SymmetryValencePurr PresenceValence (Positive)Purr AmplitudeArousal
  17. 17. Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display - Steve Yohanan - HRI 2011 17Overview● Related Robots● Affect Display Design➢ Assessment of Affect Display● Results● Suggested Improvements
  18. 18. Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display - Steve Yohanan - HRI 2011 18Assessment of Affect DisplayStudy OverviewEffectiveness of Communicating Emotional State● Haptic Creature expressed avariety of emotional states.● Participants rated perceivedemotional state in two ways.● Emotion Label– Pinpoint specific emotion.● Valence and Arousal– Fine grain dimensional.● These two measures provideconfirmation of each other.
  19. 19. Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display - Steve Yohanan - HRI 2011 19Assessment of Affect DisplayResponse Format● Forced choice from 16emotion labels.● 9 dimensional emotion labels(Russell).● 6 (*) distinct emotion labels(Ekman).● “None Of These” avoidsartificial agreement(Frank and Stennett).Afraid* MiserableAngry* NeutralAroused PleasedDepressed RelaxedDisgusted* Sad*Distressed SleepyExcited Surprised*Happy* None Of TheseEmotion Label
  20. 20. Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display - Steve Yohanan - HRI 2011 20Assessment of Affect DisplayResponse FormatPerceived Valence and ArousalSad ↔ HappyCalm ↔ ExcitedSelf-Assessment Manikin (Lang 1980)7-Level Pictorial Scales
  21. 21. Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display - Steve Yohanan - HRI 2011 21Assessment of Affect Display● 32 Participants(50% Female)● Ages 19 to 50(M 27.5, SD 9.37)● 9 Unique Stimulix 2 Repetitions Per Blockx 3 Blocks= 54 Total Stimuli
  22. 22. Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display - Steve Yohanan - HRI 2011 22Assessment of Affect DisplayEmotion StimuliMin, Max, Avg for Valence and ArousalStimulus
  23. 23. Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display - Steve Yohanan - HRI 2011 23Overview● Related Robots● Affect Display Design● Assessment of Affect Display➢ Results● Suggested Improvements
  24. 24. Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display - Steve Yohanan - HRI 2011 24ResultsEmotion LabelingMatching Distinct with Dimensional Labels● Russells (9) emotion labelsmap directly to affect space.● Need method to mapEkmans (6) emotion labels.Distressed Aroused ExcitedMiserable Neutral PleasedDepressed Sleepy Relaxed
  25. 25. Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display - Steve Yohanan - HRI 2011 25ResultsEmotion LabelingMatching Distinct with Dimensional Labels● Valence and arousal ratingswere analyzed for each labelchoice.● Labels where both thevalence and arousal did notstatistically differ wereconsidered equivalent.● “Surprised” not matched.Distressed Aroused ExcitedMiserable Neutral PleasedDepressed Sleepy RelaxedHappySadAfraidAngryDisgusted
  26. 26. Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display - Steve Yohanan - HRI 2011 26ResultsEmotion Labeling● Robot correctly displayed itsaffect state (by participant):17% to 52%(M 30%, SD 10%)● No influence of gender orexperience with animals.● “Distressed” dominated higharousal conditions.“Sleepy” dominated lowarousal.Recognition ScoringAroused ExcitedMiserableDepressed RelaxedDistressed DistressedDistressedSleepy SleepyNeutralNeutralPleasedPleasedSleepySleepyDistressedDistressed
  27. 27. Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display - Steve Yohanan - HRI 2011 27ResultsPerceived Valence and ArousalArousal Expressed More Clearly Than ValenceValenceUnpleasant Neutral PleasantArousalNeutralActivated Deactivated
  28. 28. Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display - Steve Yohanan - HRI 2011 28Overview● Related Robots● Affect Display Design● Assessment of Affect Display● Results➢ Suggested Improvements
  29. 29. Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display - Steve Yohanan - HRI 2011 29Suggested ImprovementsBreathing● Breathing Rate successfullyconveyed arousal.● Participant debriefing foundcue both for arousal andvalence.– Faster breathing implyingnegative valence.Breathing RateArousal &Valence
  30. 30. Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display - Steve Yohanan - HRI 2011 30Suggested ImprovementsBreathing● Breath Symmetry failed toconvey valence.● Participant debriefing foundBreathing Depth as cue forvalence.– Shallower depth implyingnegative valence.Breathing DepthValence
  31. 31. Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display - Steve Yohanan - HRI 2011 31Suggested ImprovementsPurringPurr PresenceValence(Positive & Negative)Purr AmplitudeArousal● Successfully portrayedpositive valence for“Pleased”.● “Excited” confused with“Distressed”.● High Amplitude impliednegative valence (shivering).– Reduce intensity for“Excited”.● Leverage shivering conceptfor negative valence purr(e.g., “Miserable”).
  32. 32. Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display - Steve Yohanan - HRI 2011 32In Summary● Described the Haptic Creatures affect display design.● Presented a hybrid technique for assessing effectiveness ofaffect display.● Found robot communicated arousal more clearly than valence.– Stiffness (ears) successfully conveyed arousal.Rate of Touch (breathing) successfully conveyed arousal.– Vibration (purr) successfully conveyed positive valence.Vibration Amplitude (purr) miscategorized valence.– Symmetry of Touch (breathing) failed to convey valence.● Gender and experience with animals did not influenceperception of the robots emotional state.
  33. 33. Design and Assessment of the Haptic Creature’s Affect Display - Steve Yohanan - HRI 2011 33QuestionsMerci!

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