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Running Containerized in
an on-prem Datacenter
2
presenter
• Steve Wong
former: Strategic Open Source Partner Engineer
{code} team, Dell Technologies
• next: to be announced soon
• @cantbewong
3
Agenda
• What is a Container Orchestrator
• Why would you want an Orchestrator?
• Why on prem?
• Types of Orchestrators Compared
• Deployment Toolchain choices
• Networking
• Storage
4
What is an orchestrator?
“Kubernetes is an open-source platform for automating deployment,
scaling, and operations of application containers across clusters of hosts,
providing container-centric infrastructure”
5
What is an orchestrator?
Two viewpoints
From a resource perspective:
It’s an infrastructure abstraction layer:
– Aggregates systems into a single resource pool.
From an application perspective:
It simplifies management of distributed technologies
– A scheduler (= dispatcher).
– Dispatches workloads which consume the pooled resources.
6
Typical Orchestrator Goals
• Modularity – interfaces and APIs documented,
open, replaceable
• Enable apps to be oblivious to hosting details
• Enable users/devs to write once, run in any cloud
or on-prem
• Enable operators to utilize distributed computing
resources without becoming an expert in
distributed computing
7
Why would you want a container orchestrator?
Docker, Microservices and
container-based
development, with CI/CD
Seek Google-like
datacenter operations, off
the shelf, instead of home-
grown
Machine Learning, AI,
Streaming Data Analytics,
Fast Data, Big Data
Need app and service
portability across public clouds
+ on-prem... with consistent
staff skill set, and no cloud
provider lock-ins
Need self service IT user
experience, without using
Amazon, or using clouds
supplemented with on-
prem and edge capacity
Automated and Integrated
security, networking,
storage management,
logging, health monitoring
8
App Store Experience: self hosted Data Services
ANALYTICS
STREAM INGEST
NOSQL
SEARCH
CACHE
Elastic MapReduce
Kinesis
DynamoDB
CloudSearch
ElastiCache
AWS-specific services
RELATIONAL DB RDS
9
Why on prem?
You want a cloud like user experience
but
• You can’t afford latency (control
and notification or legacy
interaction) or reliability issues
• You can’t connect at all.
• Legal data governance issues
• On prem is more cost effective
• Cloud provider(s) are your
competitor
• Need for Data ingress
preprocessing for local control and
notification loops, data reduction
10
Orchestrator class
analogy
A PaaS platform takes more
responsibility – often making
decisions for you
A container orchestrator is less
opinionated
11
PaaS vs CaaS vs IaaS
Simple test:
If you can install a database on it, it
is not PaaS.
If the database is prepackaged in a
Docker container, it’s CaaS
12
A continuum of choice
13
common ancestors
14
What’s your ideal datacenter?
deploy from open source / commercial distro
bare metal / Iaas / Caas / Paas / SaaS
15
16
Your choice can be AND not OR
17
Public Cloud vs On Premise – What’s different?
18
On prem differences - Network
Vs. Public Clouds (AWS, GCE, etc.)
• No standardized mandated network ingress, egress
service /with API
Vs Existing legacy network infrastructure
• Network needs are different
19
Some distributions provide an ingress
management
Mesosphere DC/OS
OpenShift Routes
Pivotal PKS / Cloud Foundry
And standard Kubernetes is
commonly used in conjunction
with NGINX
forward a “wildcard” domain
20
Network – What if I drop microservices on
existing legacy network infrastructure?
Common goals
• Fast
• Secure
• Low latency
• Never fail
Gaps - You take care of:
• service discovery
• App level flow control
• Security (beyond basic
connectivity)
• Network partitioning protection
• Policy
• Health service checks, metrics
And how’s the latency on that API?
21
Storage… What does the 12 factors say?
Why?
Easy to replace, upgrade,
automate scale-up and scale-down
22
everything is stateless? – how’s that going to work
23
What if it isn’t “the other guys problem”?
Suppose you are that guy maintaining the
“backing store”
There are valid reasons to do this yourself
• You want to pick your own tool and version
• You want to customize
• You want to stay portable across clouds
• You want to avoid database monoliths
24
“12 factor”
stateful backing services are not just SQL database
25
Monolithic = bad
26
Container advantages make sense for stateful
too
Container attributes:
• Consistent environment
– same anywhere
• Dependency
management -
packaging
Orchestration can add:
• Health monitoring
• Automated rollouts and
rollbacks
• Declarative configuration
• App/package store deploy
experience
27
On prem differences – stateful container apps
Common
• File systems
• Block
volumes
Gaps - You take care of:
• Posix mountable storage
• Security (beyond basic
connectivity)
• Policy?
• Health service checks, metrics
28
Background – container orchestrators
Popular container orchestrators have independently
evolved storage interfaces
29
Background – storage providers
Selected open source and commercial vendors have
solutions – sometimes usable across orchestrator
platforms
30
Variations of storage interface:
Is this good for the community?
Users
Container Orchestrators
Storage Providers
31
CSI: Goals
The Container Storage Interface (CSI) is modeled on
the successful OCI and CNCF sponsored CNI
interoperability initiatives in the container and
network space respectively.
Its goal is to provide a vendor neutral, curated
specification that allows standardized storage
plugins to be published and utilized across multiple
container orchestrators, including Apache Mesos,
Cloud Foundry, DC/OS, Kubernetes.
32
CSI: Overview
• Control plane interface
– CSI “steps aside” after wiring volume to container– not a
bottleneck in the data IO plane
– Flexible deployment
• Focus on volume lifecycle
– Create
– Publish/Unpublish (to nodes, to containers)
– Destroy
• Service-oriented
– Long running
– gRPC; CO is a client of plugin services
33
Community: Who is involved with CSI
34
CSI Roadmap: Beyond intro release
Considering these -
• Snapshot support
• Volume resizing
• Quota
• Windows OS/container support
• User ID & credential passthrough to storage
provider
This is deemed out of scope - up to orchestrator
platform to implement, differentiate
• Storage class (aka profiles)
35
Choosing on prem storage - considerations
Existing support in orchestrators
Future or current CSI support
Interop – with Caas, Paas, legacy
Model
• Appliance
• Software defined on commodity hardware
– Deployment
› Independent
› Optional converged
› Fully Converged (container packaged)
– Runs in kernel vs user space
36
On-prem consideration: Install technology
DC/OS (Apache Mesos distribution)
• Advanced installer – ssh access to Linux nodes
• Other variants available
Kubernetes
• Deploy from github
– kubeadm command line to Linux nodes
– minikube – not a production solution
• Certified Distributions
– Docker Swarm
– Mesosphere DC/OS
– RedHat OpenShift
– Pivotal / VMware PKS
– Typhoon (https://github.com/poseidon/typhoon)
– More (the CNCF maintains the official list, these differ
in more than install technology)
37
Install technology differences
Ansible vs BOSH vs shell script, others
Variations in abstraction level
• Ansible, Chef, Puppet originally desgned to manage
software on existing servers
• Teraform, BOSH designed to manage clusters
Variations in distribution source
• download at deploy time
• use binary repository (pre-downloaded)
• build from source (pre-downloaded)
Servers are a “pet” vs “cattle”
38
presenter
Steve Wong
twitter @cantbewong
this deck:

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Running Containerized Apps in an On-Prem Datacenter

  • 1. Running Containerized in an on-prem Datacenter
  • 2. 2 presenter • Steve Wong former: Strategic Open Source Partner Engineer {code} team, Dell Technologies • next: to be announced soon • @cantbewong
  • 3. 3 Agenda • What is a Container Orchestrator • Why would you want an Orchestrator? • Why on prem? • Types of Orchestrators Compared • Deployment Toolchain choices • Networking • Storage
  • 4. 4 What is an orchestrator? “Kubernetes is an open-source platform for automating deployment, scaling, and operations of application containers across clusters of hosts, providing container-centric infrastructure”
  • 5. 5 What is an orchestrator? Two viewpoints From a resource perspective: It’s an infrastructure abstraction layer: – Aggregates systems into a single resource pool. From an application perspective: It simplifies management of distributed technologies – A scheduler (= dispatcher). – Dispatches workloads which consume the pooled resources.
  • 6. 6 Typical Orchestrator Goals • Modularity – interfaces and APIs documented, open, replaceable • Enable apps to be oblivious to hosting details • Enable users/devs to write once, run in any cloud or on-prem • Enable operators to utilize distributed computing resources without becoming an expert in distributed computing
  • 7. 7 Why would you want a container orchestrator? Docker, Microservices and container-based development, with CI/CD Seek Google-like datacenter operations, off the shelf, instead of home- grown Machine Learning, AI, Streaming Data Analytics, Fast Data, Big Data Need app and service portability across public clouds + on-prem... with consistent staff skill set, and no cloud provider lock-ins Need self service IT user experience, without using Amazon, or using clouds supplemented with on- prem and edge capacity Automated and Integrated security, networking, storage management, logging, health monitoring
  • 8. 8 App Store Experience: self hosted Data Services ANALYTICS STREAM INGEST NOSQL SEARCH CACHE Elastic MapReduce Kinesis DynamoDB CloudSearch ElastiCache AWS-specific services RELATIONAL DB RDS
  • 9. 9 Why on prem? You want a cloud like user experience but • You can’t afford latency (control and notification or legacy interaction) or reliability issues • You can’t connect at all. • Legal data governance issues • On prem is more cost effective • Cloud provider(s) are your competitor • Need for Data ingress preprocessing for local control and notification loops, data reduction
  • 10. 10 Orchestrator class analogy A PaaS platform takes more responsibility – often making decisions for you A container orchestrator is less opinionated
  • 11. 11 PaaS vs CaaS vs IaaS Simple test: If you can install a database on it, it is not PaaS. If the database is prepackaged in a Docker container, it’s CaaS
  • 14. 14 What’s your ideal datacenter? deploy from open source / commercial distro bare metal / Iaas / Caas / Paas / SaaS
  • 15. 15
  • 16. 16 Your choice can be AND not OR
  • 17. 17 Public Cloud vs On Premise – What’s different?
  • 18. 18 On prem differences - Network Vs. Public Clouds (AWS, GCE, etc.) • No standardized mandated network ingress, egress service /with API Vs Existing legacy network infrastructure • Network needs are different
  • 19. 19 Some distributions provide an ingress management Mesosphere DC/OS OpenShift Routes Pivotal PKS / Cloud Foundry And standard Kubernetes is commonly used in conjunction with NGINX forward a “wildcard” domain
  • 20. 20 Network – What if I drop microservices on existing legacy network infrastructure? Common goals • Fast • Secure • Low latency • Never fail Gaps - You take care of: • service discovery • App level flow control • Security (beyond basic connectivity) • Network partitioning protection • Policy • Health service checks, metrics And how’s the latency on that API?
  • 21. 21 Storage… What does the 12 factors say? Why? Easy to replace, upgrade, automate scale-up and scale-down
  • 22. 22 everything is stateless? – how’s that going to work
  • 23. 23 What if it isn’t “the other guys problem”? Suppose you are that guy maintaining the “backing store” There are valid reasons to do this yourself • You want to pick your own tool and version • You want to customize • You want to stay portable across clouds • You want to avoid database monoliths
  • 24. 24 “12 factor” stateful backing services are not just SQL database
  • 26. 26 Container advantages make sense for stateful too Container attributes: • Consistent environment – same anywhere • Dependency management - packaging Orchestration can add: • Health monitoring • Automated rollouts and rollbacks • Declarative configuration • App/package store deploy experience
  • 27. 27 On prem differences – stateful container apps Common • File systems • Block volumes Gaps - You take care of: • Posix mountable storage • Security (beyond basic connectivity) • Policy? • Health service checks, metrics
  • 28. 28 Background – container orchestrators Popular container orchestrators have independently evolved storage interfaces
  • 29. 29 Background – storage providers Selected open source and commercial vendors have solutions – sometimes usable across orchestrator platforms
  • 30. 30 Variations of storage interface: Is this good for the community? Users Container Orchestrators Storage Providers
  • 31. 31 CSI: Goals The Container Storage Interface (CSI) is modeled on the successful OCI and CNCF sponsored CNI interoperability initiatives in the container and network space respectively. Its goal is to provide a vendor neutral, curated specification that allows standardized storage plugins to be published and utilized across multiple container orchestrators, including Apache Mesos, Cloud Foundry, DC/OS, Kubernetes.
  • 32. 32 CSI: Overview • Control plane interface – CSI “steps aside” after wiring volume to container– not a bottleneck in the data IO plane – Flexible deployment • Focus on volume lifecycle – Create – Publish/Unpublish (to nodes, to containers) – Destroy • Service-oriented – Long running – gRPC; CO is a client of plugin services
  • 33. 33 Community: Who is involved with CSI
  • 34. 34 CSI Roadmap: Beyond intro release Considering these - • Snapshot support • Volume resizing • Quota • Windows OS/container support • User ID & credential passthrough to storage provider This is deemed out of scope - up to orchestrator platform to implement, differentiate • Storage class (aka profiles)
  • 35. 35 Choosing on prem storage - considerations Existing support in orchestrators Future or current CSI support Interop – with Caas, Paas, legacy Model • Appliance • Software defined on commodity hardware – Deployment › Independent › Optional converged › Fully Converged (container packaged) – Runs in kernel vs user space
  • 36. 36 On-prem consideration: Install technology DC/OS (Apache Mesos distribution) • Advanced installer – ssh access to Linux nodes • Other variants available Kubernetes • Deploy from github – kubeadm command line to Linux nodes – minikube – not a production solution • Certified Distributions – Docker Swarm – Mesosphere DC/OS – RedHat OpenShift – Pivotal / VMware PKS – Typhoon (https://github.com/poseidon/typhoon) – More (the CNCF maintains the official list, these differ in more than install technology)
  • 37. 37 Install technology differences Ansible vs BOSH vs shell script, others Variations in abstraction level • Ansible, Chef, Puppet originally desgned to manage software on existing servers • Teraform, BOSH designed to manage clusters Variations in distribution source • download at deploy time • use binary repository (pre-downloaded) • build from source (pre-downloaded) Servers are a “pet” vs “cattle”