User Story Mapping

5,097 views

Published on

User story mapping is a technique popularized by Jeff Patton that will cause you to revoke your membership in the Flat Backlog Society. A user story map allows you to see the big picture in your backlog; acts as a visual project plan; provides a technique for gathering scope and stories fast; supports better user story slicing, prioritization, and scoping; and helps you to build the right thing first. In this session you will find out what a user story map is and how to create one with your team immediately after the conference.

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
9 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
5,097
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
130
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
134
Comments
0
Likes
9
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Prep:Print out cardsBring post-its and markers/pens
  • Cards: Agree/ Disagree / Not SureOutcome: Explain what a user story is and isn’tThis is a user story: As a developer, I want to setup the continuous integration server so that we can deploy continuously.This is a user story: Create the service to validate a username and passwordThis is a user story: Forget Password link by emailThis is a user story: Create and Implement the Login pageEach user story should be totally independentOutcome: Describe some reasons to slice stories and list a few ways of doing so“As a user I want to see my profile information so that I can verify its accuracy”. A good example of slicing this story is:Create the profile database tablesCreate the profile service to read the profile dataCreate the profile page to call the service and display the dataUser stories can be sliced by objective qualityUser stories should not be sliced by validation rulesA screen or web page is often a good size for a user story slice.A large story doesn’t need to be slicedOutcome: Describe the benefits of a user story mapA backlog is a list of tasks needed to complete a project.When starting a project a backlog is a great model for seeing the big pictureA user story mapping session can speed up project discoveryA user story map is a better way to visualize priorities than a traditional backlogA traditional backlog isn’t a good vehicle for finding project gapsOutcome: Describe to someone else the difference between iterative and incrementalIt is possible to build an entire horizontal slice of the application in one or two iterationsUser Story Mapping and Iterative Development are strongly relatedIt isn’t possible for your users to see and test the whole application within one or two iterationsIt is difficult to control scope on agile projectsKnowing the final solution before you start is importantOutcome: Be able to create your own user story map
  • Step 1: Generate tasksSplit up into groups of 3 to 5As individuals, think about your morning routine – the things you do.Write down each thing you do on one post-it note. Have everyone in your group use the same colour post-it for this exercise.Step 2: Read them outHave each person read their post-its out loud to the group and then place them in the middle of the table so that you can see all the post-its at once.Comments: Notice the similarities between your post-its and other peoples. Notice also that if you missed a few things, somebody else came up with the missing tasks. You probably all have things like “Brush Teeth”, “Get Dressed”, “Eat breakfast”. All starting with verbs.Step 3: GroupNow as a group, and without talking, move the post-its that are similar to each other closer to each other, and those that are not similar, move them farther apart. Those that are exact duplicates you can eliminate or put on top of each other.Step 4: Name the groupsYou should now have some distinct groups. As a group again, start labeling these groups with a different colour post-it. Just put the group name on top of the grouping.Step 5: Now re-arrange your groups in order of time from left to right. Put the group post-it at the top and the tasks below the group, but still in order left to right.(At this point, show a simple example)Overall comments:Your first user story map!The groups are called “User Activities” – this is the backbone of your applicationThe items below are called “User Tasks” – this is the walking skeleton of your application
  • Also posted as a kanban board in the room – but large enough to put stickies under in the ending exercise.
  • Boundary Object (scope). If used properly, you can use it to keep other scope out.Each story encompass all layers of the system. No value to the user without the layersHas value when completed
  • Talk – keep them as stories. Remember INVEST.
  • Highlighted my favourite ones…
  • User Activities are things that users do towards achieving a particular goal.User Tasks are specific steps within an activity. Tasks by themselves do not move towards a goal, but are required components of an activity.User Stories are small end-to-end vertical slices of functionality that implement User Tasks.
  • Time across (link back to breakfast)Priorities down (no more H/M/L, or must have, etc…Releases
  • An alternative to a backlogAllows you to see the big picture in your backlogBetter than a ‘flat’ backlog
  • Allows you to “Walk the map”A nice way to make sure you haven’t missed anythingBring in different users to walk through their scenarios.
  • Visualize building the important things firstbuilding a complete system firstIt isn’t about the precision of the model, but about a common understanding of the model
  • We created this in less than 30 minutes. Another 30 minutes it would have been estimated and we’re ready to go.Some in the lean community question whether backlogs (because it is inventory) is waste. When you use a user story map, your backlog now becomes the story of your project – something you look to understand the model as a whole. Plus, since you can create one so fast with this technique, it is hard to argue that it is wasteful.
  • We’re going to create a second map with some more detail and more relevance to software. You can move your old map out of the way.Practice – build your own MS Outlook competitor.Step 1: Generate tasksSplit up into groups of 3 to 5As individuals, think about your usage of your favourite e-mail toolWrite down each thing you do on one post-it note. Have everyone in your group use the same colour post-it for this exercise.Step 2: Read them outHave each person read their post-its out loud to the group and then place them in the middle of the table so that you can see all the post-its at once.Comments: Notice the similarities between your post-its and other peoples. Notice also that if you missed a few things, somebody else came up with the missing tasks. You probably all have things like “Send Email”, “Read Email”, “View Calendar”, “Create Contact”, etc.Again, all starting with verbs.Step 3: GroupNow as a group, and without talking, move the post-its that are similar to each other closer to each other, and those that are not similar, move them farther apart. Those that are exact duplicates you can eliminate or put on top of each other.Step 4: Name the groupsYou should now have some distinct groups. As a group again, start labeling these groups with a different colour post-it. Just put the group name on top of the grouping.Step 5: Now re-arrange your groups in order of time from left to right. Put the group post-it at the top and the tasks below the group, but still in order left to right.Overall comments:Your second user story map!Reminder:The groups are called “User Activities” – this is the backbone of your applicationThe items below are called “User Tasks” – this is the walking skeleton of your applicationNotice how fast you were able to create a reasonable outline for your whole application?Keep this map as we will be adding to it shortly. At this point we have no user stories.
  • In your user story map you should probably have a “Compose Email” or “Create Email” user task under the “Email Management” user activity or something similar. (if not, then what kind of e-mail have you been using?)We’re going to create the stories that go under that User Activity.Step 1: Generate tasksSplit up into groups of 3 to 5As individuals, think about creating an e-mail and write one user story (just the title, don’t worry about the rest) on each post-it. Slice each story thinly.Again, have everyone in your group use the same colour post-it for this exercise but use a different colour than the ones you have used so far.Step 2: Read them outHave each person read their post-its out loud to the group and then place them in the middle of the table so that you can see all the post-its at once.Again:Notice the similarities between your post-its and other peoples. Notice also that if you missed a few things, somebody else came up with the missing tasks. Step 3: GroupNow as a group, and without talking, move the post-its that are similar to each other closer to each other, and those that are not similar, move them farther apart. Those that are exact duplicates you can eliminate or put on top of each other.Step 4: PrioritizeInstead of naming our groups, this time we are just going to prioritize them top to bottom. The ones at the top will be created first and the others second.Think about the order that each piece would have to be built (again, reminder of the I in INVEST)If you are disagreeing about any story, feel free to split it again if you can.You can do this out loud.Overall comments:Again, notice how fast you were able to create a reasonable outline for your whole application? Has requirements gathering ever been this fast for you?You would repeat this for each activity and there are other requirements facilitation techniques to use like personas, scenarios, UX Design Studio, etc. These models are all inclusive models. They involve everyone and take advantage of all ideas without resorting to the trouble that is brainstorming or even writing down the correct interview questions in order to generate your high level scope and requirements.Do this with your customer!!!
  • Notice how if we turn this upside down it looks suspiciously like a user story map?
  • Notice how if we turn this upside down it looks suspiciously like a user story map?
  • Notice the similarities to Prune the Product Tree - #InnovationGames – the
  • Allows you to validate your architecture and solution early Allows users to see and test the whole application early Minimizes the affects of change to a feature Ensures important stories are built first Elicits improved feedback on the whole application early Allows you to deliver your application early Discourages "gold plating" It partners nicely with user story mapping (turn the diagram upside down and you have your story map)
  • Allows you to validate your architecture and solution early Allows users to see and test the whole application early Minimizes the affects of change to a feature Ensures important stories are built first Elicits improved feedback on the whole application early Allows you to deliver your application early Discourages "gold plating" It partners nicely with user story mapping (turn the diagram upside down and you have your story map)
  • As a group, choose 2 of the outcomesStep 1: Generate learnings.As individuals, write down 3 things you learned for each of the learning outcomes. One on each post-itStep 2: Read them outHave each person read their post-its out loud to the group and then place them in the middle of the table so that you can see all the post-its at once.Step 3: GroupNow as a group, and without talking, move the post-its that are similar to each other closer to each other, and those that are not similar, move them farther apart. Those that are exact duplicates you can eliminate or put on top of each other.Step 4: Name the groupsYou should now have some distinct groups. As a group again, start labeling these groups with a different colour post-it. Just put the group name on top of the grouping.Step 5: Put them up.Have one person in your group read the ‘group’ post-its and post them on the board with the individual post-its underneath.Your 3rd user story map!
  • User Story Mapping

    1. 1. User Story Mapping– Rounding out your backlogSteve Rogalsky @srogalsky winnipegagilist.blogspot.com
    2. 2. Agree / Disagree / Not SureCredit: Monty Python Argument Clinic
    3. 3. Group Group GroupTask Task Task Task Task Task
    4. 4. About Me• Agilist and team member at Protegra in Winnipeg – (It says “Application Architect” on my business card)• A Founder of Winnipeg Agile User Group http://www.agilewinnipeg.com• Twitter: @srogalsky• http://winnipegagilist.blogspot.com
    5. 5. Learning Outcomes User User Story Stories Mapping What is a User How to Why Iterative vs. User Story create bother? Incremental Story Slicing them?
    6. 6. What User Stories are notTasks • Create user table • Create password encryption service • Create login service • Create CSS • Create page template • Add login button
    7. 7. What User Stories are notBig* • Login page • “the web site” • 160 hours of effort* Exception – stories that are in the distance can be big. These stories willshrink in size and grow in detail as they get closer to being implemented.
    8. 8. What User Stories are notUse cases • Login Use Case – Happy path: • Login w/ valid pwd – Alternate Paths: • Login w/ invalid pwd • Forgot password • Reset password • Password rules A use case will often contain many user stories
    9. 9. What User Stories are notA document • Login.docx • “this document, by its very size, ensures that it will never be read.” – Sir Winston Churchill
    10. 10. What User Stories are…A small piece of • As a user, I want tofunctionality that login with myprovides some value to password, so that Ia user can gain access to the site. “A place holder for a conversation.”
    11. 11. What User Stories are…I Independent *N Negotiable (can be prioritized)V Valuable (to a user)E EstimableS SmallT Testable
    12. 12. FormatsBy the book:As a [role], As a [mom]I want to I want to[some action], [login with my pwd]so that so that[goal] [I can gain access to the site]
    13. 13. Formats As aWho [mom] I want toWhat [login with my pwd] so thatWhy [I can gain access to the site]The “by the book” format is great for learning, but at its core, it is just Who/What/Why
    14. 14. FormatsTitle; Sentence; • Title: Login w/ pwdAcceptance Tests • Login w/ password and show welcome page • Test upper, lower, numbers, special characters, accents, spaces • Test mandatory lengths • Test invalid pwds
    15. 15. FormatsLean Startup: Feature Feature [X] [show sad face before logging off] will move Metric will move Metric [Y] [time spent logged into the site]
    16. 16. Take the Blue cards and re-sort them
    17. 17. Whyslice?User StorySlices gohere:
    18. 18. How not to Slice?Tasks • Create user table • Create password encryption service • Create login service • Create CSS • Create page template • Add login button
    19. 19. How to Slice?• By screen (for basic screens • By priority only) • By applying the INVEST• By button model• By group of fields • By acceptance criteria• By workflow step • By option• Optional workflow steps • By role• Validation • By Subjective quality• Error handling * (never by objective• Admin functions (maintaining quality: always be drop downs, etc) defect free) • By value
    20. 20. Other Tips• Keep them as stories!• Slice them small when needed, but don’t get silly• Slice any time• When you are fighting over your planning poker estimates – slice away.• Slice more liberally if the story is higher priority
    21. 21. Take the Purple cards andre-sort them
    22. 22. User ActivitiesUser TasksUser Stories
    23. 23. Time Priorities Releases
    24. 24. How to do it?1. Divide into groups of 3-5 people2. Start by gathering “things people do” – the tasks. Write themdown individually and then read them aloud to your group – Likely they start with a verb. – These are high level user stories called “Tasks” (walking skeleton) – This forms your story map skeleton3. Group them silently (simply because it is faster)4. Name the groups and lay them out in order of time (left toright) – These are called “User Activities” (backbone)5. Add more detailed user stories below the main tasks6. Prioritize top to bottom7. Break into releases
    25. 25. How to do it?smithcdau (@smithcdau)11-08-11 2:12 PMRT @shanehastie: @jeffpatton if youre arguingabout sequence it probably means it doesntmatter. #Agile2011 #yam
    26. 26. Take the Green cards and re-sort them
    27. 27. Iterative1 2 3 4 5 Incremental Credit: Jeff Patton
    28. 28. ,
    29. 29. Iterative Advantages• Validate your architecture and solution early• See and test the whole application early• Encourages important stories to be built first
    30. 30. Iterative Advantages• Elicits improved feedback on the whole application early• Deliver your application early as early as possible• Discourages "gold plating"• Helps contain scope
    31. 31. Iterative Disadvantages• Your code and design has to be change tolerant• You have to be proficient at slicing your user stories• You wont know the final solution at the beginning of the project
    32. 32. Take the Pink cards and re-sort them
    33. 33. Our Final MapGroup Group GroupTask Task Task Task Task Task
    34. 34. THANKS! Questions?Contact Infosteve.rogalsky@protegra.com @srogalsky winnipegagilist.blogspot.comhttp://www.slideshare.net/SteveRogalsky/user-story-mapping-8289080

    ×