Topic Maps
for the Three
Kingdoms
The Many
Applications of
Topic Maps
AToMS, Seoul, June 2006
Steve Pepper
Chief Strategy ...
http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS
What I Will Talk About
• What are the Three Kingdoms?
• Advantages of Topic Maps
...
http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS
The Three Kingdoms
1. Silla, Goguryeo, Paekche:
the Three Kingdoms of early Korea...
http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS
The Three Kingdoms
1. Silla, Goguryeo, Paekche:
the Three Kingdoms of early Korea...
http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS
Key Advantages of Topic Maps
• Topic Maps provides a subject-centric,
associative...
http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS
Semantic
Indexing
http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS
Semantic indexing
• We are drowning in an information tsunami
– Everyone faces th...
http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS
Taxonomy Management
• Addresses the problem of managing unstructured content
– So...
http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS
• Norwegian Government Administration Services
metadata server
– Manages metadata...
http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS
Semantic portals
• Basic principals
– Site structure is defined as a topic map
– ...
http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS
Portals Powered by Topic Maps
• Information
Architecture
for web
applications
• U...
http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS
Many Such Portals in Norway
• One example:
The Works of Henrik Ibsen
• Famous Nor...
http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS
http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS
For General Users and Specialists
XML
Navigasjon og
aggregert informasjon
Assosia...
http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS
sent year published year
mentions
sent to
mentions
sent from
Place
description
Ro...
http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS
sent year published year
mentions
sent to
mentions
sent from
Rome
Letter to
Bjørn...
Catilina (1850)
Catilina er utgitt i to ganger, først i 1850, og senere i en bearbeidet
versjon i 1875. Forskjellene mello...
Bjørnson, Bjørnstjerne Martinius
1832-1910, norsk forfatter
Prestesønn. Født i Kvikne (nå Tynset), Hedmark og flyttet 1837...
http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS
Pansori Web Site
• Created by INEK
– Korean folk music
• Subject of a
usability s...
http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS
Enterprise
Information
Integration
http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS
Information integration
• Information is often
spread across
multiple systems
• U...
http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS
EII: Why Topic Maps are Ideal
• Very flexible data model
– Hierarchical (XML), re...
http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS Source repository
T
Elmer
Bug database
C++ class
T
Bug
T
Requirement
caused by
br...
http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS
Knowledge
Management
http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS
Knowledge Management / eLearning
• Every organization faces the challenge of mana...
http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS
Business Process Modelling
• Managing business process models
– The flexibility o...
http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS
Product Configuration
• Using topic maps to manage complex product configuration
...
http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS
Business Rules Management
• Managing guidance rules for security classification
–...
http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS
IT Asset Management
• Management of IT assets at University of Oslo
– Servers, cl...
http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS
Asset Management: Manufacturing
• US Department of Energy uses
Topic Maps to “map...
http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS
Intelligence Agencies – Lots of Data
• Everything is
interconnected...
• The prob...
http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS
Merging Knowledge Models
USS
CHEYENNE
(SSN 773)
Currently
anchored
in
Role: Vesse...
http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS
Merging Knowledge Models
• Knowledge models are merged
from separate applications...
http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS
Tying All the Data Together
Knowledge Layer
<data>
<country>
</country>
. . .
</d...
http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS
eLearning
Applications
http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS
eLearning applications
• Knowledge is at the core of eLearning
– The acquisition ...
http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS
Competency
goals
GradeTopic Individual
goals
http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS
http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS
Subject (with code)
Integration with Course Management Systems
via the subject (h...
http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS
Integration with portals offering career advice
or information about further educ...
http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS
Vilbli.no
Udir.no
Skolenettet.no
You name it...
Pupils
learning platform
Local cu...
http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS
E-learning
• Topic maps are associative
knowledge structures
– They reflect how p...
http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS
Some Benefits of BrainBank
• Enables pupils to
– Capture the essence of their new...
http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS
A National Knowledge Base
• Our experience from Norway
– As more Government Agenc...
http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS
The National Knowledge Base
SNL
SNL
SNL
SNL
Skien
kom-
mune
Cap
Lex
Cap
Lex
NBL
H...
http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS
Conclusion
• Topic Maps can be used for many different
purposes in industry, publ...
http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS
Topic Maps and the Semantic Web
• Some people think RDF/OWL and Topic Maps are co...
http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS
Similar in Many Ways
• Both “extend” XML into the realm of semantics
• Both allow...
http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS
The Most Crucial Differences
• RDF/OWL is for machines;
Topic Maps is for humans....
http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS
RDF or Topic Maps: Some Rules of Thumb
• Do you simply want to encode document me...
http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS
The RDF/TM Task Force
• A W3C task force supported by the ISO Topic Maps group
– ...
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Topic Maps for the Three Kingdoms: The Many Applications of Topic Maps

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Keynote given at the first Asian Topic Maps Summit in Seoul, Korea in June 2006. The emphasis is on application areas for Topic Maps og the idea of a National Knowledge Base.

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  • Page that represents the play ”Catilina”, with navigation paths to the content (acts 1 to 4), background information, related subjects (letters, people, events taking place in the year of publication – 1850), etc.
  • Page that represents the person Bjørnson, a contemporary, friend (and rival) of Ibsen – and the father of Ibsen’s daughter-in-law. Contains pointers to more information about Bjørnson, correspondence with Ibsen, subjects mentioned in the correspondence, etc.
  • The Pansori web site is an demo example of a semantic portal in Korea, developed by INEK. It is the subject of an interesting usability study which shows that it is much easier for users to find information on a Topic Maps web site than a ”traditional” web site.
  • Enterprise information exists in many different systems These system have grown up over the course of many years They use different schemas and terminology... But they all ”talk about” the same things (persons, departments, products, parts, customers, etc.) How to integrate them? Enterprise Application Integration tries to integrate the applications (systems) A better approach is to integrate the information using international standards Topic Maps can do the job!
  • Using Topic Maps, knowledge can be merged (or ”federated”) across different agencies.
  • The topic map allows data in different systems to be merged and then reused by different applications.
  • The Norwegian Department of Education has recently redesigned the national curriculum for schools. The national curriculum consists of a set of competency goals organized by subject and grade and consisting of individual goals with short descriptions. This curriculum is structured as a topic map. This opens up tremendous potential for making education fairer and more efficient...
  • (lysbildeovergang)
  • Fagkoden knyttes til læreplanen
  • Eksempel: Vilbli.no henter ”Fag” fra LKT
  • The National Curriculum topic map becomes the hub that connects all kinds of information relating to education.
  • Topic Maps for the Three Kingdoms: The Many Applications of Topic Maps

    1. 1. Topic Maps for the Three Kingdoms The Many Applications of Topic Maps AToMS, Seoul, June 2006 Steve Pepper Chief Strategy Officer, Ontopia Convenor, SC34/WG3 Editor, XML Topic Maps <pepper@ontopia.net>
    2. 2. http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS What I Will Talk About • What are the Three Kingdoms? • Advantages of Topic Maps • Major Application Areas of Topic Maps – Semantic Indexing – Information Integration – Knowledge Management & eLearning • National Knowledge Base for Korea • (Topic Maps and the Semantic Web) • Conclusion
    3. 3. http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS The Three Kingdoms 1. Silla, Goguryeo, Paekche: the Three Kingdoms of early Korean history – Topic Maps have something to offer for everyone in Korea: A National Knowledge Base for Korea would be a wonderful thing 2. Industry, Public Sector, Education & Research – Topic Maps can be applied across every sector) 3. Semantic Indexing, Information Integration, Knowledge Management/eLearning – Topic Maps cover a wide variety of application areas 4. Norway, Netherlands, and ... USA – Well, USA is not a kingdom, but it could have been…
    4. 4. http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS The Three Kingdoms 1. Silla, Goguryeo, Paekche: the Three Kingdoms of early Korean history – Topic Maps have something to offer for everyone in Korea: A National Knowledge Base for Korea would be a wonderful thing 2. Industry, Public Sector, Education & Research – Topic Maps can be applied across every sector) 3. Semantic Indexing, Information Integration, Knowledge Management/eLearning – Topic Maps cover a wide variety of application areas 4. Norway, Netherlands, and ... USA – Well, USA is not a kingdom, but it could have been…
    5. 5. http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS Key Advantages of Topic Maps • Topic Maps provides a subject-centric, associative model for representing knowledge • The basic ideas are not new – They are familiar from library science, cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence, etc. • But the key advantages are new – ISO standard – vendor independence, longevity – Formal data model – machine processable – Interchange syntax – use across multiple systems • Let’s see how to apply these advantages...
    6. 6. http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS Semantic Indexing
    7. 7. http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS Semantic indexing • We are drowning in an information tsunami – Everyone faces the same problem: How to find the information • Many people believe search engines are the solution... – ...but they only provide partial alleviation • Topic Maps provides a better solution – Subject-based organization (everything organized around topics) – Associative model (very intuitive navigation) – Structured queries (adds more power to full-text search) • Semantic indexing applications – Taxonomy management – Metadata management – Semantic portals
    8. 8. http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS Taxonomy Management • Addresses the problem of managing unstructured content – Solution is to organized by subject –that’s how users search – Many companies understand need to use taxonomies • A taxonomy is a simple form of topic map – Topic Maps provides subject-based organization de-luxe • Using Topic Maps offers many benefits: – Associative model allows for evolution beyond simple hierarchies – Taxonomy can also be used as a thesaurus, a glossary or an index • This capability can also be added to Content Management Systems – (see other presentations later today)
    9. 9. http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS • Norwegian Government Administration Services metadata server – Manages metadata for official publications using Topic Maps – Ensures consistency – Used in the central public information portal (ODIN) • The system provides – Authoring system for editors – Vocabulary Editor – Metadata Export – Web Services – Unique identifiers for documents Metadata Management ODIN Lovdata Exported subjects ASCII-export Metadata server MUP Indexes Engine ODIN Meta- data … Search engine Logistics
    10. 10. http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS Semantic portals • Basic principals – Site structure is defined as a topic map – The topic map ontology IS the Information Architecture – Each page represents a topic (i.e., subject-centric) – User-friendly navigation paths defined by associations – Topics used to classify content (replaces hierarchical classification) • Portals can be connected using remote access protocols to exchange topic map fragments – Can evolve over time into a Knowledge Management solution
    11. 11. http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS Portals Powered by Topic Maps • Information Architecture for web applications • Used for web sites, portals, corporate intranets, etc. ClientClient Portlet Portlet Portlet Portlet Context Topic Map Portlet Subsystem Subsystem Subsystem Portlet
    12. 12. http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS Many Such Portals in Norway • One example: The Works of Henrik Ibsen • Famous Norwegian dramatist – Wrote Peer Gynt, Hedda Gabler, A Doll’s House, etc. – A national icon for Norway – Died 1906: This year is 100 year anniversary • 8-year project to digitize everything he wrote (plays, letters, articles, etc.) • Semantic indexing for the online version is based on Topic Maps
    13. 13. http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS
    14. 14. http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS For General Users and Specialists XML Navigasjon og aggregert informasjon Assosiativ navigasjon, tidslinje, indeks over verk, personer, steder, m.v. Tekstmateriale – verk, varianter og kommentarer Hovedtekster, noter og kommentarer, varianter og variantsammenligningXML-databasen Emnekart Kunnskapslag Allmen interesse, verdifullt for alle brukere Vitenskapelig orientert Høy verdi for forskere Delvis utilgjengelig for andre XML Navigasjon og aggregert informasjon Assosiativ navigasjon, tidslinje, indeks over verk, personer, steder, m.v. Tekstmateriale – verk, varianter og kommentarer Hovedtekster, noter og kommentarer, varianter og variantsammenligningXML-databasen Emnekart Kunnskapslag Allmen interesse, verdifullt for alle brukere Vitenskapelig orientert Høy verdi for forskere Delvis utilgjengelig for andre Knowledge layer General interest Valuable for all users Scientific orientation High value for researchers Partly closed for others Navigation and aggregated information Associative navigation, timeline, index of works, people, places, etc. Text material – works, variants, commentaries Main texts, letters, notes, commentaries, variants and comparative material Topic Map XML database
    15. 15. http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS sent year published year mentions sent to mentions sent from Place description Rome Letter Letter to Bjørnson Person description Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson Person description Clemens Petersen Work Peer Gynt Rome Letter to Bjørnson Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson Clemens Petersen Peer Gynt Year 1867
    16. 16. http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS sent year published year mentions sent to mentions sent from Rome Letter to Bjørnson Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson Clemens Petersen Peer Gynt Year 1867
    17. 17. Catilina (1850) Catilina er utgitt i to ganger, først i 1850, og senere i en bearbeidet versjon i 1875. Forskjellene mellom de to tekstene er betydelige, og de regnes derfor som to separate verk. Ibsens brev om Catilina Catilina omtales i flere av Ibsens brev: • Brev til Ole Carelius Schulerud (15.10.1849) • Brev til Ole Carelius Schulerud (05.01.1850) • Brev til Kong Karl 15. (10.03.1863) • Brev til Peter Hansen (28.10.1870) Les Catilina (1850) Dette er en forsiktig omarbeidet versjon av grunnteksten med rettelser og noter fra prosjektets tekstforskere. • Første akt • Annen akt • Tredje akt • Fjerde akt Ibsen skrev også en senere versjon av Catilina: Gå til Catilina (1875) Tekstarkiv Følg tekstutviklingen til Catilina: • 5 manuskripter • 6 utgaver • Faksimiler • Sammenligning av tekstkilder Gå til tekstarkivet Kommentarer og innledning Bakgrunn og informasjon om Catilina fra prosjektets tekstforskere: • Bakgrunn • Tilblivelse • Utgivelse • Oppførelse • Tekstkritisk redegjørelse • Manuskriptbeskrivelse • Litteraturliste • Tillegg Fra uroppførelsen av Catilina ved slik og slik teater, sted i 1851. Bildearkivet inneholder 32 bilder tilknyttet Catilina (1850): Gå til bildearkivet Hva skjedde i 1850 Geografi • Kristiania Dikt • I natten • Guldharpen • Bjergmanden (totalt 12 dikt) Brev • Til kong Oscar 1. (12.07.1850) • Til Clara Ebbell (nyttår 1850/51) • Til Cathrine Martini (12.04.1850) (totalt 23 brev) Se alt som skjedde i 1850
    18. 18. Bjørnson, Bjørnstjerne Martinius 1832-1910, norsk forfatter Prestesønn. Født i Kvikne (nå Tynset), Hedmark og flyttet 1837 til Nesset sogn i Romsdal, der familien bodde til 1853, da faren overtok Søgne prestekall. Etter skoleår i Molde reiste han 1850 til Kristiania. Elev på "Heltberg Studentfabrikk," der han møtte Ibsen, Lie og Vinje. 1852 examen artium med karakteren non. Vinteren 1852-53 huslærer for sine søsken hjemme på Nesset. Høsten 1853 leste han til anneneksamen, men avbrøt studiet og bestemte seg for å bli dikter. Prestesønn. Les mer om Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson ... Ibsens omtaler av Bjørnson Bjørnson omtales i flere tekster: • Brev til bernhard dunker 22. juni 1864 • Brev til bernhard dunker 7. mars 1864 • Brev til christian tønsberg 11. november 1866 • Brev til clemens petersen 10. august 1863 • Brev til den gyldendalske boghandel 5. mars 1871 • Brev til det kongelige norske videnskabers selskab 25. mars 1865 • Brev til edvard grieg 24. august 1866 • Brev til frederik hegel 11. april 1870 • Brev til frederik hegel 12. februar 1870 • Brev til clemens petersen 10. august 1863 • Brev til den gyldendalske boghandel 5. mars 1871 Brev fra Ibsen Mottok følgende brev fra Ibsen: • Brev til Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson (15.10.1854) • Brev til Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson (15.10.1855) • Brev til Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson (15.10.1856) • Brev til Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson (15.10.1857) • Brev til Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson (15.10.1858) Brevenes innhold Ibsen tar opp en rekke ulike emner i sine brev til Bjørnson: Personer • Bjørnson, Karoline (8) • Dunker, Bernhard (5) • Ibsen, Susanna (4) Vise alle ... Steder • Christiania Theater (7) • Norge (5) • Stortinget (4) Vise alle ...
    19. 19. http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS Pansori Web Site • Created by INEK – Korean folk music • Subject of a usability study 0 5 0 1 0 0 1 5 0 2 0 0 2 5 0 3 0 0 T 1 T 2 T 3 T 4 T 5 T 6 U s e r Q u e ry M e a n C P R S T M P R S www.inek.co.kr
    20. 20. http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS Enterprise Information Integration
    21. 21. http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS Information integration • Information is often spread across multiple systems • Use Topic Maps to provide a single point of access to all information • You can avoid costly migration and re-engineering
    22. 22. http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS EII: Why Topic Maps are Ideal • Very flexible data model – Hierarchical (XML), relational (RDBMS), associative (RDF) data can be easily mapped to topic maps • Topic maps can be merged – You can generate topic maps from structured data – You can classify unstructured content topic map taxonomy – And then you can merge the topic maps to provide a unified view • Topic maps can be filtered – You can create personalized views of the unified information • Advantages: – Consolidated access to all related information – Does not require migration of existing content – Standards-based
    23. 23. http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS Source repository T Elmer Bug database C++ class T Bug T Requirement caused by breaks Requirements DB Example: Starbase Elmer • Project is to build a server for integrating software information • Multiple applications hold related data – Unified topic map layer on top allows searching across repositories – Provides data integration without changing the underlying applications • Access to information provided through a portal – Straightforward navigation interface – Structured queries • Topic map drives integration with MS Office Smarttags – Elmer terms are highlighted – Appear as links back into the portal
    24. 24. http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS Knowledge Management
    25. 25. http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS Knowledge Management / eLearning • Every organization faces the challenge of managing knowledge – Capturing and sharing knowledge in people’s heads • Why are Topic Maps ideal for this? – Because the model captures knowledge – Because topic maps can be merged – And because it is an ISO standard • Some examples (there are many more) – Business process management – Product configuration – Business rules management – IT asset management – Manufacturing asset management – Intelligence gathering and analysis
    26. 26. http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS Business Process Modelling • Managing business process models – The flexibility of the Topic Maps model allows arbitrary relationships to be captured easily • Processes are modelled in terms of – The steps involved, their preconditions, their successors, etc • Can be related through – Composition (one process is part of another), – Sequencing (one process is followed by another), – Specialization (one process is a special case of a more general process)
    27. 27. http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS Product Configuration • Using topic maps to manage complex product configuration for mobile phones – Products belong to families – Features belong to products or product families – Features are grouped in feature sets – Dependencies between features; different geographic applicability • Network of dependencies is already quite complex – Versioning makes it much worse – Managing all this data is not easy • Dependencies modelled in a topic map – Product configuration engineers use this to configure products using a very user-friendly interface • Allows integration with product documentation Features Product families Products System data Versioning
    28. 28. http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS Business Rules Management • Managing guidance rules for security classification – Information about the production of nuclear weapons – Subject to 1,000s of rules published in 100s of documents – Most documents are derived from more general documents • This complex web of relationships is captured in a topic map – Concepts are connected to if-then-else rules – This constitutes a knowledge base • Inference engine automatically – classifies information – redacts information Guidance topic Parent topic Child topic Master topic Derived topic Concept Responsible person Workflow state
    29. 29. http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS IT Asset Management • Management of IT assets at University of Oslo – Servers, clusters, databases, etc described in a TM • This is used to answer questions like – Service X is down, who do I call? – If I take Y down, what else goes? – If operating system Z is upgraded, what apps are affected? • System driven by composite topic map – Partly autogenerated – Partly handcoded XTM RDBMS backend usit.ltm (handcoded) oracle.ltm (generated) • Syntax control • OKS schema validation • Versioning with CVS CVS Topic Map Engine Navigator framework OKS API UIOTM FW Houdini Whitney
    30. 30. http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS Asset Management: Manufacturing • US Department of Energy uses Topic Maps to “map” its production facilities for nuclear weapons • The purpose is to get an overview of – equipment, – processes, – materials required, – parts already built, – etc. • Cannot show you a screen shot – Otherwise I will be shot 
    31. 31. http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS Intelligence Agencies – Lots of Data • Everything is interconnected... • The problem for intelligence agencies is to find, record and utilize the connections Islamic Salvation Foundation July 22, 2004 in Baghdad, Iraq Iraq Role: Country Base of Operations for Al Qaeda Role: Terrorist Organization Location of Method of Attack Beheading
    32. 32. http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS Merging Knowledge Models USS CHEYENNE (SSN 773) Currently anchored in Role: Vessel Knowledge maintained by ONI Has active agents of Lebanon Role: Country Hamas Role: Terrorist Group Knowledge Maintained by another intelligence organization Beirut Role: City Located In Beirut Role: City
    33. 33. http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS Merging Knowledge Models • Knowledge models are merged from separate applications, between departments, or between organizations. • Knowledge is maintained by the experts closest to it, but merged freely to create models beyond the expertise of a single group. • Knowledge-driven applications are enhanced as new models are merged into the solution.
    34. 34. http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS Tying All the Data Together Knowledge Layer <data> <country> </country> . . . </data> Weapons database Vessel Specification Documents HTML Documents portal pda custom app web Software Code
    35. 35. http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS eLearning Applications
    36. 36. http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS eLearning applications • Knowledge is at the core of eLearning – The acquisition of knowledge by humans • Topic Maps provides an excellent model • It can be used to – Capture what the pupil has learned – Structure eLearning systems – Organize school and university curricula – Tie all of this together
    37. 37. http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS Competency goals GradeTopic Individual goals
    38. 38. http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS
    39. 39. http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS Subject (with code) Integration with Course Management Systems via the subject (here: “Naturfag” = “Science”)
    40. 40. http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS Integration with portals offering career advice or information about further education courses
    41. 41. http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS Vilbli.no Udir.no Skolenettet.no You name it... Pupils learning platform Local curricula Integrating the Education System
    42. 42. http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS E-learning • Topic maps are associative knowledge structures – They reflect how people acquire and retain knowledge • BrainBank is used by students to describe what they have learned – Initial users are 11-13 year olds who have no idea what a topic map is… – They capture the key concepts, name them, describe them, and associate them with others
    43. 43. http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS Some Benefits of BrainBank • Enables pupils to – Capture the essence of their new knowledge, – Describe what they have learned, – Keep track of their knowledge, and – Lets the teacher help them • Encourages a new way of learning – Pupils construct knowledge by “fitting” it together with existing knowledge – This is like adding a topic to a topic map and associating it with pre- existing topics
    44. 44. http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS A National Knowledge Base • Our experience from Norway – As more Government Agencies adopt Topic Maps, a distributed National Knowledge Base starts to emerge • Topic Maps can be merged on-the-fly so that knowledge is connected across agencies • Published Subjects can be the infrastructure on which a National Knowledge Base is built – A Semantic Superhighway of unique topic identifiers – Foundation for Topic Maps and Semantic Web
    45. 45. http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS The National Knowledge Base SNL SNL SNL SNL Skien kom- mune Cap Lex Cap Lex NBL Henrik Ibsen Hedda Gabler Skien Et dukkehjem A doll’s house wrote born in wrote “real world” topic map information knowledge Other Topic Maps can be merged in Ibsen- senter Ibsen- senter Ibsen- senter Ibsen- senter Ibsen- senter Ibsen- senter Et dukkehjem HelmerHelmer Dr. RankDr. Rank Mrs. LindeMrs. Linde KrogstadKrogstad NoraNora
    46. 46. http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS Conclusion • Topic Maps can be used for many different purposes in industry, public sector, and academia – The principal applications are in semantic indexing, information integration, knowledge management, and e- learning – The benefits can be very great • With a carefully planned strategy, Topic Maps can lead to the emergence of a National Knowledge Base in the Three Kingdoms
    47. 47. http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS Topic Maps and the Semantic Web • Some people think RDF/OWL and Topic Maps are competitors – (RDF/OWL are languages of the Semantic Web) • Semantic Web gets much more publicity – Partly because the W3C can bask in the glamour of the Web – Partly because RDF and OWL appeal more to academics • Why the perceived competition with Topic Maps? – Partly because RDF/OWL and TMs have a number of similarities – Partly because they stem from rival organizations (W3C and ISO) – Partly because there are a few bigots (in each camp) – Mostly because people do not fully understand the difference
    48. 48. http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS Similar in Many Ways • Both “extend” XML into the realm of semantics • Both allow assertions to be made about subjects in the outside world • Both define abstract, associative (graph-based) models • Both are intensely concerned with “identity” • Both allow some measure of inferencing or reasoning • Both have XML-based interchange syntaxes • Both have constraint languages and query languages • ... • But they are also different in some crucial respects…
    49. 49. http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS The Most Crucial Differences • RDF/OWL is for machines; Topic Maps is for humans. • RDF/OWL is optimized for inferencing; Topic Maps is optimized for findability. • RDF/OWL is based on formal logic; Topic Maps is not based on formal logic. • RDF/OWL is to mathematics as Topic Maps is to language.
    50. 50. http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS RDF or Topic Maps: Some Rules of Thumb • Do you simply want to encode document metadata? – RDF is ideal and you won’t need OWL • Do you want to achieve subject-based classification of content? – Topic Maps combines flexibility and user-friendliness • Do you want both metadata and subject-based classification? – Go straight for Topic Maps, because it also supports metadata • Do you want to develop agent-based applications? – Use RDF/OWL; if you already have Topic Maps, it’s a good start • Whatever you choose, know that you can move your data between Topic Maps and RDF, thanks to the RDFTM work…
    51. 51. http://www.ontopia.net/© 2006 Ontopia AS The RDF/TM Task Force • A W3C task force supported by the ISO Topic Maps group – Chartered to address RDF/Topic Maps interoperability – Working within the Semantic Web Activity of the W3C • Survey of RDF/Topic Maps Interoperability Proposals – http://www.w3.org/TR/rdftm-survey/ • Guidelines for RDF/Topic Maps Interoperability – http://www.ontopia.net/work/guidelines.html (draft) • Focus on data interoperability: – “The primary goal of these Guidelines is to enable data to be translated from one form to the other without unacceptable loss of information or corruption of the semantics. Further goals are to be able to query the results of a translation in terms of the target model and to share vocabularies across the two paradigms.”

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