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My Friends Can Call me "A Crip"-Do They?


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Disability Studies Keynote: Pacific Rim International Conf. on Disability & Diversity, 5/20/2014, Honolulu, HI

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My Friends Can Call me "A Crip"-Do They?

  1. 1. My Friends Can Call Me “A Crip”-Do They?: A Personal Perspective/Journey through Disability Studies-Past, Present, and Future Steven E. Brown, Ph.D. Center on Disability Studies University of Hawaii May 2014
  2. 2. “Crip: /krip/: person with a disability” (Palacios, 2013)
  3. 3. “Experience with disability is a more ready source of knowledge about the disability to those who have it than to those who do not.” (tenBroek, 1966, p. 917).
  4. 4. “For the Crime of Being Different” “For the crime of being different for the crime of being slow. For the crime of not quite fitting in, we sentence you to go. (Moyer, 1988).
  5. 5. “For the Crime of Being Different” For the crime of being different, for the crime of being slow For the crime of not quite fitting in, we sentence you to go Where you will be with others who are also of your kind Far, far away from city lights, out of sight and out of mind. There can be no discussion Will be no appeal You have no right of protest No defense nor free man’s bail and within the institution, and away from prying eyes Drugs and grinding tedium will become a way of life. Through the power of the people and in the wisdom of the State We sentence you to go away and live your star-crossed fate Perhaps in time these walls will fall, these prisons will be shunned But til that time this sentence stands and the State's will shall be done. For the crime of being different, for the crime of being slow For the crime of not quite fitting in, we sentence you to go Where you will be with others who are also of your kind
  6. 6. “People with disabilities have forged a group identity. We share a common history of oppression and a common bond of resilience. We generate art, music, literature, and other expressions of our lives, our culture, infused from our experience of disability. Most importantly, we are proud of ourselves as people with disabilities. We claim our disabilities with pride as part of our identity. We are who we are: we are people with disabilities.” (Brown, 2003, pp. 80-81)
  7. 7. “If disability studies is to survive and grow, it needs to open up to new perspectives, rethink orthodoxies, engage with critiques, and generate new and better accounts of disabled people's lives and the social exclusion they face. Otherwise it will become ghettoised and irrelevant, forfeiting power and influence in the wider world.” (Shakespeare, 2005. p. 146).
  8. 8. “Disabled people are peripheral everywhere.” (Charlton, 2010, p. 195).
  9. 9. “Some people say that language is a trivial concern and the disability rights movement has much more pressing issues to concentrate on. There are indeed many significant disability issues which need our advocacy and energy, and they include language. Language is powerful. It structures our reality and influences our attitudes and behavior. Words can empower, encourage, confuse, discriminate, patronize, denigrate, inflame, start wars and bring about peace. Words can elicit love and manifest hate, and can paint vivid and long lasting pictures.” (Kailes, 2010, p. 4.)
  10. 10. A Lifetime of Change
  11. 11. Perhaps if I had the physique of a football player I would have had the stamina to write this book, but since my then 6’4,” 160 pound (at best) frame did not resemble that of a football player, I could not do the job.
  12. 12. That summer of 1982, I began volunteering everyday at the independent living center and in the fall I successfully applied for one of two newly funded positions. The issue of language immediately became apparent. There was a great debate about the outdatedness of the word “handicapped” and a move instead to use the word activists preferred: “disability.” A debate that advocates with disabilities won by the time the 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act became law.
  13. 13. You may wonder at this point where is disability studies? So did I. I knew about black studies, women’s studies, and ethnic studies. Why not disability studies? I learned of another historian with a disability in Los Angeles by the name of Paul Longmore. He was writing about disability and the media. I also learned about a medical sociologist named Irving Kenneth Zola, who had been instrumental in creating first, in 1982, the Section for the Study of Chronic Illness, Impairment, and Disability and then in 1986, re- forming the group into the Society for Disability Studies. (Society for Disability Studies, no date).
  14. 14. Disability Culture/Pride
  15. 15. Disability Culture/Disability Studies
  16. 16. “Disability Studies reframes the study of disability by focusing on it as a social phenomenon, social construct, metaphor, and culture, utilizing a minority group model. It examines ideas related to disability in all forms of cultural representations and throughout history, and examines the policies and practices of all societies to understand the social, rather than the physical or psychological, determinants of the experience of disability.” (Linton, 1994, p. 46)
  17. 17. PETBIA CHART Developed by Steven E. Brown PUBLIC EXPECTATIONS TRADITIONAL BELIEFS INDIVIDUAL ABILITIES Getting around thehouse Walking (unlessspeaking of ababy or an elderly person) Walking, crawling, rolling, wheelchair, scooter Dressing & Grooming Hands, spouses Hands, feet, arms, legs, mouth, spouses, adaptiveequipment Preparing Meals & Eating Mouth, feet, and hands (unlessspeaking of therich who can afford to pay someoneelseto do it) Mouth, hands, feet, arms, adaptive equipment, Toileting/ Bathing / Showering Hands(unlessspeaking of therich who can afford to pay someoneelseto assist) Hands, arms, legs, feet, reachers, shower chairs, spongebaths, roll-in showers Doing Laundry Hands, legs, drycleaners, laundromats Hands, legs, feet, wheelchairs, drycleaners, laudromats Taking Medications Hands, brain Hands, brain, legs, feet, adapted equipment Using theTelephone Handsand mouth Hands, mouth, feet, arms, head, legs, computer, speaker Getting to PlacesBeyond Walking Distance Car, bus, train, plane, bicycle, motorcycle Car, bus, train, plane, bicycle, motorcycle wheelchair, scooter, Driving Handsand feet Hands, feet, mouth, arms, legs Grocery Shopping Feet, hands Feet, hands, wheelchair, scooter, reachers Managing Money Brain, hands Brain, hands, feet, mouth, legs, arms Doing Housework or Handyman Work Doing it yourself or hiring someoneelseto do it Doing it yourself or hiring someoneelse to do it Childcare Doing it yourself or hiring someoneelseto do it Doing it yourself or hiring someoneelse to do it Sexual Aids Hands, mutual cooperation Hands, feet, arms, legs, mouth, mutual cooperation Sleeping Get into bed Get into bed
  18. 18. What is Disability?
  19. 19. What is Disability according to the CRPD  CRPD doesn’t include a definition of “disability” or “persons with disabilities,” (PWD) but provides guidance, such as:  “disability is an evolving concept  disability results from the interaction between persons with impairments & attitudinal & environmental barriers preventing full & effective participation in society on an equal basis with others (Preamble)  PWD “includes those who have long-term physical, mental, intellectual or sensory impairments which in interaction with various barriers may hinder their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others.” (Article 1)
  20. 20. One Disability Studies definition “how disability is defined and represented in society…a construct that finds its meaning within a social and cultural context…. Disability Studies challenges the way in which disability is constructed in society (Center on Human Policy, Law and Disability Studies, no date).
  21. 21. NEGATIVE STEREOTYPES and some POSITIVE COUNTERPARTS Weakness Strength Sickness Wellness Incapacity Ability Isolation Peer Support Alienation Identity Institutionalization Integration Oppression Resilience Victimization Choice Devaluation Pride Inability to act "normally” New ways of doing things sheet.html
  22. 22. Freedom of Movement: Independent Living History and Philosophy (2000). Written in part with the upcoming millennial year of 2000 in mind, I suggested several desired predictions for the early 21st century. They will be used here for a frame of reference to proceed:
  23. 23. Disabling conditions 1.“More and more disabling conditions will be recognized as important to the independent living movement [the focus of the monograph, however, I believe these statements apply to disability studies as well], such as people with psychiatric disabilities, mental retardation, multiple chemical sensitivities, AIDS, and new conditions that arise” (p. 57).
  24. 24. Intellectual disabilities Autism Strives to be: “queer, trans*, asexual, fat, disability, gender, and sex positive; anti-oppression, anti-imperialism, and anti-racist; and inclusive of, accessible to, and affirming of all bodies/minds” (Autistic Hoya, 2011-2014). Lydia Brown
  25. 25. Aging Death and Dying Charmaine Crockett Journey to the Unknown: A Virtual Talking Circle on Death Dying
  26. 26. Disability Culture 2. “The recognition among more people with disabilities and the mainstream population that there is such a thing as Disability Culture, the movement by people with disabilities to infuse our own experiences into all aspects of everyday life, as most easily seen now in books, movies, music, and other expressions of art” (p. 57).
  27. 27. Identifying Disability Culture When entering “disability culture” Google Yahoo 43,700 April 9, 2008 280,000 59,400 June 23, 2008 347,000 64,600 Sept. 5, 2008 429,000 54,100 Oct. 29, 2008 286,000 49,300 March 21, 2009 384,000 58,500 Sept. 8, 2009 381,000 61,700 Feb. 13, 2010 296,000 43,900 Sept. 16, 2010 41,000,000 161,000 Jan. 22, 2011 39,500,000 12,900,000 Aug. 2, 2011 50,700,000 215,000 Sept. 4, 2011 68,900 104,000 Sept. 10, 2012 93,300 97,800 Sept. 7, 2013 ** 74,800 March 8, 2014 76,300
  28. 28. Disability Culture: Examples Beethoven’s Nightmare: Hiljmnijeta Apuk, Little People of Kosovo: Disability Pride Parade: Loud, Proud and Passionate: Sean Forbes: “Let’s Mambo”: Silver Scorpion:
  29. 29. Using Disability Culture How might knowing about or having examples of disability culture be useful? 1. Explain why people with disabilities think our culture is important. 2. Use examples to demonstrate disability rights, history, talents and resources.
  30. 30. Media 3. “The importance of persuading the mainstream media to understand our issues from our perspective” (p. 57).
  31. 31. Images"disabilit y+culture"%26hl=en%26prmd=imvns%26source =lnms%26tbm=isch%26sa=X%26ei=34NOULDdIc vyyAG- kYGQAg%26ved=0CAoQ_AUoAQ%26biw=1418% 26bih=802
  32. 32. Media dis&dat “The media have real power to define what the public knows about disability and that’s what I research.” Beth Haller Disability Advocacy through Media Training Course
  33. 33. Celebrations 4. “The national organizing for Initiative 2000 to celebrate our lives and victories from the last twenty-five years culminating with events around the country on or about July 26, 2000, the tenth anniversary of the signing of the ADA” (p. 57).
  34. 34. ADA Legacy Project “We envision a world in which all people are accepted and valued for who and how they are: where all are welcomed with respect and given equal opportunities to contribute to the human experience. The mission of The ADA Legacy Project is to honor the contributions of people with disabilities and their allies by: preserving and promoting the history of the disability rights movement; celebrating the impact of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), as well as other related disability rights legislation and accomplishments; and educating the public to create opportunities for inclusion, access, and equal rights for the future. Preservation, celebration, and education: this is how we will honor this historic civil rights legislation and create its legacy: a world in which every citizen is accepted for who they are.”
  35. 35. Disability Studies “In 2015, Disability Studies Quarterly will publish a Special Issue to mark the 25th anniversary of the Americans with Disabilities Act. The ADA has been a watershed in American disability policy, with far-reaching effects on the status of Americans with disabilities, but has fallen far short of the expectations for social transformation with which it was enacted in 1990. The Special Issue will commemorate the ADA’s 25th anniversary with both a look back at how the ADA has affected the disability community and the larger society, and an assessment of future prospects for attaining the ADA’s goals of inclusion and empowerment.” Photo Credit: Courtesy of Tom Olin
  36. 36. Our History 5. “A comprehensive history of our movement and it's importance written by one of us!” (pp. 57-58).
  37. 37. A Disability History of the United States It is not comprehensive, as the author herself declares in her Introduction, however it is an attempt to locate “the experiences of people with disabilities at the center of the American story” (p. xi).
  38. 38. and more…..
  39. 39. Bibliographic data for Slides 39 & 40 Bogdan, R., Elks, M. & Noll, J. A. (2012). Picturing disability: Beggar, freak, citizen, and other photographic rhetoric. Syracuse. Syracuse University. Erevelles, N. (2011). Disability and difference in global contexts: Enabling a transformative body politic. New York: Palgrave Macmillan Kafer, (2013). Feminist, Crip, Queer. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University. Longmore, P. & Umansky, L., eds. (2001). The new disability history: American perspectives. New York: New York University.
  40. 40. Bibliographic data for Slides 39 & 40 (continued) Nielsen, K. E. (2012). A disability history of the United States. Boston. Beacon. Pelka, F. (2012). What we have done: An oral history of the disability rights movement. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts. Samuels, E. J. (2014). Fantasies of identification: Disability, gender, race. New York New York University. Schweik, S. M. (2009). The Ugly Laws: Disability in public. New York: New York University. Smith, P. (ed.). (2013). Both sides of the table: Auto/ethnographies of educators learning and teaching with/in [dis]ability. New York: Peter Lang.
  41. 41. And…..
  42. 42. This is What Disability Looks Like LooksLike/photos_stream
  43. 43. Technology Tammy Duckworth _mullins_prosthetic_aesthetics
  44. 44. Bio-ethics Dr. Gregor Wolbring is an ability studies scholar, biochemist and activist . items/gregor-wolbring/
  45. 45. Social Media, global communication, 24/7 world: one example “The Olimpias is an artists' collective and a performance research series. The collective explores art/life, cross-genre participatory practices, arts for social change and disability culture work.”
  46. 46. Krip Hop krip_hop “Krip Hop is a project featuring people with disabilities inside and outside the music industry, locally and globally.” Leroy Moore
  47. 47. Hip-Hop Hear This! • Hip-hop hear this! introduced Crip-hip-hop Now the industry is “Thumpin” on L.y.f.e’s., debut album, “Southern Comfort” the first Deaf Rapper & Producer Teamed up with another Deaf emcee Watch out for “Sho Me Who Rocs Betta: Chapter 1” by Sho Roc Face on the turntables Scratching with his chin DJ Ectic has no use of his arms & legs Getting the crowd up on their feet His music swimming on sound waves across the ocean and sea From the UK to the US
  48. 48. Hip-Hop Hear This! (continued) “Hop Up On Your Good Foot” C.R.I.S.I.S spits on Officer in Charge from Zambia The rap celebrates people with disabilities With upbeat West African hip-hop lyrics Blues to hip-hop Digging deep down to the roots From 1887 to today “Strut That Thing” sang Cripple Clarence Lofton back in the day “Wheelchair Blues” by late Celeste White Me, The Black Cripple, rhyming about “Identity”
  49. 49. Hip-Hop Hear This! (continued) Dancing to our own drum Peg Leg Joshua Howell did the Peg Leg Stomp and the Beaver Slide Rag in 1926 Peg Leg Sam Jackson did the Peg Leg dance in 1972 Ludacris brought back wheelchair square dancing With a hip-hop flavor in 2005“when I move, you move just like that.. House it with Paul Johnson “In Motion” as the record spins Lost his legs from diabetes But his hands made him the funkiest house dj in the business
  50. 50. Hip-Hop Hear This! (continued) Fezo Da Madone uses his feet To drop nasty beats in the studio “Here I AM”, his latest CD Radical MC with Cerebral Palsy Jive Records made history in the early eighties Signing the first disabled musician Brooklyn’s own Rob Da Noize Temple 35 years in the music industry Now he is stepping out in front with “Peace Thang”
  51. 51. Hip-Hop Hear This! (continued) Hip-Hop hear this! Cripple Connection Production Slapping on a label “Warning this purchase will shatter images” messages wrapped in a plastic cd Jewell case Hey Blackalicious, your Rhymes, are they a gift or a sin? You say you have Rhymes for the deaf, dumb and blind but all we hear is gab, gab, gab, gab your name fits Gift of Gab Give us the mic welcome to crip-hip-hop rehab Hip-hop in recovery taking speech therapy opening up a new positive vocabulary ripping a page from KRSOne Edutainment
  52. 52. Hip-Hop Hear This! (continued) Changing people’s backwards attitudes Targeting the untapped disabled market Distributors, agents, record companies, MTV & BET Will pimp us as new kids on the block But Cripple Connection Production is independent Funding coming from our SSI benefits Hip-Hop hear this! Jay Z, sign our Ticket to Work Puff Daddy and Flavor Flav, its time for a new Reality show Called BADAS, Black And Disabled Artists Sharing reporting inaccessible concert venues to the ADA police The verdict please! Hip-hop hear this! You’re out of compliance! Leroy F. Moore Jr. 705
  53. 53. The Coming Decade--2015-2025: Six Thoughts 1. Disability, or the concept of disability, as well as disabling conditions will evolve. To my way of thinking this is inevitable, because there is always a new disability, or disabilities, on the horizon, that none of us anticipates, such as AIDS or the change of thinking from “mental retardation” to intellectual disability. It is likely that one or more of these conditions, as well as reflections on current disabilities, will change the way we perceive disability.
  54. 54. Media 2. These perceptions and how we view disability will be radically impacted by what we currently call social media. Fifteen years ago, few if any predicted Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn, let alone Instagram, Tumblr, Netflix, Youtube, Pinterest, or Soundcloud; or print newspapers and magazines giving way to online publications; self-publishing or self-recording becoming a positive alternative choice. The next decade is likely to see changes just as radical.
  55. 55. 24/7 Global World 3. Communicating instantaneously across the world is not fantasy, it is reality that has changed the way people communicate, work, and play. It has made the world both a safer, and a more dangerous place, for everyone, including individuals with disabilities, who are more easily able to engage, and therefore be more active as well as more vulnerable at the same time.
  56. 56. Technology 4. Social media, and communicating in general, have changed as technology has advanced and that, too, will continue. For instance, robots are now being used to assist children with disabilities to attend classes where they cannot physically go, for whatever reason (Chow, 2014). Prosthetics are being used in ways previously unthinkable. Wheelchairs are going underwater--next? While I do not know what technologically is coming, I know something is and it will radically alter our world.
  57. 57. Education/Disability Studies 5. Both education and disability studies will look different in the next ten years. Education will finally include disability rights as part of its curriculum from elementary to postsecondary schools. This will be, in large part, because of the successes of the disability rights and disability studies. But it will also be because disability scholars have broadened our approach to include disability as part of the broader world, and will be part of a global movement. This will enable us to focus both specifically on disability, disability culture, and disability studies from a lens that analyzes disability both in micro and macro ways. Disability studies programs will increase, but so will disability studies as part of other curricula.
  58. 58. CRPD and the U.S. Lags Behind 6. The U.S. will fall behind in the eyes of both the world and our own advocates because the rest of the world will adopt the U.N. Convention of the Rights of Persons with Disabilities before we do and whereas, the Americans with Disabilities Act became known globally as inventive and forward- thinking and had activists around the world lauding the U.S., the opposite will happen as other countries continue to precede the U.S. in ratifying the CRPD.
  59. 59. Why We have Human Rights “I have something very simple to say: We have human rights for one reason and one reason alone. We have human bodies.” (Rains, Dec. 2013).
  60. 60. Student Comment-Spring 2014 Many of us may not realize it, but what language we speak in, and also the words that we choose to use, play a significant role in how we perceive the world. If there is anything that I will remember from this class, it will be that words have power, and we need understand that although some terminology may be widely used, they may not properly reflect a group of people, and could even be offensive to those people. That is why I think that our Kailes reading was so crucial: once we stop using such misleading terms, we will unconsciously begin to destroy some prevalent stereotypes about people with disabilities.
  61. 61. Student Comment (continued) It is also important to understand the reasoning behind why reclaiming terms like "Crip" is crucial as well. Reclaiming words allow communities and groups to become empowered, and informs people from the outside that they cannot use these terms. I believe that using appropriate language is one of the first steps in showing respect for one another, and so I hope that more people will become aware of this.
  62. 62. My Friends Can Call Me “A Crip”-Do They?
  63. 63. Usually, they just call me….Steve….but….if they want, yes, they can because….I believe in: Reclaiming, naming, power, including power of/in words. I will continue to try to unearth, claim, and share that power and this word will suffice— until something better comes along. My Friends Can Call Me “A Crip”-Do They?
  64. 64. References The ADA Legacy Project (2013). Retrieved from Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990, Pub. L. No. 101-336, §2, 104 Stat. 328 (1991). Beethoven’s Nightmare. (2013). Retrieved from Board Resource Center. (2013). Making complex ideas simple. Retrieved from Bogdan, R., Elks, M. & Noll, J. A. (2012). Picturing disability: Beggar, freak, citizen, and other photographic rhetoric. Syracuse. Syracuse University. Black, S., Bartlett, J. and Northen, M. (2011). Beauty is a verb: The new poetry of disability. El Paso, TX: Cinco Puntos Press. Braithwaite, J. and Mont, D. (2009). ALTER, European Journal of Disability Research, 3(3), pp. 219–232.
  65. 65. References (continued) Brown, L. (2011-2014). About. Autistic Hoya. Retrieved from Brown, S. E. (2002). Challenging everyone’s assumptions: The PETBIA chart. Independent Living Research Utilization. Retrieved from Brown, S. E. (2011, 1996). Disability Culture beginnings: A fact sheet. Retrieved from sheet.html. Brown, S. E. (2014). Disability history and culture: From Homer to Hip Hop. Syllabus. Center on Disability Studies, University of Hawaii, Honolulu. Brown, S. E. (2000). Freedom of Movement: Independent Living History and Philosophy. (2001). Houston: ILRU. Retrieved from
  66. 66. References (continued) Brown, S. E. (1994). Investigating a Culture of Disability: Final Report. Las Cruces, NM: Institute on Disability Culture. Brown, S. E. (2003). Movie stars and sensuous scars: Essays on the journey from disability shame to disability pride. New York: People with Disabilities Press. Brown, S. E. (2011). Surprised to be standing: A spiritual journey. Honolulu, HI: Healing Light. Center on Human Policy, Law and Disability Studies. What is Disability Studies? Center on Human Policy, Law and Disability Studies, Syracuse University. Retrieved from Charlton, J. I. (2010). Peripheral everywhere. Journal of Literary & Cultural Disability Studies, 4(2), 195–200. Chow, L. (March 20, 2014). When this sixth grader couldn’t go to school, a robot took her place. NationSwell. Retrieved from robot-class/.
  67. 67. References (continued) Crockett, C. (2014). Journey to the unknown: A virtual talking circle about death and dying. Retrieved from Erevelles, N. (2011). Disability and difference in global contexts: Enabling a transformative body politic. New York: Palgrave Macmillan Erevelles, N. and Minear, A. (2010). Unspeakable offenses: Untangling race and disability in discourses of intersectionality. Journal of Literary and Cultural Studies, 4(2), pp. 127-45. Fixed: The science/fiction of human enhancement. (2013). Retrieved from Forbes, S. (2011). Perfect Imperfection. Retrieved from
  68. 68. References (continued) Grigal, M., Hart, D. & Lewis, S. (2012). A prelude to progress: The evolution of postsecondary education for students with intellectual disabilities. Think College Insight Brief, Issue No. 12. Boston, MA: University of Massachusetts Boston, Institute for Community Inclusion. Retrieved from Haller, B. A. (n.d.). Disability advocacy through media training course. Retrieved from Haller, B. A. (n.d.). Media dis&dat blog. Retrieved from http://media-dis-n- Haller, B. A. (2010). Representing disability in an ableist world: Essays on mass media. Louisville, KY: Advocado Press. Johnson, M. (1987), Emotion and pride: The search for a Disability Culture. Disability Rag, January-February, pp. 4-10.
  69. 69. References (continued) Kailes, J. (Winter 1992). Aging with a disability: Educating myself. Generations: Journal of the American Society on Aging, XVI(1), p. 75. Kafer, A. (2013). Feminist, crip, queer. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University. Kailes, J. (2010). Language is more than a trivial concern! 10th edition. KAILES- Publications. Revised 1984-2010. Retrieved from Krip Hop Nation. (no date). Poor Magazine. Retrieved from Linton, S. (1998). Claiming disability: Knowledge and Identity. New York and London: NYU. Linton, S. (1994, Spring). Teaching disability studies. Disability Studies Quarterly, 1(4), pp. 44-46. Little, L. (2010). Disability Pride Parade. Retrieved from Longmore, P. K. & Umansky, L. (eds.). (2001). The new disability history: American perspectives. New York: New York University.
  70. 70. References (continued) Mobility International, USA (2011). Loud, proud and passionate! Retrieved from Moore, L. F. (2005). Hip-Hop hear this! Moyer, J. (1988). For the crime of being different. Mullins, A. (2009). My 12 pair of legs. TED Conference. Retrieved from Nielsen, K. E. (2012). A disability history of the United States. Boston. Beacon. The Olimpias Project. (no date). O’Toole, C. J. (Nov. 24, 2013). Op-Ed: Economic barriers in Disability Studies. The Feminist Wire. Retrieved from economic-barriers-in-disability-studies/.
  71. 71. References (continued) Palacio, M. R. (2013). Criptionary: Disability humor and satire. Houston: Atahualpa Press. Pelka, F. (2012). What we have done: An oral history of the disability rights movement. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts. Pickering. E. S. (2011). Comment from the field: Transforming bodies. Journal of Literary & Cultural Disability Studies, 5(3). 339-41. Rains, S. (2013). Inclusive tourism and the human right to leisure. A presentation to the World Forum on Human Rights, Brasilia, Brazil, December 10-13, 2013. Retrieved from Samuels, E. J. (2014). Fantasies of identification: Disability, gender, race. New York New York University. Schweik, S. M. (2009). The Ugly Laws: Disability in public. New York: New York University.
  72. 72. References (continued) Shakespeare, T. (2005). Disability studies today and tomorrow. Sociology of Health & Illness, 27(1), 138-148. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9566.2005.00435.x. Silver Scorpion. (2011). Retrieved from Scorpion. Smith, P. (ed.). (2013). Both sides of the table: Auto/ethnographies of educators learning and teaching with/in [dis]ability. New York: Peter Lang. Society for Disability Studies. (no date). 2015 Special Issue of Disability Studies Quarterly on the Americans with Disabilities Act. Retrieved from Society for Disability Studies. Mission & history. Retrieved from Staff Benda Bilili. (2009). Retrieved from
  73. 73. References (continued) Stevens, B. (2012). This is what disability looks like. Retrieved from Taylor, S. & Ruggieri-Zubal, R. (Oct. 2013). Academic programs in disability studies. The Center on Human Policy, Law, and Disability Studies, Syracuse University. Retrieved from tenBroek, J. (1966). The right to live in the world: The disabled in the law of torts. California Law Review, 54(2), 841-919. Retrieved from United Nations. (2013). Selection Committee announces 2013 winners of United Nations Human Rights Prize. Retrieved from United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. (2006). Retrieved from Wood, C., ed. (2014). Criptiques. San Berandino, CA: May Day Publishing.
  74. 74. For More Information Steve Brown