SKGF_Presentation_Patenting Antibodies_2006


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SKGF_Presentation_Patenting Antibodies_2006

  1. 1. Patenting Antibodies The Past, Present, and Future Timothy J. Shea, Jr. Director Sterne, Kessler, Goldstein & Fox P.L.L.C. 3rd Annual Antibody Therapeutics Conference IBC Life Sciences San Diego, CA December 6, 2005
  2. 2. Why patent antibodies? • Therapeutic antibodies have come of age! – 18 mAbs approved by FDA to date – approximately 350 in clinical trials – $10B in revenues in 2004 – Six mAbs → global revenues > $500M – Market expected to grow by 20% per year over next 5 years – $30B market by 2010 – Better toxicity profiles/ faster approval 2
  3. 3. Why patent antibodies? • Competition is increasing • Strong patent position is essential – protect R&D investment – maximize value of technology to potential investors and partners • Currently no mechanism for generic versions of biologics (i.e., biosimilars) – Even if generic competitors allowed, will likely face high barrier to entry – Potential for de facto extension of exclusivity 3
  4. 4. Patent Law Fundamentals • Antibodies are patentable subject matter – Products of nature, including living things, are patentable subject matter. (Diamond v. Chakrabarty (S. Ct. 1980)) – Patentable subject matter includes “anything under the sun that is made by man.” • Ab patents must distinguish over products occurring in nature – Examples: mAbs, chimeric/humanized Abs, Fc mutants 4
  5. 5. Patent Law Fundamentals • Antibodies must meet same standards for patentability as other inventions • Antibody must be novel – Not disclosed in single prior art ref. • Antibody must be nonobvious – Cannot be obvious modification of what was is already known in art • Application must describe antibody with sufficient specificity – serves notice function – fixes patent rights 5
  6. 6. Patent Law Fundamentals • Application must enable how to make and use antibody – Standard = one of ordinary skill in relevant art – No need to teach what is well-known • Application must describe best mode for practicing invention – Known to inventor at time of filing – No duty to update 6
  7. 7. Patenting Antibodies – The Cases • The case law has evolved as antibody technology has evolved • The cases tend to lag the technology • Many of cases today deal with technologies first developed 10 or more years ago • Early cases – hybridoma technology and immunoassays (mid-1970s) • More recent cases – technologies for making chimeric, humanized, and human antibodies (early-mid 1980s) 7
  8. 8. Early Cases • In re Strahilevitz (C.C.P.A. 1982) – Claims: method for removing a hapten (e.g. drug) or antigen from blood using an immunodialysis process • Claims not limited to specific haptens/antibodies – Facts: Application lacked specific examples; no human treatment data, no dialysis or adsorption data – Issue: Did application enable claims? – Held: claims enabled • Preparing antibodies to specific antigens and haptens was well known in art • Selection of matrix, dialysis membrane and flow rate for dialysis well known. 8
  9. 9. Early Cases • Hybritech Inc. v. Monoclonal Antibodies, Inc. (Fed. Cir. 1986) – Claims: Sandwich assay utilizing mAbs with affinity of at least 108 liters/mole – Issue: Were claims invalid as obvious? – Facts: Prior Art: • method of making mAbs (Kohler & Milstein), use of mAbs to map epitopes, high affinity antibodies, and “predicted” use of mAbs in immunoassays – Held: Not obvious • prior art was “invitation to experiment” only • Commercial success of Hybritech kits was evidence of nonobvious 9
  10. 10. Early Cases • In re Wands (Fed. Cir. 1988) – Claims: Immunoassay for detection of HBsAg using high-affinity IgM mAbs (covered any IgM mAb) – Facts: • Applicants had deposited a single cell line • Exr. Had rejected for lack of enablement – Issue: Were claims enabled? – Held: enabled • Deposit not necessary if cell lines obtainable from readily available sources/materials • Preparing/screening hybridomas was well known in art • Need for some experimentation is OK, as long as not undue • Wands factors: look at (1) quantity of experimentation, (2) amount of direction or guidance,(3) working examples, (4)nature of invention, (5)state of art, (6) relative skill in art, (7) predictability of art, (8) breadth of claims 10
  11. 11. Early Cases • Johns Hopkins Univ. v. Cellpro, Inc. (Fed. Cir. 1998) – Claims : Purified suspensions of stem cells and mAbs used to produce the suspensions – Facts: • Civin had discovered My-10 antigen expressed on immature stem cells, but not mature cells; claimed anti-My-10 mAbs • CellPro produced similar suspension with antibody to CD34 • My-10 and CD34 recognized by OSA as same antigen – Issues: Did CellPro infringe? Claims enabled? – Held: CellPro infringed and claims enabled • Court construed claims to cover all antibodies that bind CD34 • Fact that CellPro mAbs bound different epitope on CD34 irrelevant • Using methods taught, one skilled in the art could make many more anti-CD34 mAbs w/out undue experminentation 11
  12. 12. Recent Cases • Noelle v. Lederman (Fed. Cir. April 2004) – Interference Proceeding • Where application/application or application/patent claim same patentable invention • Proceeding to determine first to invent – Claimed Technology: • Antibodies to CD40CR antigen found on T cells • antibody blocks binding of antigen to CD40 receptor on B cells and prevents B cell activation – Facts: • Noelle had claims to genus of any CD40CR mAb, as well as the murine, chimeric, humanized and human forms of the mAb • Noelle application only disclosed murine CD40CR antigen – No disclosure of human antigen or any other CD40 antigen other than murine – Issue: Did application adequately describe claimed subject matter? 12
  13. 13. Recent Cases • Noelle v. Lederman, con’t. – To prevail in interference, Noelle had to show claimed subject matter was described in earliest applications – Held: Priority application supported claims to mouse mAbs, but not to genus and human CD40CR mAbs • Can broadly claim antibody by binding affinity for antigen, but only if application discloses a “fully characterized antigen” • Noelle did not describe human CD40CR antigen (e.g. by structure, formula, chemical name, etc.) • Disclosure of single mouse antigen, not enough to support claim to genus – Needed to disclose more species to claim genus 13
  14. 14. Recent Cases • Chiron Corp. v. Genentech, Inc. (Fed. Cir. June 2004) – Claims: Monoclonal antibodies that bind to human HER2 antigen – Facts: • Chiron sued Genentech alleging Herceptin infringed Chiron patent • `561 patent claims: “A monoclonal antibody that binds to human c-erbB-2 antigen. (Genus) • `561 patent claimed priority to applications filed in 1984, 1985, and 1986 (to prevail Chiron had to show priority appls. Supported claims • 1984 application – one murine mAb that binds HER2; produced by hybridoma method – Hybridoma deposited but appl. does not identify antigen by structure, function, etc. • 1985 application – six more murine mAbs; hybridomas for all; antigen identified by mol. wt. – No mention of chimeric or humanized but says mAb not limited by source or manner made • 1986 application – six more murine mAbs; three hybridomas deposited – No mention of chimeric or humanized but says mAb not limited by source or manner made 14
  15. 15. Recent Cases • Chiron Corp. v. Genentech, Inc. con’t. – Issue: Whether priority applications supported (i.e., described and enabled) later claimed subject matter? – Held: No support – claims invalid • Ct. found `561 claim covered chimeric and humanized mAbs as well as mouse • Appl. specifically stated invention not limited to source of mAb or how made • Patent need not enable later-arising technology 15
  16. 16. Recent Cases • Chiron Corp. v. Genentech, Inc. con’t – Nascent technology requires “specific and useful” teaching to enable – 1984 appl. – no need to enable chimeric/humanized mAbs, but did not describe – 1985 appl. – no specific/useful teaching of chimeric or humanized → not enabled – 1986 appl. - no specific/useful teaching of chimeric or humanized → not enabled – Follow-on applications need to be updated 16
  17. 17. Current Issues – Freedom-to-Operate • Right to Exclude ≠ Right to Make – A patent does not give patent owner right to do anything • Only right to exclude others from practicing patent – A patent can be subordinate to a broader, dominant patent (e.g., genus vs. species) – Holder of subordinate patent may need license to practice its own technology – Must compare claims of dominant patent (not disclosure) to what your company is doing or plans to do (e.g., make, use, sell) 17
  18. 18. Current Issues – Freedom-to-Operate • “The Monoclonal Maze” – – Antibody Production • Cabilly patent (Genentech) – Est. $220M in royalties in 2005 – Currently in reexamination proceedings – Humanization Technology • Winter patents (MRC) • Queen Patents (PDL) – Transgenic Mice • Medarex, Abgenix – Phage/Ribosome/Yeast Display • CAT, Morphosys, Dyax, Xoma, etc. 18
  19. 19. Current Issues – Freedom-to-Operate 19
  20. 20. Current Issues – Freedom-to-Operate 20
  21. 21. Current Issues – Freedom-to-Operate • 35 U.S.C. § 271(e)(1) – FDA Safe Harbor – Scope broadened by Supreme Court See Merck KGaA v. Integra Life Sciences (2005) – Impact on research tools remains unclear • Case on remand • Offshoring – 35 U.S.C. § 271(g) –importation of product made abroad by process patented in U.S. is an infringing act – But See Bayer v. Housey (Fed. Cir. 2003) • Only extends to importation of products, not data (screening data?) 21
  22. 22. The Future of Antibody Patenting • Antibody technology will continue to evolve creating new patenting opportunities – Increased potency • Fc engineering • Glycosylation engineering • Antibody conjugates – New treatment modalities • scFv, linked fragments, minibodies, diabodies, triabodies, etc. – New targets – Manufacturing alternatives • Plant cells ? • High-throughput screening? 22
  23. 23. The Future of Antibody Patenting • Continuing efforts to design around dominating patents • Patent expirations • Less dependence on older technologies • Biosimilars? – Coming, but not sure when or what will look like 23
  24. 24. Patenting Antibodies Thank You Timothy J. Shea, Jr. Director Sterne, Kessler, Goldstein & Fox, P.L.L.C. (202) 772-8679 24