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Richard A Matthew


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Richard A Matthew

  1. 1. 07/11/2012 Overview Center for Unconventional Security Affairs ( Environment, security and Context development Rethinking Security in the US School of Oriental and African Studies UNEP and Peacebuilding October 26, 2012 Earth Security Initiative Richard Matthew, PhD Center for Unconventional Security Affairs Conclusions University of California Irvine CUSA Research Center for Unconventional Security Affairs (CUSA) Environment and Security Research Group (ESRG)The Center for Unconventional Security Affairs (CUSA) serves asthe hub of a global network of academics and practitioners that Our research uses both field-based case study and statistical analysis to explore the ways in which changes in complex human and ecologicalstudies and develops solutions to human and environmental systems affect human security, and our normative work emphasizessecurity challenges. Through basic, translational and applied outcomes that are sustainable--ecologically sound, economically viable and socially fair. Principal themes include:research, we leverage emerging technologies to better understandand meet the most urgent needs of current and future generations. • CLIMATE CHANGE AND PUBLIC HEALTHOur innovative education and learning programs inspire, train • CLIMATE CHANGE AND SECURITYand develop future leaders and entrepreneurs to further this work • ENVIRONMENTAL SECURITYthroughout their lifetimes. • FOOD SECURITY • GLOBAL CHANGE AND POLITICAL VIOLENCE CUSA Research ContextTransformational Media Lab (TML) Linking environment and securityOur work is based on the following three basic assumptions: Explanatory Resource wars1. Technology and new media are changing how people interact Mediation of nature/society relationswith our natural, built, and social worlds. Complexity and crisis2. There are potential opportunities to leverage these changes for Normativepro- social and pro-environmental benefit. Paradigm shift3. Psychology and the social sciences provide a rich history and Human security and sustainable developmenttheoretical base with which to understand this potential. Predictive IPCC modelsThe Transformational Media Lab studies how media is (and canbe) used to transform individuals, communities, and systems. Klare vs Wolf 1
  2. 2. 07/11/2012 Rethinking Security in the US ContextSecuritization concerns Massive security build-up in US after WWII and Use of force and other extraordinary measures during Cold War Secrecy Late 1980s/1990s: rethinking security Us vs them mindset Undermine environmental movement and science Our Common Future, Rio and IPCC collaboration Somalia, Rwanda, DRCNeed empirical support Clinton and Gore very receptive to ES perspective; resulted in substantial policy initiatives Rethinking Security in the US Rethinking Security in the US Trends in freshwater availability from GRACE, 2003-2010Considerable push-back from elements in DODMuch dismantled by Bush-Cheney-Rumsfeld2007 IPCC reports rekindled some interestToday: humanitarian role; operating in extremeconditions; energy efficiency; three D debateLatest: NRC Report on hydrological change andsecurity in Himalaya/Hindu Kush region Rethinking Security in the US Rethinking Security in the US Cost of disasters Natural Disaster Risk Index: Bangladesh (1); Indonesia (2); Pakistan (4); India (11); China (12) Development challenges Security concerns Conflict, food prices, water shortages, public health setbacks, population displacement 2
  3. 3. 07/11/2012 Rethinking Security in the US Rethinking Security in the USPakistan August 10, 2009 Pakistan August 10, 2010 21 million people affected 20% of land flooded 2000 deaths 1 million homes destroyed 10,000 transmission lines, transformers and power stations damaged 2400 miles of road damaged 3500 miles of railroad damaged 5 million jobs lost Longer-term food and disease challenges UNEP and Peacebuilding UNEP and Peacebuilding Peacebuilding involves a range of measures to reduce the risk of relapsing into conflict by strengthening capacity at all levels for conflict management, and to lay the foundations for sustainable peace and development UNEP, created after Stockholm and on the periphery of much UN activity, saw ES research as a platform for increasing its relevance to the security and development communities by bringing NRM and CCA into peacebuilding UNEP and Peacebuilding UNEP and Peacebuilding Sierra Leone basic data: Economy: minerals, agriculture, forestry, fisheries Population about 6.5 million Median age 17 Life expectancy 48 Per capita income $808 US; 217/229 countries Average of 2.9 years of schooling Ranks 158/169 on Human Development Index 2010 3
  4. 4. 07/11/2012 Earth Security Initiative UNEP and Peacebuilding • Rwanda basic data Some 228 Million ha leased or purchased mainly in Africa for food and biofuel production • Population 10.8 million (2010) Driven by: • Per capita income $535 (2009) GEC and esp food and water security concerns • Human Development Index 167th (2007) Market volatility • 1885-1916 German colony (Berlin Conference 1884) Land versus other forms of wealth Low prices • 1923-1962 Belgian under LoN mandate • 1962 independent Risks managed through reliance on IL and ICL and through water guarantees etc Lack of transparency and concerns about impacts on natural environmental and local communities provided motivation fro ESI Earth Security Initiative The Earth Security Framework Sustainability-related risks for corporates and investors Reputation risks Resource Environmental Economic risks (land Security Security productivity/drought) Economic value Political risks (disputes/conflict) Humanitarian risks (food/water security) Social justice Natural capital Opportunities for sustainability Integrated metrics to orient investment decisions and due diligence Human Security Collaboration across silos to drive win- Report launched March 2012 win innovation at scale © Earth Security Initiative© Earth Security Initiative Conclusions Widely accepted that simple causal models are of limited value Concerns about securitization need to be weighed against gains achieved through this linkage Importance of earth systems science 4