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Assumptions, Frameworks, and Methodologies Nisheeth Kumar Knowledge Links, India How Secure Is Water in Rural India ?  Pro...
INDIA: some facts   <ul><li>More than 1000 million people </li></ul><ul><li>617 districts </li></ul><ul><li>35 states and ...
INDIA: some facts   <ul><li>638 million (578 million in rural areas) people defecate in the open  (as per the Joint Monito...
Programme Initiatives  <ul><li>1972-1986:  Accelerated Rural Water Supply Programme (ARWSP) </li></ul><ul><li>1986-1998:  ...
Programme Initiatives  <ul><li>2002-2010:  Swajaldhara and Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) </li></ul><ul><li>2006-2010:  N...
Programme Features <ul><li>1972-1986 </li></ul><ul><li>Provision of adequate drinking water supply to the rural community ...
Programme Features <ul><li>1991-1992 </li></ul><ul><li>Provision of adequate drinking water supply to the rural community ...
Programme Features <ul><li>1999-2000  (sector reform programme in 69 districts across 18 states on a pilot basis) </li></u...
Programme Features <ul><li>2002 (scaled up as Swajaldhara across all the states) </li></ul><ul><li>Community involvement i...
Programme Features <ul><li>2009  (National Rural Drinking Water Programme-NRDWP) </li></ul><ul><li>Shift in focus from hab...
Programme Features <ul><li>2005  (National Rural Drinking Water Quality Monitoring and Surveillance Programme-NRDWQM&SP) <...
Conclusion <ul><li>Programme design is faulty and is not going to work </li></ul><ul><li>Policy in order to be implemented...
<ul><li>Thanks   </li></ul>04/04/11
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How Secure Is Water in Rural India ? Program Initiatives and Pathways

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STEPS Water & Sanitation Symposium 2011

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How Secure Is Water in Rural India ? Program Initiatives and Pathways

  1. 1. Assumptions, Frameworks, and Methodologies Nisheeth Kumar Knowledge Links, India How Secure Is Water in Rural India ? Program Initiatives and Pathways 04/04/11
  2. 2. INDIA: some facts <ul><li>More than 1000 million people </li></ul><ul><li>617 districts </li></ul><ul><li>35 states and union territories </li></ul><ul><li>Around 700 million people live in more than10,00,000 villages in rural areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Around 400 million people live on less than 1$ a day. </li></ul>04/04/11
  3. 3. INDIA: some facts <ul><li>638 million (578 million in rural areas) people defecate in the open (as per the Joint Monitoring Programme of UNICEF and WHO 2010) </li></ul><ul><li>362,000 children die of diarrhoea every year </li></ul>04/04/11
  4. 4. Programme Initiatives <ul><li>1972-1986: Accelerated Rural Water Supply Programme (ARWSP) </li></ul><ul><li>1986-1998: ARWSP and Central Rural Sanitation Programme (CRSP) </li></ul><ul><li>1999-2002: Sector Reform Programme (SRP) and Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  5. 5. Programme Initiatives <ul><li>2002-2010: Swajaldhara and Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) </li></ul><ul><li>2006-2010: National Rural Drinking Water Quality Monitoring and Surveillance Programme (NRDWM&SP) </li></ul><ul><li>2009-2012: National Rural Drinking Water Programme (NRDWP) </li></ul><ul><li>On-going since 1999: Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  6. 6. Programme Features <ul><li>1972-1986 </li></ul><ul><li>Provision of adequate drinking water supply to the rural community </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of infrastructure i.e. large water supply systems </li></ul><ul><li>Habitation: not covered (NC); partially covered (PC) and fuly covered (FC) </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation agency: Public Health Enginering Department (PHED) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  7. 7. Programme Features <ul><li>1991-1992 </li></ul><ul><li>Provision of adequate drinking water supply to the rural community </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of infrastructure i.e. large water supply systems </li></ul><ul><li>Habitation: not covered (NC); partially covered (PC) and fuly covered (FC) </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation agency: Public Health Enginering Department (PHED) </li></ul><ul><li>Water quality </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate technology </li></ul><ul><li>Human resource development </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  8. 8. Programme Features <ul><li>1999-2000 (sector reform programme in 69 districts across 18 states on a pilot basis) </li></ul><ul><li>Community involvement in planning, implementation and management of drinking water supply schemes </li></ul>
  9. 9. Programme Features <ul><li>2002 (scaled up as Swajaldhara across all the states) </li></ul><ul><li>Community involvement in planning, implementation and management of drinking water supply schemes </li></ul>
  10. 10. Programme Features <ul><li>2009 (National Rural Drinking Water Programme-NRDWP) </li></ul><ul><li>Shift in focus from habitations to households: ensuring sustainability of water availability in terms of potability, adequacy, convenience, affordability and equity </li></ul><ul><li>Decentralised and demand driven </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability of the source, system, finance and management </li></ul><ul><li>Framework for implementation: movement towards ensuring people’s drinking water security in rural India </li></ul>
  11. 11. Programme Features <ul><li>2005 (National Rural Drinking Water Quality Monitoring and Surveillance Programme-NRDWQM&SP) </li></ul><ul><li>Launched in February 2005-now merged with NRDWP </li></ul><ul><li>All drinking water sources should be tested at least twice a year for bacteriological contamination and once a year for chemical contamination </li></ul><ul><li>Programme components: Information, education and communication (IEC), HRD and Field Test Kits (FTKs) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Conclusion <ul><li>Programme design is faulty and is not going to work </li></ul><ul><li>Policy in order to be implemented needs to be based on an informed understanding of how things work within the existing institutional arrangement. </li></ul><ul><li>Liquid dynamics needs to include ‘institutional’, as it is the critical variable for producing results on the ground. </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional factor is the one that determines social, technological and environmental. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Thanks </li></ul>04/04/11

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