Environmental Change and Maize Innovation in Kenya:  Exploring pathways in and out of maize Overview <ul><li>Presentation ...
Welcome / Karibuni <ul><li>Background on STEPS Centre </li></ul><ul><li>Overview of project on Environmental Change and Ma...
The STEPS Centre <ul><li>Core concern :  Identifying and building pathways to Sustainability in complex, dynamic, social-e...
Food Insecurity in Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (ASAL) <ul><li>Climate change and variability present new research and develop...
Food Insecurity in ASAL Areas <ul><li>Nevertheless, some 3.8 million people remain food insecure, particularly in the Arid...
Project Overview <ul><li>Traced ‘innovation pathways’ in maize and other crops , and the responses of various actors to ra...
We are using maize as a ‘window’ though  which to analyse the dynamics of environmental, social and technical change in ‘i...
Project Research Activities <ul><li>Exploring ‘resilience’, ‘innovation’ and ‘pathways‘  and testing concepts in relation ...
Phase I Research – 2007-9 <ul><li>Secondary literature review  – Kenya’s agricultural history; environmental change; resil...
Field and Panel Data Sites Sakai, Mbooni East  – Low Potential Likuyani, Kakamega – High Potential Ngecha, Nakuru – Medium...
Questions Emerging from Phase I <ul><li>‘ Why maize?’    understanding the ‘lock in’ to the dominant maize pathway; revea...
Phase I: Maize in ASAL Areas <ul><li>Effects of environmental change is significant and well recognised –  ALRMP II, proje...
Phase I: Maize in ASAL Areas <ul><li>Main story     Diversification… </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple pathways – </li></ul><ul>...
Phase II Research – 2009 <ul><ul><li>Aim: to explore the potential and constraints of alternative ‘pathways in and out of ...
Phase II: Exploring Pathways in and out of Maize <ul><ul><li>Fieldwork findings have been distilled into a set of  9 core ...
Exploring Pathways (cont’.) <ul><ul><li>These served as a starting point for opening up the discussion with farmers, scien...
Multicriteria Mapping (MCM):  The Interview Process  2. Develop a set of criteria 5. Reflect on outcome 1. Discuss  pathw...
Multicriteria Mapping (MCM):  The Interview Process 
Typology of Pathways Low Maize   High Maize Low- External Input High- External Input
Typology of Pathways 1 – Alternative dryland staples for subsistence 2 – Alternative dryland staples for market 3 – local ...
Low Maize + Low External Input <ul><li>Pathway 1 – Alternative staples for subsistence </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers diversify...
High Maize + Low External Input <ul><li>Pathway 3 – Local improvement of local maize seed </li></ul><ul><li>More farmers l...
Low/High Maize + Low External Input + Assisted Multiplication <ul><li>Pathway 4 – Assisted seed multiplication (alternativ...
Low Maize + High External Input <ul><li>Pathway 6  – Individual high-value crop commercialization </li></ul><ul><li>Farmer...
High Maize + High External Input <ul><li>Pathway 8  – Commercial delivery of new maize varieties </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers...
Workshop Packs <ul><li>STEPS Maize Working Paper </li></ul><ul><li>Briefing papers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeking resilien...
Programme <ul><li>Overview of Environmental Change and Maize Innovation Pathways project </li></ul><ul><li>Video – Pathway...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Maize Pathways workshop presentation 1: Overview slides

1,850 views

Published on

Presentation from a national dissemination workshop in Nairobi on 22 March 2010, for the STEPS Centre's project on environmental change and maize innovation in Kenya.

To find out more about our maize work, visit www.steps-centre.org/ourresearch/crops,% 20kenya.html

Published in: Education
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,850
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
5
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
31
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Some key general features and dimensions of the STEPS Centre’s work that shape our overall ‘take’
  • Multicriteria mapping is one such method that can be used to ‘open up’ the decision making process. MCM is a software-based interview technique that incorporates both qualitative and quantitative components. Essentially it provides a way to characterise an array of decision ‘options’ and then document their respective strengths and weaknesses under evaluative ‘criteria’. An MCM interview has 5 key stages. Participants are given a set of options about the issue at hand. These are discussed and a set of evaluative criteria are then developed. The criteria are used to both quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate the different options. So quantiatively assessing the relative performance of different options by giving pessimistic and optimistic scores to each option under the different criteria, and qualitatively giving the reasons for each of these assessments. It is here that we see how the ways in which the criteria, which themselves reflect a particular set of values and framings, really impact on the assumptions brought to bear on the assessment of the options themselves. After the evaluation a weight is assigned to each criterion, allowing participants to express different priorities given to the criteria. Finally, the final rankings of the options are discussed and reflected on. At the end of an interview, a rich picture (or ‘map’) of the performance of different decision options emerges that shows the conditionalities, sensitivities, and framings associated with each unique interviewee’s perspective on the various decision options at hand. Thus, MCM can serve as a heuristic tool to explore relationships between technological and socio-political factors in decision-making [Shares similar characteristics to other Multicriteria analysis techniques, but is distinct in that its aim is not to identify a single, normatively ‘best’ decision, but instead to identify the different underlying reasons, or criteria, that influence people’s perceptions of different options (Stirling and Mayer, 2001).]
  • Maize Pathways workshop presentation 1: Overview slides

    1. 1. Environmental Change and Maize Innovation in Kenya: Exploring pathways in and out of maize Overview <ul><li>Presentation 1 of 3 </li></ul><ul><li>National Dissemination Workshop </li></ul><ul><li>Hilton Hotel, Nairobi – 22 March 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>STEPS Kenya Partners: </li></ul><ul><li>ACTS – African Centre for Technology Studies </li></ul><ul><li>CABE – Centre for African Bio-Entrepreneurship </li></ul><ul><li>Tegemeo Institute, Egerton University </li></ul><ul><li>IDS – Institute of Development Studies, UK </li></ul><ul><li>SPRU – Science and Technology Policy Research, </li></ul><ul><li>University of Sussex, UK </li></ul>
    2. 2. Welcome / Karibuni <ul><li>Background on STEPS Centre </li></ul><ul><li>Overview of project on Environmental Change and Maize Innovation Pathways </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phase 1 – Characterising and analysing responses to dynamic environmental, social and technical change in different agroecological settings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phase 2 – Multicriteria mapping of ‘pathways in and out of maize’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pathways in and out of maize </li></ul><ul><li>Workshop materials </li></ul><ul><li>Workshop programme </li></ul>
    3. 3. The STEPS Centre <ul><li>Core concern : Identifying and building pathways to Sustainability in complex, dynamic, social-ecological-technological systems </li></ul><ul><li>Three themes : dynamics, governance, designs </li></ul><ul><li>Three domains : agriculture and food; health and disease; water and sanitation – and their interactions (e.g. in projects on epidemics; peri-urban change…) </li></ul><ul><li>An interdisciplinary approach : social and natural sciences; development studies and science and technology studies </li></ul>
    4. 4. Food Insecurity in Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (ASAL) <ul><li>Climate change and variability present new research and development challenges in Africa </li></ul><ul><li>In Kenya, where 80% of the population depend on agriculture, major climatic events have included a series of prolonged and severe droughts </li></ul><ul><li>In 2008–9, Kenya was hit by a severe drought, which led to widespread food crop failure </li></ul><ul><li>Resumption of rains in November 2009 brought some improvements in the food security situation </li></ul>
    5. 5. Food Insecurity in ASAL Areas <ul><li>Nevertheless, some 3.8 million people remain food insecure, particularly in the Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (ASAL) , since only limited harvests have occurred </li></ul>Source: FEWS Net after ALRMP and KFSSG (Jan 2010)
    6. 6. Project Overview <ul><li>Traced ‘innovation pathways’ in maize and other crops , and the responses of various actors to rapid environmental, social and technical change </li></ul><ul><li>Examined ways in which different actors in different institutional and social settings: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>understand and frame ‘resilience’ to growing uncertainty related to climate variability and dynamic changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how these assumptions frame research and policy agendas and steer solutions and resources in particular directions </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. We are using maize as a ‘window’ though which to analyse the dynamics of environmental, social and technical change in ‘innovation systems’ in Kenya
    8. 8. Project Research Activities <ul><li>Exploring ‘resilience’, ‘innovation’ and ‘pathways‘ and testing concepts in relation to maize in Kenya </li></ul><ul><li>Interviews with key actors engaged in work on maize R&D, adaptation to climate change, food security, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Field and panel data comparative studies – 3 sites (low, (medium), high potential) </li></ul><ul><li>Mapping ‘pathways in and out of maize’ (based on field and panel studies and key informant interviews) </li></ul><ul><li>Analysing pathways and what facilitates/inhibits access to them based on stakeholder criteria (using Multicriteria Mapping) </li></ul><ul><li>Integration, analysis, policy engagement and dialogue </li></ul>
    9. 9. Phase I Research – 2007-9 <ul><li>Secondary literature review – Kenya’s agricultural history; environmental change; resilience; maize R&D/innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Key informant interviews (science institutions, MoA, farmers’ organisations, seed companies, NGOs, donors, others) </li></ul><ul><li>Panel data analysis from Tegemeo Institute , production and socio-economic trends in selected districts and 3 sites </li></ul><ul><li>Field studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sakai, Mbooni East District, Eastern Province – ‘low potential’ zone (participants from 5 villages); seed selector interviews; feedback meeting. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mmbasu, Likuyani Division, Lugari District , Western Province – ‘high potential’ zone (participants from 3 sub-villages of one large village); feedback meeting. </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Field and Panel Data Sites Sakai, Mbooni East – Low Potential Likuyani, Kakamega – High Potential Ngecha, Nakuru – Medium Potential
    11. 11. Questions Emerging from Phase I <ul><li>‘ Why maize?’  understanding the ‘lock in’ to the dominant maize pathway; revealing alternative pathways </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Resilience’ and scale? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ High potential’ – hybrids/intensification and commercialisation/aggregate production and national food security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Low potential’ – OPVs/ diversification/ context responsiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>‘ Parallel universes’? – innovation systems and upward linkages from farmers to breeders and donors  local knowledge, feedback on adoption/disadoption/ preferences are missing – how to build the connections? </li></ul>
    12. 12. Phase I: Maize in ASAL Areas <ul><li>Effects of environmental change is significant and well recognised – ALRMP II, project on community based adaptation to Climate Change </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent droughts; more reliance on food aid  recent food crisis severe </li></ul><ul><li>Local maize varieties predominate due to cost (despite liberalisation) and are highly valued </li></ul><ul><li>Important (but not recognised?) role of seed selectors </li></ul><ul><li>In future – some farmers want drought tolerant maize varieties </li></ul><ul><li>But many farmers are trying to move out of maize and into other crops – dryland staples and horticultural crops </li></ul>
    13. 13. Phase I: Maize in ASAL Areas <ul><li>Main story  Diversification… </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple pathways – </li></ul><ul><li>in and out of maize ? </li></ul><ul><li>But where is it leading?  </li></ul><ul><li>Towards more resilient livelihoods? </li></ul><ul><li>Or are there constraints to pursuing these alternative pathways? </li></ul>
    14. 14. Phase II Research – 2009 <ul><ul><li>Aim: to explore the potential and constraints of alternative ‘pathways in and out of maize’, particularly in ASAL areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concerns about the effects of climate change present an opportunity to open up the debate about alternatives , both within maize-based agriculture and out of maize to other crops or livelihood options </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A shift from seeking to understand dynamics in maize innovation systems to engaging with food and agricultural research and policy </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Phase II: Exploring Pathways in and out of Maize <ul><ul><li>Fieldwork findings have been distilled into a set of 9 core pathways in drought-prone farming regions (e.g. Sakai): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reliance on internal/external inputs  including local vs. certified seed (OPVs, hybrids, etc.) and their sources (informal vs. formal channels) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reliance on maize as key crop </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diversification out of maize  other key crops (‘orphan’ dryland staple crops, horticulture) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Exploring Pathways (cont’.) <ul><ul><li>These served as a starting point for opening up the discussion with farmers, scientists and policy makers on: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Range of pathways – analysing pathways in and out of maize; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discussion about relevant criteria for choosing one pathway over another in such a way as to factor in the cross-scale dynamics and constraints; and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Critical examination of alternative visions of the future and institutional arrangements needed to support them </li></ul></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Multicriteria Mapping (MCM): The Interview Process  2. Develop a set of criteria 5. Reflect on outcome 1. Discuss pathways 3. Score pathways under each criterion; optimistic & pessimistic scores to reflect uncertainty 4. Assign weight to each criterion
    18. 18. Multicriteria Mapping (MCM): The Interview Process 
    19. 19. Typology of Pathways Low Maize High Maize Low- External Input High- External Input
    20. 20. Typology of Pathways 1 – Alternative dryland staples for subsistence 2 – Alternative dryland staples for market 3 – local improvement of local maize 5 – Assisted seed multiplication of maize 4 – Assisted seed multiplication of alternative dryland staples 6 – Individual high-value crop commercialization 7 – Group-based high-value crop commercialization 8 – Commercial delivery of new DT maize varieties 9 – Public delivery of new DT maize varieties See Briefing Paper 3 for details Low Maize High Maize Low- External Input High- External Input
    21. 21. Low Maize + Low External Input <ul><li>Pathway 1 – Alternative staples for subsistence </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers diversify away from maize to alternative dryland staples </li></ul><ul><li>These crops are increasingly grown alongside maize on the farm and are used mainly for household consumption. </li></ul><ul><li>Local varieties are grown with minimal or no external inputs </li></ul><ul><li>Pathway 2 – Alternative staples for market </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers diversify away from maize to alternative dryland staples </li></ul><ul><li>Maize is increasingly purchased for consumption with the proceeds from the sale of alternative crops. </li></ul><ul><li>Local varieties are grown with minimal or no external inputs </li></ul>Low Maize High Maize Low- External Input High- External Input
    22. 22. High Maize + Low External Input <ul><li>Pathway 3 – Local improvement of local maize seed </li></ul><ul><li>More farmers learn to select and multiply local varieties of maize seed for local use (planting on the local farm or sale/exchange with other farmers) </li></ul><ul><li>Local varieties of maize are used with minimal or no external inputs (certified seeds, chemical fertilizers, etc) </li></ul>Low Maize High Maize Low- External Input High- External Input
    23. 23. Low/High Maize + Low External Input + Assisted Multiplication <ul><li>Pathway 4 – Assisted seed multiplication (alternative crops) </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers are assisted in multiplying seeds of available improved varieties of alternative dryland staples </li></ul><ul><li>These seeds are used for planting on the local farm or for sale/exchange with other farmers. </li></ul><ul><li>Varieties are provided to farmers and assistance is given in seed multiplication, farming techniques, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Pathway 5 – Assisted seed multiplication (maize) </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers are assisted in multiplying seeds of available improved, open-pollinated, drought-tolerant /drought-escaping maize. </li></ul><ul><li>These seeds are used for planting on the local farm or are used for sale/exchange with other farmers. </li></ul><ul><li>Varieties are provided to farmers and assistance is given in seed multiplication, farming techniques, setting up cereal banks, etc </li></ul>Low Maize High Maize Low- External Input High- External Input
    24. 24. Low Maize + High External Input <ul><li>Pathway 6 – Individual high-value crop commercialization </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers diversify into high-value/high-risk horticultural crops such as tomatoes, onions and fruit trees </li></ul><ul><li>Maize is gradually replaced on the farm by these high-value crops </li></ul><ul><li>Maize is increasingly purchased for consumption with the proceeds from the sale of high-value crops </li></ul><ul><li>Crops are grown with external inputs (certified seeds, chemical fertilizers, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Crops require access to a water source and/or water storage techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Pathway 7 – Group-based high-value crop commercialization </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers form groups to diversify into high-value/high-risk horticultural crops </li></ul><ul><li>Maize is gradually replaced on the farm by the high-value crops </li></ul><ul><li>Maize is increasingly purchased for consumption with the proceeds from the sale of high-value crops </li></ul><ul><li>Crops are grown with external inputs (certified seeds, chemical fertilizers, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Crops require access to a water source and/or water storage techniques </li></ul>Low Maize High Maize Low- External Input High- External Input
    25. 25. High Maize + High External Input <ul><li>Pathway 8 – Commercial delivery of new maize varieties </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers purchase new hybrid maize seed varieties, such as drought-tolerant hybrid maize from commercial dealers, such as private agro-dealers and stockists </li></ul><ul><li>Maize is grown on the farm for local consumption and/or sale </li></ul><ul><li>These crops are grown with external inputs (certified seeds, chemical </li></ul><ul><li>fertilizers, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Pathway 9 – Public delivery of new maize varieties </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers purchase new hybrid maize seed varieties such as drought-tolerant hybrid maize from public delivery mechanisms. </li></ul><ul><li>Maize is grown on the farm for local consumption and/or sale. </li></ul><ul><li>These crops are grown with external inputs (certified seeds, chemical fertilizers, etc.). </li></ul>Low Maize High Maize Low- External Input High- External Input
    26. 26. Workshop Packs <ul><li>STEPS Maize Working Paper </li></ul><ul><li>Briefing papers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeking resilience through diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>STEPS Pathways approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multicriteria mapping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maize security ≠ food security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orphans and siblings – alternative dryland staples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Living in parallel universes – bridging formal and informal seed systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Rise of Horticulture in Sakai </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Memory stick with files + additional MCM data </li></ul><ul><li>Video of ‘Pathways in and out of Maize’ </li></ul>
    27. 27. Programme <ul><li>Overview of Environmental Change and Maize Innovation Pathways project </li></ul><ul><li>Video – Pathways in and out of Maize </li></ul><ul><li>Key Findings from MCM Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Policy Implications </li></ul><ul><li>Plenary Q&A </li></ul><ul><li>Lunch </li></ul><ul><li>Working Groups – (i) alternative dryland crops; (ii) informal and formal maize systems; (iii) horticultural crops </li></ul>

    ×