Lucrezia Tincani - Adaptable Livelihoods: wild foods, resilience and food security in rural Burkina Faso

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STEPS Seminar, 16 May 2011 by Lucrezia Tincani, SOAS.

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Lucrezia Tincani - Adaptable Livelihoods: wild foods, resilience and food security in rural Burkina Faso

  1. 1. Adaptable Livelihoods: wild foods, resilience and food security in rural Burkina Faso<br />by<br />Lucrezia Tincani<br />School of Oriental and African Studies<br />University of London, UK.<br />lucrezia.tincani@soas.ac.uk <br />
  2. 2. DRY SEASON RAINY SEASON<br />How does seasonality affect the food security of the household?<br />What factors determine the adaptive capacity of the household over the seasons?<br />
  3. 3. theory–> methods –> results –> implications<br />Sustainable Livelihoods FW<br />
  4. 4. theory–> methods –> results –> implications<br />Panarchy Theory (ecology)<br />Three properties determine the resilience of the system :<br />Diversity of livelihood strategiesdetermines the number of alternative options<br />Adaptive capacity of livelihood strategies determines how reactive the system is to disturbances, based on whether individual strategies adapt a lot or a little<br />Connectivity determines the flexibility of the system: if strategies are highly connected, all strategies collapse as soon as one is affected (domino effect)<br />Holling, C. S. (2001) Understanding the complexity of economic, ecological, and social systems. Ecosystems4: 390-405.<br />
  5. 5. theory–> methods –> results –> implications<br />Fieldwork: Oct. 2009 - Dec. 2010<br />2 provinces in <br />Burkina Faso <br />4 villages/province<br />2 family compounds/village<br />3 food security levels<br />TOTAL = 23 households = 97 adults<br />613mm/yr rainfall<br />921mm/yr rainfall<br />N.B. village selection was based on the project villages of TREEAID<br />
  6. 6. theory–> methods –> results –> implications<br />Methodology<br />Quantitative cooking surveys<br />%food* from home production (granary)<br />%food purchased<br />%food collected from forest areas (‘wild foods’)<br />%food received from friends and relatives<br />>> every 2 months (6 survey rounds) = 2x 3day recall <br />Triangulation for every adult in household <br />Asset inventory (livestock & food reserves)<br />Income, expenditure<br />Qualitative individual interviews on motivations, cultural norms…<br />* food = main cooked ingredient of a meal (no snacking)<br />
  7. 7. theory–> methods –> results –> implications<br />Research questions<br />How does seasonality affect the food security of the household?<br />What factors determine the adaptive capacity of the household over the seasons?<br />How successful is Panarchy Theory at capturing this adaptive capacity?<br />
  8. 8. theory–> methods –> results –> implications<br />Data analysis<br />Data entry and coding: Excel<br />Statistical analysis (non-parametric): STATA v.11<br />Definition of variables:<br />Diversity = diversity (Simpson’s diversity index) of food sources <br />Adaptive capacity = yearly st.dev. of food source contribution <br />Connectivity = yearly co-variance of food sources<br />
  9. 9. theory–> methods –> results –> implications<br />Results<br />(median data for households)<br />
  10. 10. theory–> methods –> results –> implications<br />Box plot of the diversity index, plotted over the six seasons, for each field site, indicating the median (white line), the inter-quartile range (grey box), the 95% confidence interval (hooked lines) and any outliers (grey dots).<br />
  11. 11. theory–> methods –> results –> implications<br />Box plot of the diversity index, plotted over the six seasons, for Northern households with one or two wives. <br />
  12. 12. Scatter plot of the median annual diversity index and the annual adaptation index (yearly st.dev.) , plotted for the Northern and Southern households. <br />
  13. 13. Scatter plot of the median annual diversity index and the annual covariance index , plotted for the Northern and Southern households. <br />
  14. 14. Ouedraogo, H. (2 wives)<br />Seasonal specialisation<br />Redundancy<br />Bilgo, A. & son (3 wives in total)<br />
  15. 15. theory–> methods –> results –> implications<br />Trends <br /><ul><li>Conservative vs. entrepreneurial households?
  16. 16. Splitting and merging of households?</li></li></ul><li>theory–> methods –> results –> implications<br />Using Panarchy Theory to capture livelihood resilience?<br />Households can follow different trajectories to maintain their livelihood resilience<br />Need qualitative triangulation<br />Implications for climate change adaptation?<br />
  17. 17. Many thanks to…<br />KIRAKOYA Aoua<br />BONKOUNGOU Aminata<br />lucrezia.tincani@soas.ac.uk<br />
  18. 18. Number of women per hh<br />Number of men per hh<br />AVERAGE = 1.5 men + 2.2 women per household<br />

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