Enabling Providers or Expanding Control? Standardized Reforms and the Diversity of Service Provision Modalities in Greater...
Outline   <ul><li>Legal and Policy Reforms in the 1990s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reforms in Mozambique </li></ul></ul><ul><li...
Legal and Policy Reforms in the 1990s <ul><li>Reform of policy and legal frameworks  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Senegal (1995),...
Legal and Policy Framework in Mozambique Source: Rusca 2009
Service Provision Reality: SSIPs in Maputo, Mozambique
SSIPs and the Existing Legal Framework Regulation by SSIP associations and social relations Multiple providers SSIPs own i...
Formalization: From Informal to Entrepreneur <ul><li>Following the ‘privatization decade’ (1993-2003), SSIPs as the new Pr...
Formalization in Maputo <ul><li>In Maputo a formal SSIP should hold four licenses:  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(i) a one-ye...
The Regulatory Perspective on Formalization <ul><li>Increased regulation of SSIPs to comply with basic water quality stand...
Conclusions  <ul><li>Mismatch between formal institutions (legal framework) and service provision realities </li></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>Thank You </li></ul><ul><li>Maria Rusca </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Rhodante Ahlers  </li>...
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Enabling Providers or Expanding Control? Standardized Reforms and the Diversity of Service Provision Modalities in Greater Maputo, Mozambique

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STEPS Water & Sanitation Symposium 2011

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Enabling Providers or Expanding Control? Standardized Reforms and the Diversity of Service Provision Modalities in Greater Maputo, Mozambique

  1. 1. Enabling Providers or Expanding Control? Standardized Reforms and the Diversity of Service Provision Modalities in Greater Maputo, Mozambique Maria Rusca, Rhodante Ahlers, Valeria Perez and Klaas Schwartz
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Legal and Policy Reforms in the 1990s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reforms in Mozambique </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Service Provision Realities in Maputo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The ‘Regulation’ of small-scale providers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Formalization as a ‘new’ policy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From informal to entrepreneur </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Formalization as a way to pursue formal regulation over Small-scale Independent Providers (SSIPs) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Legal and Policy Reforms in the 1990s <ul><li>Reform of policy and legal frameworks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Senegal (1995), Uganda (1997), Namibia (2000), Zambia (2001), Kenya (2002) and Tanzania (2002). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allowing for private sector involvement during the ‘water privatization decade’ (1993-2003) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mozambique: The National Water Policy (1995), Wat er Tariff Policy (1998), Delegated Management Framework (1998). </li></ul>
  4. 4. Legal and Policy Framework in Mozambique Source: Rusca 2009
  5. 5. Service Provision Reality: SSIPs in Maputo, Mozambique
  6. 6. SSIPs and the Existing Legal Framework Regulation by SSIP associations and social relations Multiple providers SSIPs own infrastructure Small-Scale Independent Providers Regulation by the formal regulator, CRA Single provider FIPAG owns infrastructure Existing Legal Framework
  7. 7. Formalization: From Informal to Entrepreneur <ul><li>Following the ‘privatization decade’ (1993-2003), SSIPs as the new Private Sector Champions </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>‘ small-scale entrepreneurs’ (Eales, 2008), </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>‘ independent water entrepreneurs’ (Solo, 2003) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>‘ local entrepreneurs’ (Conan, 2003) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>‘ harness entrepreneurship’ (Schaub-Jones, 2009) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Formalization also pursued in the Mozambican water sector </li></ul>
  8. 8. Formalization in Maputo <ul><li>In Maputo a formal SSIP should hold four licenses: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(i) a one-year license for water distribution issued by FIPAG; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(ii) a license for groundwater abstraction issued by ARA-Sul; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(iii) a license to occupy municipal land issued by the Municipalities; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(iv) a commercial license also issued by the Municipalities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Provides little security for SSIPs; does little to support provision of services by SSIPs. </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Regulatory Perspective on Formalization <ul><li>Increased regulation of SSIPs to comply with basic water quality standards, tariffs, and service level standards. </li></ul><ul><li>Formalization seen as temporary solution until the formal network can be expanded to achieve full service coverage. </li></ul><ul><li>Temporary contracts between the formal utility and the SSIPs (during the period that the formal network has not been expanded) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“… under the actual situation there are several networks operated by different providers. Furthermore, these networks are not conventional. Nobody wants a city like that …” (Employee of the Regulator, CRA) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Conclusions <ul><li>Mismatch between formal institutions (legal framework) and service provision realities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal institutions only apply to limited area of the city </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growing number of SSIPs, regulated through associations and social networks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Formalization mainly targeted at controlling SSIPs, rather than enabling them to improve services. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seen as a short-term necessity, which will disappear once the network is expanded </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Formal institutions remain guiding. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formalization as a way to ‘incorporate’ SSIPs in these formal institutions </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Thank You </li></ul><ul><li>Maria Rusca </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Rhodante Ahlers </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Valeria Perez </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Klaas Schwartz </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>

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