”Yes We Can!”Collective action as a pathway to improved rural livelihoods in Kenya and Uganda <br />Elina Andersson and Sa...
Food and rural livelihoods in Kenya and Uganda – changing realities <br />Soil, land and water<br />Climate and health<br ...
Case study areas<br />
”The soil is getting exhaused”<br />“Most of the water is not healthy”<br />“The rains are very unpredictable”<br />“Peopl...
Research methodology and methods<br />Nyando District, Kenya<br />2007-2010 <br />Tororo District, Uganda<br />2008-2010<b...
Research and current debates on collective action<br />Bourdieu<br />Coleman<br />Putnam<br />World Bank<br />”Social capi...
Conceptual and analytical framework:Communities of Practice<br />a) Common purpose – challenge and vision<br />b) Mutual e...
Empirical Findings - Exemplifying Common Purpose <br />“In the past these [groups] did not even exist because then everyon...
Through: SLM, agricultural diversification, labor pooling, savings and loans</li></li></ul><li>Empirical Findings - Exempl...
 Recurrent scheduled meetings and tasks</li></li></ul><li>Empirical Findings - Exemplifying Shared Experience<br />“Everyo...
 Social learning from both individual and community narratives </li></li></ul><li>Discussion<br />Motivations for collecti...
Conclusion<br />Communities of Practicepotentiallyenhances<br /><ul><li>the motivations to adopt sustainable land managmen...
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Elina Andersson and Sara Gabrielsson: ”Yes We Can!” Collective action as a pathway to improved rural livelihoods in Kenya and Uganda

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Presentation at the STEPS Conference 2010 - Pathways to Sustainability: Agendas for a new politics of environment, development and social justice

http://www.steps-centre.org/events/stepsconference2010.html

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  • Means:More labor required – more intensive use of available land needed, declining soil fertility=more labour intensive practices required (e.g. Incoporation of crop residues, biomass transfer, composting... + greater need for weeding, climate change=greater need for soil erosion prevention (labor demanding)Increasing pressure on land – makes experimentation risky and obstruct adoption and implementation of various practices/measuresIncreased risk and unpredicatability – greater need for security networks
  • SC has during recent years become an increasingly popular concept – emerged simultaneosly in various debates – embraced by WBDiverse meanings and appplications Not our concern here is not to discuss the stenghts and weaknesses of SC as a conceptBut have looked at the debate from various angles relavant for our study– part. NRM and genderEg. Gender impacts on motivations for collective action, effectiveness of CA, and impacts of CA on gender equity (Pandolfelli et al 2008)NRM – much focus on community NRM - common pool resourcesDue to it’s .... not the most apprporiate concept to use, even though ideas and insights within the debates of course are very relevantHave found the concept CoP more useful
  • Def of collective action (Vermillion in Meinzen-Dick et al 2000) ”coordinated behaviour of groups toward a common interest or purpose”
  • “Defining gender as an organising principle in society does not imply that women are a homogeneousgroup defined only by their gendered interests but rather that gender is one source ofidentity that women may mobilise around” (Pandolfelli et al)
  • Elina Andersson and Sara Gabrielsson: ”Yes We Can!” Collective action as a pathway to improved rural livelihoods in Kenya and Uganda

    1. 1. ”Yes We Can!”Collective action as a pathway to improved rural livelihoods in Kenya and Uganda <br />Elina Andersson and Sara GabrielssonLund University Centre for Sustainability Studies<br />
    2. 2. Food and rural livelihoods in Kenya and Uganda – changing realities <br />Soil, land and water<br />Climate and health<br />Soilfertilitydecline and erosion <br />Land pressure<br />Fewer livestock<br />Minimal use of organic and inorganicfertilizer<br />Decreasing water stocks<br />Erratic rainfall and increased drought <br />Rising temperatures and lower humidity<br />More under- and malnutrition<br />Rising incidence of diseases<br />Growing AIDS burden<br />
    3. 3. Case study areas<br />
    4. 4. ”The soil is getting exhaused”<br />“Most of the water is not healthy”<br />“The rains are very unpredictable”<br />“People are planting in areas where things are not suppose to be grown”<br />”Plants are short and not healthy”<br /> “Now the area lacks manpower because of HIV”<br />”Land is old”<br />”Wedon’t rest the land at all now”<br />“Malaria has increased. <br />It is the most deadly disease here.”<br />“There are new diseases which seem incurable. Animals don’t respond to the medicine”<br />“It is hotter today than in the past”<br />
    5. 5. Research methodology and methods<br />Nyando District, Kenya<br />2007-2010 <br />Tororo District, Uganda<br />2008-2010<br />Household Survey<br />Group interviews<br />Individual interviews<br />Seasonal Calendars<br />Key informants<br />Transect walks<br />Household Surveys<br />Group interviews<br />Participatory exercises: mapping, ranking, timelines<br />Key informants<br />Transect walks<br />
    6. 6. Research and current debates on collective action<br />Bourdieu<br />Coleman<br />Putnam<br />World Bank<br />”Social capital”<br />Collective action <br />Ostrom<br />Baland & Platteau<br />Agrawal<br />Molyneux<br />Mayoux<br />Gender<br />NRM<br />
    7. 7. Conceptual and analytical framework:Communities of Practice<br />a) Common purpose – challenge and vision<br />b) Mutual engagement- contribution and commitment <br />c) Shared experiences– trust and reciprocity,<br /> individual vs. community narrative<br />(modified from Wenger 1998)<br />
    8. 8. Empirical Findings - Exemplifying Common Purpose <br />“In the past these [groups] did not even exist because then everyone was growing a lot of food” <br /><ul><li>Improve the livelihoods of its members (food, finance, health, education)
    9. 9. Through: SLM, agricultural diversification, labor pooling, savings and loans</li></li></ul><li>Empirical Findings - Exemplifying Mutual Engagement <br />“The group members have certain responsibilities assigned to them”<br />- Manual work, land shares, money, equipment <br /><ul><li> Formalized procedures, activities and duties
    10. 10. Recurrent scheduled meetings and tasks</li></li></ul><li>Empirical Findings - Exemplifying Shared Experience<br />“Everyone contributes and you get support from other members if you are in trouble”<br />”By seeing [what the group is doing], many people can change”<br /><ul><li> Reciprocity beyond immediate goals
    11. 11. Social learning from both individual and community narratives </li></li></ul><li>Discussion<br />Motivations for collective action based on necessity<br />2. Collective action is relevant in a private land ownership context by:<br />a) raising awareness of a problem and influencing attitudes <br /> b) pooling of labour and other resources<br /> c) risk sharing through joint experimentation and adaptation of technologies <br /> d) networking within and beyond the community<br />2. Women as agents of change:<br /> a) initiators of collective action because of gendered division of labor and responsibilities<br /> b) managing risks - from coping individually to adapting collectively<br /> c) seekers of new opportunities - not only to ‘get by’ but to ‘get ahead´<br />3. Sustainability of actions, outcomes and organization<br /> a) multiple purposes <br /> b) long term perspective <br /> c) flexible and self-reinforcing process<br />
    12. 12. Conclusion<br />Communities of Practicepotentiallyenhances<br /><ul><li>the motivations to adopt sustainable land managment practices
    13. 13. the capacity to implement such practices</li></ul> by providing structures that can ease various constraints, facilitate coordination of actions and act as a risk-sharing device<br />Collective action is NOT a panacea (limitations and negative dimensions). Still, a potential pathway to improvedlivelihoods and community agency, as… <br />… Communities of Practiceplacesindividualresource management decisions in a wider social context, wherecollective action also shapes the conditions for making such decisons<br />

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