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Andy Stirling on Measuring Cultural Diversity

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Presentation by Andy Stirling, STEPS Centre co-director and SPRU science director entitled 'Measuring Cultural Diversity? a heuristic approach from science and technology policy'. This was presented to a meeting of the UNESCO Convention on Cultural Diversity in Barcelona on 1 December 2008

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Andy Stirling on Measuring Cultural Diversity

  1. 1. Measuring Cultural Diversity? a heuristic approach from science and technology policy Sussex Energy Group Andy Stirling, SPRU science and technology policy research presentation to meeting of the UNESCO Convention on Cultural Diversity on Measuring Cultural Diversity , Barcelona, 1 st December 2008
  2. 2. Sussex Energy Group Measuring Cultural Diversity? a heuristic approach from science and technology policy Andy Stirling, SPRU science and technology policy research presentation to meeting of the UN Convention on Cultural Diversity on Measuring Cultural Diversity , Barcelona, 1 st December 2008 <ul><li>Diversity in Cultures, Economies and Societies </li></ul><ul><li>Some Key Attributes of Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>A Framework for Analysing Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>An Illustrative Example in Policy-Making </li></ul>
  3. 3. Multiple Rationales for Diversity Many reasons for social / cultural / economic / technological diversity <ul><ul><li>reflect context diversity allows sensitivity to heterogeneous conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> minority cultures, ecological niches, geographical locii </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Multiple Rationales for Diversity <ul><ul><li>reflect context diversity allows sensitivity to heterogeneous conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>foster innovation diverse configurations and relations stimulate creativity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> dynamic interacting practices, paradigms, perspectives </li></ul></ul>Many reasons for social / cultural / economic / technological diversity
  5. 5. Multiple Rationales for Diversity <ul><ul><li>reflect context diversity allows sensitivity to heterogeneous conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>foster innovation diverse configurations and relations stimulate creativity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mitigate ‘lock-in’ diverse portfolios resist pressures to concentrate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> resist oligopoly, entrapment, monoculture, hegemony </li></ul></ul>Many reasons for social / cultural / economic / technological diversity
  6. 6. Multiple Rationales for Diversity <ul><ul><li>reflect context diversity allows sensitivity to heterogeneous conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>foster innovation diverse configurations and relations stimulate creativity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mitigate ‘lock-in’ diverse portfolios resist pressures to concentrate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hedge ignorance ‘eggs in different baskets’ ameliorates surprise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> reduce impacts unforeseen risks, vulnerabilities, shocks </li></ul></ul>Many reasons for social / cultural / economic / technological diversity
  7. 7. Multiple Rationales for Diversity <ul><ul><li>reflect context diversity allows sensitivity to heterogeneous conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>foster innovation diverse configurations and relations stimulate creativity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mitigate ‘lock-in’ diverse portfolios resist pressures to concentrate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hedge ignorance ‘eggs in different baskets’ ameliorates surprise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>promote resilience diversity offers a ‘response pool’ for adaptive strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> enables experimentation and adaptation to challenge </li></ul></ul>Many reasons for social / cultural / economic / technological diversity
  8. 8. Multiple Rationales for Diversity <ul><ul><li>reflect context diversity allows sensitivity to heterogeneous conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>foster innovation diverse configurations and relations stimulate creativity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mitigate ‘lock-in’ diverse portfolios resist pressures to concentrate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hedge ignorance ‘eggs in different baskets’ ameliorates surprise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>promote resilience diversity offers a ‘response pool’ for adaptive strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>accommodate dissent diversity helps reconcile plural values and interests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> facilitates choice, reduces stakes, resists polarisation </li></ul></ul>Many reasons for social / cultural / economic / technological diversity
  9. 9. Some Complexities of Diversity In economics (I guess like culture?) diversity is not a ‘free lunch’ <ul><ul><li>forces trade-offs lower priority options, reduced economies of scale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>transaction costs quality standards, administrative burdens </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Some Complexities of Diversity In economics: diversity is not a ‘free lunch’ Diversity can complicate governance <ul><ul><li>less momentum impeded development along ‘mainstream’ directions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lower coherence capacity for ambiguity, confusion, even conflict </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Some Complexities of Diversity Diversity can complicate governance Measuring diversity raises particular issues for democracy <ul><ul><li>inherently subjective intrinsic plurality both as object and by perspective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tensions with equity rhetorical resource for privilege and special pleading </li></ul></ul>In economics: diversity is not a ‘free lunch’ <ul><ul><li>generates novelty dynamic, inchoate, interactive, innovative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> - perceived positive pathways separate from diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can aid irresponsibility impede transparency, obstruct accountability? </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Some Complexities of Diversity Diversity can complicate governance Diversity raises issues for democracy In economics: diversity is not a ‘free lunch’ <ul><ul><li>Diversity is inherently an aggregate (system-level) property </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>not of a single element eg: not protection/promotion of specific expression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can vary at nested levels eg: global / regional / local are independent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>diversity is not a catch-all exists alongside other distinct cultural priorities </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Some Complexities of Diversity Diversity can complicate governance Diversity raises issues for democracy In economics: diversity is not a ‘free lunch’ <ul><ul><li>Positive or negative … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>diversity is always inherently complex / dynamic / plural / subjective ... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>requires systematic, transparent, accountable, heuristic framework </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. literature / music / film / art / theatre / dance / opera genres / styles / provenances / languages / subjects diversity can be increased in three different ways What is Cultural Diversity? – many different disciplines converge
  15. 15. increasing diversity variety number of genres in mix What is Cultural Diversity?
  16. 16. <ul><ul><li>widespread in economics and energy strategy, BUT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- partitioning of categories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>eg: ‘popular music’ or “pop, rock, rap, techno, soul…” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- when to start counting? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>eg: one record sale? one thousand? 1% of total sales? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- what about varying degrees of representation in cultural portfolio? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>eg: “90% / 5% / 5%” or “33% / 33% / 33%” ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- what about the degree to which genres are different from each other? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>eg: Italian / German / Russian orchestral vs orchestral / jazz / rock? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Category counting”: </li></ul></ul>Existing Approaches to Diversity: Variety variety number of genres in mix
  17. 17. increasing diversity balance evenness in allocations variety number of elements in mix What is Cultural Diversity?
  18. 18. balance evenness in allocations variety number of elements in mix increasing diversity What is Cultural Diversity?
  19. 19. balance evenness in allocations Existing Approaches to Diversity: Balance <ul><ul><li>- addresses problem of when to start counting (partitioning) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>eg: one record sale? one thousand? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- addresses varying degrees of allocation in total sales </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>eg: “90% / 5% / 5%” or “33% / 33% / 33%” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- still raise questions over ‘when is it one element and when two’? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>eg: “classic” / “opera / chamber / orchestral” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- treats elements as if they are all equally different from each other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>eg: “3 types of opera” / “rock, jazz, opera” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BUT: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Widespread in ecology & economics, more recently in energy policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>eg: Herfindahl (  i p i 2 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shannon ( –  i p i .ln p i ) </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. increasing diversity disparity degree of differences variety number of elements in mix balance evenness in contributions What is Cultural Diversity?
  21. 21. increasing diversity disparity degree of differences variety number of elements in mix balance evenness in contributions What is Cultural Diversity?
  22. 22. disparity degree of differences <ul><ul><li>Portfolio and taxonomic theories give elegant methods for representing disparity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- eg: Markowitz, Solow, Weitzman) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- represent particular parameters, taxonomies or geometries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BUT: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- do not accommodate contending parameters, taxonomies or geometries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- depend on multiple hidden variables (taxonomies, correlations, covariance, probability distributions) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- do not address importance of variety and balance </li></ul></ul>Existing Approaches to Diversity: Disparity <ul><ul><li>NEVERTHELESS : (whether explicit or acknowledged or not) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>systematic transparent characterising of disparity is central to diversity measurement </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><ul><li>Scaling of variety: where variety = 1,  = 0 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 Monotonicity of variety: for equal B, D;  rises monotonically with V </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monotonicity of balance: for given V, D;  rises monotonically with B </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monotonicity of disparity: for given V, B;  rises monotonically with D </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 Scaling of disparity: where aggregate difference = 0;  = 0 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6 Open Accommodation:  is symmetric to any perspective on disparity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8 Parsimony of Form:  has few components and simple structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explicit Aggregation:  allows explicit weightings on V, B and D </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7 Robust to Partitioning:  is insensitive to aggregation on taxonomy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10 Ready Articulation:  can be integrated with other priorities </li></ul></ul>Conditions for a General ‘Diversity Heuristic’
  24. 24. <ul><ul><li>Start with disparity: for any particular perspective, any cultural portfolio can </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>be represented in multidimensional ‘disparity space’ (of attributes, properties) </li></ul></ul>Constructing a General Diversity Heuristic <ul><ul><li>applies equally to: literature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>music </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>film </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>art </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>theatre </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>opera </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and diverse classical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>critical perspectives: populist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> avant garde </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> national bias </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> foreign bias </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> minority interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Challenge of Objectivity: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is intrinsic to any classification. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The task of a general diversity measure is to be symmetrical with respect to different classificatory schemes and yield transparent, definitive and comparable results across different taxonomies. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Distances between pairs of elements represent their mutual disparity ( d a,b ) a b c <ul><ul><li>Start with disparity: for any particular perspective, any diverse mix can </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>be represented in multidimensional ‘disparity space’ (of attributes, properties) </li></ul></ul>From Cultural Disparity to Cultural Diversity
  26. 26. Distances between pairs of elements represent their mutual disparity ( d a,b ) Disparity of a portfolio of elements is given as a function of these pairwise distances a b c d a,b d b,c and… Variety and balance can be captured by weighting this by the product of the proportional importance in the system of each element in the pair ( p i .p j ) <ul><ul><li>  = . p i .p j </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  ij (i  j) d ij </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Start with disparity: for any particular perspective, any diverse mix can </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>be represented in multidimensional ‘disparity space’ (of attributes, properties) </li></ul></ul>From Cultural Disparity to Cultural Diversity
  27. 27. Some Properties of the New Diversity Heuristic <ul><ul><li>easily shown to fulfill first six mathematical criteria: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  =  ij d ij .p i .p j </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1: if variety = 1;  = 0 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2:  rises monotonically with variety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3:  rises monotonically with balance unlike category counting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 :  rises monotonically with disparity unlike Herfindahl/Shannon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5: if disparity = 0;  = 0 unlike Herfindahl/Shannon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6:  generalises for any disparity attributes , d ij unlike MVPA, Weitzman </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Some Properties of the New Diversity Heuristic <ul><ul><li>  =  ij d ij .p i .p j </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easily shown to fulfill first six mathematical criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in addition:  is robust to partitioning (criterion 7) unlike Shannon, Herfindahl </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Some Properties of the New Diversity Heuristic PORTFOLIO A <ul><ul><li>  =  ij d ij .p i .p j </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easily shown to fulfill first six mathematical criteria </li></ul></ul>disparity <ul><ul><li>in addition:  is robust to partitioning (criterion 7) unlike Shannon, Herfindahl </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Some Properties of the New Diversity Heuristic rock rap opera PORTFOLIO A <ul><ul><li>  =  ij d ij .p i .p j </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easily shown to fulfill first six mathematical criteria </li></ul></ul>disparity <ul><ul><li>in addition:  is robust to partitioning (criterion 7) unlike Shannon, Herfindahl </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Some Properties of the New Diversity Heuristic PORTFOLIO A 70% 5% 25% <ul><ul><li>  =  ij d ij .p i .p j </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easily shown to fulfill first six mathematical criteria </li></ul></ul>disparity <ul><ul><li>in addition:  is robust to partitioning (criterion 7) unlike Shannon, Herfindahl </li></ul></ul>rock rap opera
  32. 32. Some Properties of the New Diversity Heuristic PORTFOLIO A PORTFOLIO B 70% 5% 25% 70% 25% 5% <ul><ul><li>  { A } >  { B } </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in addition:  is robust to partitioning (criterion 7) unlike Shannon, Herfindahl </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  =  ij d ij .p i .p j </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easily shown to fulfill first six mathematical criteria </li></ul></ul>disparity rock rap opera rock rap opera
  33. 33. Some Properties of the New Diversity Heuristic <ul><ul><li>  =  ij d ij .p i .p j </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allows exploring of weights on variety, balance, disparity (9) unique </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in addition:  is robust to partitioning (criterion 7) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easily shown to fulfill first six mathematical criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  ´ =  ij ( d ij ) . ( p i .p j ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Some Properties of the New Diversity Heuristic <ul><ul><li>  =  ij d ij .p i .p j </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allows exploring of weights on variety, balance, disparity (9) unique </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in addition:  is robust to partitioning (criterion 7) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easily shown to fulfill first six mathematical criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  ´ =  ij ( d ij ) . ( p i .p j ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  </li></ul></ul>  0 0  ´  ij d ij 0 diversity property variety
  35. 35. Some Properties of the New Diversity Heuristic <ul><ul><li>  =  ij d ij .p i .p j </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in addition:  is robust to partitioning (criterion 7) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easily shown to fulfill first six mathematical criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allows exploring of weights on variety, balance, disparity (9) unique </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  ´ =  ij ( d ij ) . ( p i .p j ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  </li></ul></ul>  0 0 0 1  ´  ij d ij 0  ij p i . p j diversity property variety balance
  36. 36. Some Properties of the New Diversity Heuristic <ul><ul><li>  =  ij d ij .p i .p j </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in addition:  is robust to partitioning (criterion 7) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easily shown to fulfill first six mathematical criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allows exploring of weights on variety, balance, disparity (9) unique </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  ´ =  ij ( d ij ) . ( p i .p j ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  </li></ul></ul>  0 0 0 1 1 0  ´  ij d ij 0  ij p i . p j  ij d ij diversity property variety balance disparity
  37. 37. Some Properties of the New Diversity Heuristic <ul><ul><li>  =  ij d ij .p i .p j </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  ´ =  ij ( d ij ) . ( p i .p j ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in addition:  is robust to partitioning (criterion 7) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easily shown to fulfill first six mathematical criteria </li></ul></ul>  0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1  ´  ij d ij 0  ij p i . p j  ij d ij  ij d ij . p i . p j diversity property variety balance disparity diversity <ul><ul><li>allows exploring of weights on variety, balance, disparity (9) unique </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Some Properties of the New Diversity Heuristic <ul><ul><li>New term,  ij , allows heuristic attention to coherence (10) unique </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> ie: electricity portfolio interactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  =  ij d ij .  ij .p i .p j </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allows exploring different weights on variety, balance, disparity (9) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in addition:  is robust to partitioning (criterion 7) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easily shown to fulfill first six mathematical criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> ij </li></ul></ul>PORTFOLIO A gas wind 75% 25%
  39. 39. Some Properties of the New Diversity Heuristic PORTFOLIO A <ul><ul><li>  =  ij d ij .  ij .p i .p j </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in addition:  is robust to partitioning (criterion 7) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easily shown to fulfill first six mathematical criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allows exploring different weights on variety, balance, disparity (9) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New term,  ij , allows heuristic attention to coherence (10) unique </li></ul><ul><ul><li> ie: electricity portfolio interactions ` </li></ul></ul>+ + gas wind 75% 25%
  40. 40. Some Properties of the New Diversity Heuristic + + 75% nuclear 25% wind PORTFOLIO B <ul><ul><li> value:  { A } > value:  { B } </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  =  ij d ij .  ij .p i .p j </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in addition:  is robust to partitioning (criterion 7) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easily shown to fulfill first six mathematical criteria </li></ul></ul>PORTFOLIO A <ul><ul><li>allows exploring different weights on variety, balance, disparity (9) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New term,  ij , allows heuristic attention to coherence (10) unique </li></ul><ul><ul><li> ie: electricity portfolio interactions </li></ul></ul>gas wind 75% 25%
  41. 41. Mapping Relations between Diversity and Priorities <ul><ul><li>APPRAISE PRIORITIES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>operational parameters / strategic criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CHARACTERISE DISPARITY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>attributes / functions / structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EXPLORE COHERENCE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>portfolio interactions, systemic effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ANALYSE RESULTS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>trade-offs, sensitivities, regularities, conditions </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Deriving Structures of Cultural Disparity criteria of cultural characteristics a b c <ul><ul><li>Any multivariate dataset can be normalised to yield a disparity space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In other words: existing statistics give disparity information for free – eg: </li></ul></ul>criteria of policy priority criteria of cultural provenance <ul><li>- non-English literary translations </li></ul><ul><li>indigenous literature </li></ul><ul><li>derivative literature </li></ul><ul><li>translated English literature </li></ul><ul><li>non-literary </li></ul><ul><li>cultural quality </li></ul><ul><li>cultural protection </li></ul><ul><li>cultural promotion </li></ul><ul><li>national value added </li></ul><ul><li>value for favoured economies </li></ul><ul><li>global value added </li></ul><ul><li>gender - age group - ethnic minorities - religion </li></ul><ul><li>region - urban / rural - sexual orientation - nationality </li></ul>d a,b d b,c
  43. 43. <ul><ul><li>increasing disparity distance, d </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>similar options linked at low values of d </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>similar options linked </li></ul></ul>Stylised Example: Disparity in Publishing <ul><ul><li>Detailed multicriteria diversity analysis reveals structure of energy diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>national popular biography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>national popular history </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>national popular crime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>national popular mystery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>national popular romance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>national other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>national literary biography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>national literary history </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>national contemporary literature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>national classical literature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>derivatives of national literature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Latin America literary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Latin America popular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>African literary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>African popular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>other non-English </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>South Asian literary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>South Asian popular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>East Asian literary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>East Asian popular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>English literary translations Engish translated popular fiction Engish translated documentary </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><ul><li>d </li></ul></ul>Conventional ‘Category Counting’ <ul><ul><li>Treats each named category as equally diverse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>national popular biography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>national popular history </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>national popular crime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>national popular mystery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>national popular romance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>national other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>national literary biography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>national literary history </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>national contemporary literature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>national classical literature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>derivatives of national literature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Latin America literary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Latin America popular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>African literary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>African popular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>other non-English </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>South Asian literary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>South Asian popular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>East Asian literary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>East Asian popular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>English literary translations Engish translated popular fiction Engish translated documentary </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. <ul><ul><li>national popular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>national biography / history </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>national literary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>foreign translations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>English translations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d </li></ul></ul>Subjective Aggregation of Publishing Disparity <ul><ul><li>Open to manipulation by expedient category aggregation – eg: ‘renewables’ </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. <ul><ul><li>Detailed multicriteria diversity analysis reveals structure of disparities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>national popular fiction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>national literary fiction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>foreign translations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>English translations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>foreign derivatives of national literature </li></ul></ul>Systematic Picture of Publishing Disparity <ul><ul><li>national popular biography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>national popular history </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>national popular crime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>national popular mystery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>national popular romance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>national other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>national literary biography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>national literary history </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>national contemporary literature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>national classical literature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>derivatives of national literature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Latin America literary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Latin America popular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>African literary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>African popular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>other non-English </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>South Asian literary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>South Asian popular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>East Asian literary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>East Asian popular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>English literary translations Engish translated popular fiction Engish translated documentary </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. <ul><ul><li>Seek best diversity / priority trade-off over all possible portfolios </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>under each particular perspective (eg: for three elements) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>value attached to cultural diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>value attached to other cultural priorities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(indigenous expression, economic value) </li></ul></ul>Mapping Cultural Diversity and Policy Priorities
  48. 48. <ul><ul><li>dominant portfolios lie on this boundary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>priority </li></ul></ul>Mapping Diversity against Priorities <ul><ul><li>Seek best diversity / priority trade-off over all possible portfolios </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>under each particular perspective (eg: for three elements) </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. <ul><ul><li>Identifies ‘surface’ of preferable diverse mixes for each perspective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>without assuming any particular form to diversity / priority trade-off </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>100% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>portfolio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>contribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>0% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>heuristic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ conditional optimisation’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>max priorities trade-off max diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> – each perspective / dataset treated separately </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> – allows exploration of sensitivities / perspectives </li></ul></ul>Schematic Results
  50. 50. Exploring Sensitivities heuristic framework for analysis and reflexive deliberation catalyst for a more open, accessible politics of diversity <ul><ul><li>X </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Y </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Z </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>include different viewpoints </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. Conclusions Many reasons for social / cultural / economic / technical diversity But … cultural diversity also presents economic and political challenges Nature of cultural diversity and desirable degree are inherently subjective Three properties: variety , balance and especially disparity offer framework This yields a flexible heuristic to explore perspectives & trade-offs  =  ij d ij . p i .p j Avoids contingencies of simply counting arbitrary categories Aids more systematic, transparent and accountable ‘democracy of diversity’ Allows exploration / representation of relations and conditions linking cultural diversity and other cultural policy priorities

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