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Legislation
CMSs
Plans
History
BCCM Act 1997
Regulation Modules
…………
CMS
Lot Entitlements
By-Laws
………….
Plans
Introduction
History
• The Torrens System of title registration was
introduced into Queensland by the Real Property
Act (Qld) 1861
• Pr...
History
• 1965 - Building Units Titles Act
• 1973 - Group Titles Act
• 1980 - Building Units & Group Titles Act 1980
• 198...
BCCMA
Body Corporate and Community Management Act 1997
• Took effect from 13 July 1997
• Introduced Community Management S...
BCCMA
• Primary object of the Act:
The primary object of this Act is to provide for
flexible and contemporary communally b...
BCCMA
• How the primary object is to be achieved:
For the achievement of its primary object this
Act provides for –
(a) th...
BCCMA
• The secondary objects are:
(a) to balance the rights of individuals with the
responsibility for self management as...
BCCMA
• The secondary objects are:
(d) to provide a legislative framework
accommodating future trends in community
titling...
BCCMA
• The secondary objects are:
(g) to provide appropriate level of consumer
protection for owners and intending buyers...
BCCMA
The Act and the Regulation Modules are regulated by the
Office of the Commissioner for Body Corporate and
Community ...
Regulation Modules
The Regulation Modules contain guidelines about:
• Composition and operation of the committee
• Meeting...
Regulation Modules
Standard– default (no particular requirements)
Accommodation – lots predominantly for
accommodation
Com...
Regulation Modules
Regulation Modules
Regulation Modules
• If the body corporate was created prior to 13 July 1997 it
had 3 years to adopt a regulation module a...
Example of automated CMS
Community Management Statement
• A CMS is defined by Section 12 of the Act as a document that:-
(a) identifies land;
(b) c...
Community Management Statement
CMS - Includes components to identify the scheme land:
• Identifying information – name, un...
Community Management Statement
• Recording of CMS takes effect under Section 115 of the Land
Titles Act 1994
• Lodged with...
Community Management Statement
• New CMS must be approved by the body corporate
• New CMS must be dated, signed and sealed...
Community Management Statement
• Section 62 of the BCCMA provides:
(a) the body’s corporate consent must be in the form
of...
Community Management Statement
• Section 62 of the BCCMA (continued):
(c) consent to the recording of a new CMS need not
b...
Community Management Statement
• Section 62 of the BCCMA (continued):
(iii) changing the CMS to give effect to an approved...
Community Management Statement
• Section 62 of the BCCMA (continued):
(vii) showing the location of a service easement by ...
Community Management Statement
Schedule A – Lot entitlements
• The original owner determines the lot entitlements when pre...
Community Management Statement
Interest Schedule Lot Entitlements
• Generally required to reflect the market value of each...
Community Management Statement
Contribution Schedule Lot Entitlements
• Used to determine the proportion of the administra...
Community Management Statement
Community Management Statement
• A resolution without dissent is required to change the contribution
schedule lot entitlem...
Community Management Statement
• An owner is only entitled to make an application to QCAT (or specialist
adjudication) to ...
Community Management Statement
A resolution without dissent is required to change
the interest schedule lot entitlements.
...
Community Management Statement
• The Body Corporate is required to enforce the by-laws
• By-laws may only provide for the ...
Community Management Statement
• By law will be invalid if it:
• is inconsistent with BCCMA, regulation module or another ...
Plans
• The Land Title Act 1994 explains the available types of Plan Format
• The plan is created by a licensed surveyor u...
Plans
• Section 48B LTA
• A standard format plan of survey defines land using a horizontal plane
and references to marks o...
Plans
• Section 48C LTA
• A building format plan of survey defines land using the structural
elements of a building including, f...
Plans
Boundaries
• On building format plans, the boundaries of a lot are represented by
hard black lines.
• In the previous diag...
Section 48D LTA
A volumetric format plan of survey defines land using 3-dimensional
located points to identify the positio...
Plans
Question Time!
Question 1: the chairperson, Terry, hates the
building manager. Terry instructs you to draft a
motion for t...
Question Time!
Question 2: Bob enters into a contract to sell his
unit. The complex was constructed in 1981. The
purchaser...
Question Time!
Question 3: The CMS includes a by-law that
provides “an owner or occupier must not keep
a dog in their lot”...
Question Time!
Question 3: The CMS includes a by-law that
provides “an owner or occupier must not keep
a dog in their lot”...
Question Time!
Question 4: The owner of a large industrial
warehouse wants you to help her to subdivide
the lot into 2 lot...
Question Time!
Question 5: Anna owns a ground floor apartment
in a five storey apartment block in Ascot. The
garden in her...
Question Time!
Question 6: Dennis is developing an eco-
estate in the rainforest near Mapleton.
Although the lots will com...
Question Time!
Question 7: Cavrim is a developer that has acquired
a large site on Brisbane Rd at Mooloolaba. It wants to
...
Question Time!
Question 8: Faulty Towers community titles
scheme is a staged development. Stage 1
comprised 20 standard fo...
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Strata Law - Legislation, CMSs and Plans - Andrew Suttie

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Body Corporate and Strata Law - Community Titles Schemes, discussion of the Body Corporate and Community Management Act Queensland, plans and related issues

(September 3 2015, Sunshine Coast Strata Learning Group, Session 1)

Published in: Law
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Strata Law - Legislation, CMSs and Plans - Andrew Suttie

  1. 1. Legislation CMSs Plans
  2. 2. History BCCM Act 1997 Regulation Modules ………… CMS Lot Entitlements By-Laws …………. Plans Introduction
  3. 3. History • The Torrens System of title registration was introduced into Queensland by the Real Property Act (Qld) 1861 • Prior to 1965 Queensland did not have a statutory system of title for units or flats • Ownership was achieved through: - “company titles schemes” - “lease schemes” or - “tenancy in common schemes”
  4. 4. History • 1965 - Building Units Titles Act • 1973 - Group Titles Act • 1980 - Building Units & Group Titles Act 1980 • 1985 - Sanctuary Cove Resort Act • 1988 - Retirement Villages Act • 1983 - Mixed Use Development Act • 1987 - Integrated Resort Development Act • 1989 - South Bank Corporation Act • 1997 - BCCMA and Regulations • 2008 - new Regulations
  5. 5. BCCMA Body Corporate and Community Management Act 1997 • Took effect from 13 July 1997 • Introduced Community Management Statements (CMS) • Basic requirements for CTS: • 2 or more lots • Common Property • CTS established by recording CMS and Survey Plan • Regulation Modules
  6. 6. BCCMA • Primary object of the Act: The primary object of this Act is to provide for flexible and contemporary communally based arrangements for the use of freehold land, having regard to the secondary objects.
  7. 7. BCCMA • How the primary object is to be achieved: For the achievement of its primary object this Act provides for – (a) the establishment of community titles schemes; and (b) the operation and management of community titles schemes.
  8. 8. BCCMA • The secondary objects are: (a) to balance the rights of individuals with the responsibility for self management as an inherent aspect of a CTS; (b) to promote economic development by establishing sufficiently flexible administrative and management arrangements for a CTS; (c) to encourage the tourism potential of community titles schemes without diminishing the rights and responsibilities of owners, and intending buyers, of lots in a CTS;
  9. 9. BCCMA • The secondary objects are: (d) to provide a legislative framework accommodating future trends in community titling; (e) to ensure the body corporate for a CTS has control of the common property and body corporate assets it is responsible for managing on behalf of owners of lot in the CTS; (f) to provide bodies corporate with the flexibility they need in their operations and dealings to accommodate changing circumstances within a CTS;
  10. 10. BCCMA • The secondary objects are: (g) to provide appropriate level of consumer protection for owners and intending buyers of lots included in a CTS (h) to ensure accessibility to information about CTS issues; (i) to provide an efficient and effective dispute resolution process
  11. 11. BCCMA The Act and the Regulation Modules are regulated by the Office of the Commissioner for Body Corporate and Community Management, which: • has exclusive jurisdiction to determine disputes that are not Complex Disputes • provides an information service for the public • provides a conciliation service for the resolution of disputes • provides an adjudication service for the resolution of disputes
  12. 12. Regulation Modules The Regulation Modules contain guidelines about: • Composition and operation of the committee • Meeting procedures and requirements • Engaging Body Corporate Managers and Building Managers • Financial management • Property Management • Insurance • Administrative (roles and records)
  13. 13. Regulation Modules Standard– default (no particular requirements) Accommodation – lots predominantly for accommodation Commercial – lots predominantly commercial Small Schemes – must be a basic scheme, no more than 6 lots and no letting agent Specified Two-Lot Schemes - only 2 lots, not part of a layered arrangement, no letting agent, residential lots only
  14. 14. Regulation Modules
  15. 15. Regulation Modules
  16. 16. Regulation Modules • If the body corporate was created prior to 13 July 1997 it had 3 years to adopt a regulation module and record a new CMS, failing which it was deemed to have adopted the Standard Module and a standard CMS was generated for the scheme. • A change of regulation modules requires: • Special Resolution • BCCM Form 19 • New CMS recorded at titles office
  17. 17. Example of automated CMS
  18. 18. Community Management Statement • A CMS is defined by Section 12 of the Act as a document that:- (a) identifies land; (b) complies with the requirements of the Act. • A CMS is a statutory contract between the body corporate and the owners and occupiers of Lots within a CTS. • A CMS must be recorded to create a CTS. • A CMS has no effect unless it is recorded. • A CMS can not be changed. Any approved amendments to a CMS must be incorporated into a new CMS for recording at the Titles Office.
  19. 19. Community Management Statement CMS - Includes components to identify the scheme land: • Identifying information – name, unique number (allocated by the Titles Office when the CTS is registered), address for service • Regulation module • Contribution schedule and interest schedule (Schedule A) • Future Development (Schedule B) • By-Laws (Schedule C) • Statutory easements; service location diagrams; landscape and architectural codes (Schedule D) • Exclusive Use allocations and plans (Schedule E)
  20. 20. Community Management Statement • Recording of CMS takes effect under Section 115 of the Land Titles Act 1994 • Lodged with the General Request Form 14 • CMS must comply with format required by registrar (e.g. EU plans) • Registrar is not required to check whether CMS is compliant (e.g. by-laws) • First CMS must be signed by the original owner (i.e. the owner of the land which is being subdivided to form the CTS)
  21. 21. Community Management Statement • New CMS must be approved by the body corporate • New CMS must be dated, signed and sealed by 2 committee members, one of whom must be the chairperson or secretary (unless otherwise approved) – make sure the seal is legible! • Must be lodged within 3 months of approval
  22. 22. Community Management Statement • Section 62 of the BCCMA provides: (a) the body’s corporate consent must be in the form of a resolution without dissent; (b) however, consent may be in the form of a special resolution if the difference between the existing CMS and the new CMS is limited to the following: (i) differences in the by-laws (other than exclusive use by-laws); or (ii) changing to a different regulation module for the CTS.
  23. 23. Community Management Statement • Section 62 of the BCCMA (continued): (c) consent to the recording of a new CMS need not be in the form of a resolution without dissent or special resolution if the new CMS is different from the existing CMS only to the extent necessary for one or more of the following: (i) compliance with a provision of the Act under which the body corporate is required to lodge a request to record a new CMS for a purpose stated in the provision; (ii) compliance with the order of an adjudicator or District Court made under the Act for the lodging of a request for the recording of the new CMS;
  24. 24. Community Management Statement • Section 62 of the BCCMA (continued): (iii) changing the CMS to give effect to an approved reinstatement process; (iv) changing the CTS to reflect formal acquisition affecting the CTS; (v) recording the details of allocations of common property made under an exclusive use by-law; (vi) implementation of any development proposed under the existing CMS or under the provisions of a CMS to which the existing CMS is subject;
  25. 25. Community Management Statement • Section 62 of the BCCMA (continued): (vii) showing the location of a service easement by a services location diagram; (viii) amalgamating or subdividing Lots in the CTS (provided there is no effect on common property or contribution or interest entitlements for existing Lots); or (ix) reproducing the CMS without any change of substance.
  26. 26. Community Management Statement Schedule A – Lot entitlements • The original owner determines the lot entitlements when preparing the first CMS for the scheme. • There are two schedules of lot entitlements recorded in the CMS: • Contribution Schedule Lot Entitlements; and • Interest Schedule Lot Entitlements • Since 2011, new schemes are required to adopt one of the following deciding principles when determining lot entitlements: • Interest Schedule Lot Entitlements • Market Value Principle • Contribution Schedule Lot Entitlements • Equality Principle; or • Relativity Principle
  27. 27. Community Management Statement Interest Schedule Lot Entitlements • Generally required to reflect the market value of each lot • Used to determine: • each lot owner’s share of the common property • each lot owner’s share in the scheme land and body corporate assets in the event the scheme is terminated • government rates, land tax and other statutory charges based on land value • any levy raised for the purpose of insuring the buildings on scheme land
  28. 28. Community Management Statement Contribution Schedule Lot Entitlements • Used to determine the proportion of the administrative and sinking fund levies that are to be paid by the owner of a lot • Used to determine the value of a lot owner’s vote when voting on an ordinary resolution by poll vote
  29. 29. Community Management Statement
  30. 30. Community Management Statement • A resolution without dissent is required to change the contribution schedule lot entitlements. • The relevant motion must: • include the proposed new entitlements; • include the reason for the new entitlements; • ensure the new entitlements are consistent with a deciding principle. • Owners of two or more lots can agree in writing to redistribute amongst themselves the lot entitlements for their lots. The committee can approve a new CMS that changes the lot entitlements in this way, as long as the total entitlements do not change and no common property is affected.
  31. 31. Community Management Statement • An owner is only entitled to make an application to QCAT (or specialist adjudication) to challenge the contribution schedule lot entitlements in the following circumstances: • A material change has occurred at the scheme since the contribution schedule lot entitlements were decided; • The new contribution schedule lot entitlements approved at a general meeting are inconsistent with the relevant deciding principle; or • The scheme was established after April 2011 and the contribution schedule lot entitlements are not consistent with the deciding principle
  32. 32. Community Management Statement A resolution without dissent is required to change the interest schedule lot entitlements. An owner can apply to QCAT or a specialist adjudicator to change the interest schedule lot entitlements to ensure they are consistent with the Market Value Principle.
  33. 33. Community Management Statement • The Body Corporate is required to enforce the by-laws • By-laws may only provide for the following: • The administration, management and control of the common property and body corporate assets • The regulation of, and conditions applying to, the use and enjoyment of: • lots included in the scheme; • common property, including utility infrastructure; • body corporate assets, including easement areas relevant to common property; and • services and amenities supplied by the body corporate. • Other matters the BCCMA permits to be included in by-laws.
  34. 34. Community Management Statement • By law will be invalid if it: • is inconsistent with BCCMA, regulation module or another Act; • restricts the type of residential use in circumstances where a lot can be lawfully used for residential purposes; • restricts or prevents a transmission, transfer mortgage or other dealing in relation to a lot; • discriminates between types of occupiers; • imposes a monetary liability on an occupier or owner of a lot; • is oppressive or unreasonable.
  35. 35. Plans • The Land Title Act 1994 explains the available types of Plan Format • The plan is created by a licensed surveyor under the directions issued by the Registrar There are 3 common types of Plans: • Standard Format Plan - Defined by land boundaries (previously Group Titles Plan) • Building Format Plan – Defined by boundaries of buildings structures (previously Building Units Plan) • Volumetric Format Plan –subdivided air space – 3 dimensional
  36. 36. Plans • Section 48B LTA • A standard format plan of survey defines land using a horizontal plane and references to marks on the ground. • Example of marks— Survey pegs in the ground.
  37. 37. Plans
  38. 38. • Section 48C LTA • A building format plan of survey defines land using the structural elements of a building including, for example, floors, walls and ceilings. • “structural elements”, of a building, includes projections of, and references to, structural elements of the building. • Projections might be used to define a lot that includes a balcony, courtyard, roof garden or other area not bounded, or completely bounded, by a floor, walls and a ceiling. Plans
  39. 39. Plans
  40. 40. Boundaries • On building format plans, the boundaries of a lot are represented by hard black lines. • In the previous diagram, the plan of level A shows the common property and part of the 4 lots (units) that together make up the scheme land. • The plan of level B shows the balance part of the 4 lots and a common property balcony running along the eastern side of the building. The thin line that outlines the balcony indicates that the balcony is common property. • Note the balcony attached to the western side of Lots 2 and 3. The hard black lines define the boundary of Lots 2 and 3. The thin line shows that each balcony is within the boundary of Lots 2 and 3, and consequently the owners have the responsibility to maintain the balconies in good condition. Plans
  41. 41. Section 48D LTA A volumetric format plan of survey defines land using 3-dimensional located points to identify the position, shape and dimensions of each bounding surface. Plans
  42. 42. Plans
  43. 43. Question Time! Question 1: the chairperson, Terry, hates the building manager. Terry instructs you to draft a motion for the AGM to amend the CMS by changing the regulation module from Accommodation to Standard. Can that be done? If so, what resolution is required? What affect will the change have on the building manager’s business?
  44. 44. Question Time! Question 2: Bob enters into a contract to sell his unit. The complex was constructed in 1981. The purchaser’s solicitor conducts a search of the CMS and the plan and discovers that the large rooftop area, which Bob claims is for his exclusive use, is recorded on the plan as common property. Bob is certain the rooftop area is his and contacts you to sort out the mess. What other searches might you conduct? If it is that the rooftop area is not Bob’s, what will need to happen to rectify the issue?
  45. 45. Question Time! Question 3: The CMS includes a by-law that provides “an owner or occupier must not keep a dog in their lot”. Mrs Hinkerboomer recently lost her husband, sold the family home and moved into lot 42 with her two pet German Shepherds without seeking body corporate approval. The committee want the dogs removed. What is your advice to the committee?
  46. 46. Question Time! Question 3: The CMS includes a by-law that provides “an owner or occupier must not keep a dog in their lot”. Mrs Hinkerboomer recently lost her husband, sold the family home and moved into lot 42 with her two pet German Shepherds without seeking body corporate approval. The committee wants the dogs removed. What is your advice to the committee?
  47. 47. Question Time! Question 4: The owner of a large industrial warehouse wants you to help her to subdivide the lot into 2 lots as part of a community titles scheme. She is particularly interested in adopting the specified 2-lot module to keep administrative costs down. What steps are required to establish the community titles scheme? Is the specified 2-lot scheme the way to go?
  48. 48. Question Time! Question 5: Anna owns a ground floor apartment in a five storey apartment block in Ascot. The garden in her exclusive use courtyard is the pride of the building. The exclusive use by-law provides that Anna is responsible for the maintenance and operating costs in relation to the exclusive use area. At this years AGM the body corporate resolved to repaint the building. The committee directs you to seek reimbursement from Anna for painting the wall between her lot and her exclusive use courtyard. What advice do you give the committee?
  49. 49. Question Time! Question 6: Dennis is developing an eco- estate in the rainforest near Mapleton. Although the lots will comprise stand-alone houses with enough distance from each other to feel very private, it is cheaper for Dennis to establish the scheme under a building format plan of subdivision. However, Dennis wants every owner to be responsible for the maintenance of their own homes and to pay equally for the common facilities. What advice do you give Dennis?
  50. 50. Question Time! Question 7: Cavrim is a developer that has acquired a large site on Brisbane Rd at Mooloolaba. It wants to establish a mixed-use development including an exclusive hotel, which it intends to sell, and, downstairs, an entertainment precinct with restaurants, bars, clubs and a live music hall. The building’s extensive carpark is to be located between the hotel and the entertainment precinct to ensure adequate sound separation. Cavrin wants to retain the entertainment precinct for itself and requests your advice about the best structure to ensure the entertainment precinct operates completely independently of the hotel.
  51. 51. Question Time! Question 8: Faulty Towers community titles scheme is a staged development. Stage 1 comprised 20 standard format plan townhouses which didn’t sell too well and the developer went into liquidation. The mortgagee sold the development lot to a new developer who completed stage 2 as 20 building format plan townhouses. All the entitlements are equal. What problems is the scheme likely to encounter? How can the potential problems be alleviated?

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