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Beyond Memory and
Experience
The Challenges & Opportunities for Museums in the
Internet Century
MuseumNext
Geneva
20 April 2015
Stephen Feber Ltd
stephenfeber@me.com
#stephenfeberltd
So, What are the Big
Trends This Century?
So, What are the Big
Trends This Century?
Some Things Will Stay the Same
We Will Still Like
Things
This animated timeline looks back over 1,000,000 years to the probable first use of controlled fire. The timeline is very se...
This animated timeline looks back over 1,000,000 years to the probable first use of controlled fire. The timeline is very se...
And We’ll Keep Some of
Them in Museums and
Galleries
The British Museum. One of the world’s great museums and a repository of material given, bought and occasionally plundered...
A gallery arranged in the religious, adoration-of-the-object style.
And We’ll Still Be…
Creatures
‘Creatures’ is simply a shorthand way of saying that we will, despite all of the changes tha...
Maslovian Creatures
This is Maslow simplified to 3 layers, a basic structuring; social, intellectual and spiritual. In the ...
Maslovian Creatures
Building and
physical spaces
Gallery
and Exhibition
Thinking
SocialCultural
Basic
Intellectual & Spiri...
When Exploring and Experiencing
Museums We’ll Still Do 4 Things
There are many ways of imagining and thinking about the le...
When Exploring and Experiencing
Museums We’ll Still Do 4 Things
Experience Reflect Think
Act
Visit
There are many ways of i...
And We’ll Do These Over and
Over In a Discovery Cycle
And We’ll Do These Over and
Over In a Discovery Cycle
Experience
Reflect
Think
Act
Experience
Reflect
Think
Act
Experience
R...
We Do This in the Museum As a
Physiological and Sensory ‘Melody’
These moments of physiological and cognitive intersection...
We Do This in the Museum As a
Physiological and Sensory ‘Melody’
0
50
100
150
200
Talk Walk Stand Hear Read Touch Interact...
We Could Measure This
But We Have Crude Methods - Currently
This is a concealed prediction within the presentation – here ...
We Could Measure This
But We Have Crude Methods - Currently
Talk Walk Stand Hear Read Touch Interact
Smell
Visit
This is a...
As This Happens We Move Up
and Down the Maslow Hierarchies
Also an imagining - here the basic idea is that the physical fo...
As This Happens We Move Up
and Down the Maslow Hierarchies
Talk Walk Stand Hear Read Touch Interact Smell
Also an imaginin...
The Physical and Intellectual Design of
the Museum Should Facilitate These
Movements
The Physical and Intellectual Design of
the Museum Should Facilitate These
Movements
Building and
physical spaces
Gallery
...
As We Do This We Use
Different Ways of Knowing
Multiple Intelligences; the Work of Howard Gardner. Gardner’s work is highl...
As We Do This We Use
Different Ways of Knowing
Multiple Intelligences; the Work of Howard Gardner. Gardner’s work is highl...
These Are Idiosyncratic
These 3 Pie chart slides simply suggest that our different intelligences can be thought of as a diff...
Our Cognitive Signature
Until quite recently (and the advent of the digital signing device) a glance at the delivery man’s...
Our Cognitive Signature
Until quite recently (and the advent of the digital signing device) a glance at the delivery man’s...
The Museum Design Should
Let These Flow
Talk Walk Stand Hear Read Touch
Interact Smell
Here is the ideal, cognitively appr...
The Museum Design Should
Let These Flow
Talk Walk Stand Hear Read Touch
Interact Smell
This
Here is the ideal, cognitively...
The Museum Design Should
Let These Flow
Talk Walk Stand Hear Read Touch
Interact Smell
This
Support This
Here is the ideal...
The Museum Design Should
Let These Flow
Talk Walk Stand Hear Read Touch
Interact Smell
This
Support This
To Allow This
Her...
Museums (Like Schools) Do Not Fit Our
Physiological and Cognitive Processes
Most museums however are ‘wall bound’, anti flo...
Museums (Like Schools) Do Not Fit Our
Physiological and Cognitive Processes
Most museums however are ‘wall bound’, anti flo...
And they often look like this – this is the National Museum of Bahrain.
This is a shop in Manama the capital of Bahrain – it's interesting how the taxonomic imperative which is expressed by the ...
University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia
Harrods, London
Very temporary exhibition of edible collection. Edible Harrods, London
Are We Thinking?
It is perhaps going too far to suggest that museum going and shopping share an easy browsing mode and tha...
Are We Thinking?
Or Shopping?
It is perhaps going too far to suggest that museum going and shopping share an easy browsing...
Does the Museum Fit
Us?
Is our adaptability actually a problem?
Does the Museum Fit
Us?
Or Do We Fit Ourselves to the Museum?
Is our adaptability actually a problem?
21st Century Trends
Trend 1
We’ll Live Longer
Trend 1
We’ll Live Longer
Ageing in the Digital Age
This animation draws on the work of Hans Rosling at Gapminder
This animation draws on the work of Hans Rosling at Gapminder
Aubrey de Grey….
6 Ages of Man and Woman
'I think we're in striking distance
of keeping people so healthy that
at 90 they'...
Aubrey de Grey….
6 Ages of Man and Woman
'I think we're in striking distance
of keeping people so healthy that
at 90 they'...
This is an illustrative graphic only and looks at the population in the United Kingdom over the period between 1950 and 21...
This is an illustrative graphic only and looks at the population in the United Kingdom over the period between 1950 and 21...
As We Age ‘Cohort Overlap’
Decreases
Decades 1915-25 1925-35 1935-45 1945-55 1955-65 1965-75 1975-85 1985-95 2005-05 2005-...
As We Grow The Neural
Network Grows
This slide and the next three suggest a simple graphic view of our growing neural netw...
As We Age
We are also used to thinking that ageing is attended by decline; that we lose mental acuity as we get older.
It Shrinks
Is this inevitable?
These slides is an animation which shows a visualisation of the growth of a network. It stands a proxy for the development...
The network is a map of
our identity
These slides is an animation which shows a visualisation of the growth of a network. ...
Image is hugely important in the structure of memory and images of people are critical to many aspects of memory, connecti...
Image is hugely important in the structure of memory and images of people are critical to many aspects of memory, connecti...
People are important but so are things; as museums abundantly demonstrate
But we have an over abundance of things - capitalism has its downsides
Longevity seems like a good
thing but may present huge
challenges to our sense of self
As We Age ‘Cohort Overlap’
Decreases
Decades 1915-25 1925-35 1935-45 1945-55 1955-65 1965-75 1975-85 1985-95 2005-05 2005-...
Trend 2
From Analogue to Digital
We’ll cease to speak of the Internet in 10 years time. Just as we have ceased to speak of...
Trend 2
From Analogue to Digital
It Starts in 1936
We’ll cease to speak of the Internet in 10 years time. Just as we have ...
These 3 images show Vannevar Bush, Alan Turing and the Manchester Mark 1 - which was one of the earliest stored-program
co...
These 3 images show Vannevar Bush, Alan Turing and the Manchester Mark 1 - which was one of the earliest stored-program
co...
These 3 images show Vannevar Bush, Alan Turing and the Manchester Mark 1 - which was one of the earliest stored-program
co...
Trend 3
Computing Power Rises
Cost Falls
When Turing’s insights are applied in the Post Second World War period remarkable...
Trend 3
Computing Power Rises
Cost Falls
Moore’s Law
When Turing’s insights are applied in the Post Second World War perio...
Millions of Instructions Per Second Versus
Cost
Electromechanical
10
-6
10
-4
10
-2
1
10
2
10
4
10
6
10
8
10
10
Relay
Vacu...
Millions of Instructions Per Second Versus
Cost
0
3.5
7
10.5
14
0 2.5 5 7.5 10
Electromechanical
10
-6
10
-4
10
-2
1
10
2
...
And so…..
Falling Cost
Rising Power
And so…..
Falling Cost
Rising Power
Equals a Revolution
Worldwide Internet Usage
2000 - 2014
350 Million 3 Billion
World Bank Figures for Internet take-up
Worldwide Internet Usage
2000 - 2014
0
750,000,000
1,500,000,000
2,250,000,000
3,000,000,000
2000 2014
Africa Asia Europe ...
Internet Penetration Rates
Internet Penetration Rates
Africa Asia Europe Middle East North America Latin America Oceania Australia
72%
52%
87%
48%
70...
3 Convergent Forces
These three forces are taken from Schmidt and Rosenberg’s new book 'How Google Works' (2014)
3 Convergent Forces
1. The Internet has made information and
knowledge either free or very cheap - practically
everything ...
3 Convergent Forces
1. The Internet has made
knowledge
everything is online
2. Mobile devices and networks have made globa...
3 Convergent Forces
1. The Internet has made
knowledge
everything is online
2. Mobile devices and networks
reach and
avail...
This Changes
Almost Everything
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Buying - delivery - shopping
Buying - delivery - shopping
City Mapper Talks to:
• Apple Maps
• Google maps
• Waze
Uses:
• Open Street Map
• TfL data feeds
• Citymapper software
• G...
City Mapper Talks to:
• Apple Maps
• Google maps
• Waze
Uses:
• Open Street Map
• TfL data feeds
• Citymapper software
• G...
Museums in The Internet
Century
Consequences
Museums in The Internet
Century
Consequences
The Knowledge Process
Co-ordinates in Space and
Time
Y Axis
X Axis
Z Axis
We are used to thinking of the curatorial 'epistemology' as being fund...
Curatorial Co-ordinates in
Space and Time - Provenance
Y Axis
X Axis
Z Axis
And of course when it was made. The curatorial...
Curatorial Co-ordinates in
Space and Time - Provenance
Y Axis
X Axis
Z Axis
Time FuturePast
And of course when it was made...
Fixed Sequence Museums
Gallery
Effect
Primary
Effect
Effect
Primary
Effect
Effect Effect
Primary
Primary PrimaryPrimary
Pr...
Linear Cause and Effect
Provenance of the Object. The neat intellectual organisation of the curatorial mind is then mirror...
Linear Cause and Effect
Cause Cause
effect
effect
object
effect objecteffect
cause effect effect effect
object
Provenance ...
Linear Cause and Effect
Cause Cause
effect
effect
object
effect objecteffect
cause effect effect effect
object
Provenance ...
Linear Cause and Effect
Cause Cause
effect
effect
object
effect objecteffect
cause effect effect effect
object
Provenance ...
Linear Cause and Effect
Cause Cause
effect
effect
object
effect objecteffect
cause effect effect effect
object
Provenance ...
Linear Cause and Effect
Cause Cause
effect
effect
object
effect objecteffect
cause effect effect effect
object
Provenance ...
Linear Cause and Effect
Cause Cause
effect
effect
object
effect objecteffect
cause effect effect effect
object
Curatorial
...
Linear Cause and Effect
Cause Cause
effect
effect
object
effect objecteffect
cause effect effect effect
object
Curatorial
...
Internet Co-ordinates
Become Relational
Y Axis
X Axis
Z Axis
In the Internet age the four co-ordinates, X, Y, Z & T acquir...
Internet Co-ordinates
Become Relational
Y Axis
X Axis
Z Axis
Time FuturePast
In the Internet age the four co-ordinates, X,...
Internet Co-ordinates
Become Relational
Y Axis
X Axis
Z Axis
Time FuturePast
R Axis Relationship
In the Internet age the f...
Internet Co-ordinates
Become Relational
Y Axis
X Axis
Z Axis
Time FuturePast
R Axis Relationship
In the Internet age the f...
Internet Co-ordinates
Become Relational
Y Axis
X Axis
Z Axis
Time FuturePast
R Axis Relationship
In the Internet age the f...
It’s a Linguistic Model
This digital expression of the associative and network nature of knowledge is in effect a linguisti...
It’s a Linguistic Model
Cause Cause
effect
effect
object
effect objecteffect
cause effect effect effect
object
This digita...
Coded Relationships Are a
Grammar
Cause
Cause
effect
effect
object
effect
object
effect
cause
effect
effect
effect
object
...
A Finite System Generating
Infinite Results
Cause
Cause effect effect object
effect
object
effect
cause
effect
effect
effec...
A Finite System Generating
Infinite Results
Cause
Cause effect effect object
effect
object
effect
cause
effect
effect
effec...
Transform table
From To
Transform table
From To
Authority Network
Transform table
From To
Authority Network
Single Knower
Knowledge
Community
Transform table
From To
Authority Network
Single Knower
Knowledge
Community
Fixed Fluid
Transform table
From To
Authority Network
Single Knower
Knowledge
Community
Fixed Fluid
Linear Iterative
Transform table
From To
Authority Network
Single Knower
Knowledge
Community
Fixed Fluid
Linear Iterative
Curator Cultural Coder
Transform ...
Museums in The
Internet Century
Although there is a great deal of talk about 3-D printing in reality manufacturing in the ...
Museums in The
Internet Century
Things
Although there is a great deal of talk about 3-D printing in reality manufacturing ...
From Subtractive to Additive
These two images contrast old school subtractive manufacturing with future additive manufactu...
From Subtractive to Additive; Usage
: G0 Xnnn Ynnn Znnn Ennn Fnnn Snnn
: G1 Xnnn Ynnn Znnn Ennn Fnnn Snnn
; Parameters
: '...
Additive and Subtractive 3D
Printed Car
This 3-D printed car is actually a ‘transitional object’ because it is built from ...
Additive and Subtractive 3D
Printed Car
This 3-D printed car is actually a ‘transitional object’ because it is built from ...
The Internet of things currently often means sensors or location devices attached to existing objects. But this represents...
Internet of Things (IoT)
The future will see these technologies miniaturised and made as part of the product
Internet of Things (IoT)
1. Embedded devices 2. Communication 3. Cloud
Sensing Remembering Readable Connected
The future w...
The Authentic
Walter Benjamin
The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical
Reproduction
1936
One might subsume the eliminated element in the
term 'aura' and...
Granny
One of the intriguing things about the Internet of things which goes beyond the embedding sensors for location and ...
Granny
One of the intriguing things about the Internet of things which goes beyond the embedding sensors for location and ...
So here is granny’s mug, a mug of the future.The mug is digitally enabled – it carries sensors, location awareness chips a...
So here is granny’s mug, a mug of the future.The mug is digitally enabled – it carries sensors, location awareness chips a...
Y Axis
So here is granny’s mug, a mug of the future.The mug is digitally enabled – it carries sensors, location awareness ...
Y Axis
X Axis
So here is granny’s mug, a mug of the future.The mug is digitally enabled – it carries sensors, location awa...
Y Axis
X Axis
Z Axis
So here is granny’s mug, a mug of the future.The mug is digitally enabled – it carries sensors, locat...
Y Axis
X Axis
Z Axis
R Axis Relationship
So here is granny’s mug, a mug of the future.The mug is digitally enabled – it ca...
Y Axis
X Axis
Z Axis
R Axis Relationship
So here is granny’s mug, a mug of the future.The mug is digitally enabled – it ca...
Y Axis
X Axis
Z Axis
Time FuturePast
R Axis Relationship
So here is granny’s mug, a mug of the future.The mug is digitally...
Can We Grow Granny’s
Neural Network?
If all objects are digitally enabled and carry memory and indeed to a limited extent ...
By Finding Digital Auras?
For Walter Benjamin the aura of a work or art stems from its unique place in time and space - ea...
Enhanced by The Knowledge Graph?
In the Internet Century granny’s biological networks may start to shrink in old age but i...
Enhanced by The Knowledge Graph?
In the Internet Century granny’s biological networks may start to shrink in old age but i...
Enhanced by The Knowledge Graph?
In the Internet Century granny’s biological networks may start to shrink in old age but i...
If at Home Why Not in
the Museum?
So, here is the question; could the 21st-century Museum be an object, a structure, a sys...
Can the Internet Century Museum
Be an Identity Rebuilder?
Decades 1915-25 1925-35 1935-45 1945-55 1955-65 1965-75 1975-85 ...
The 21st Century
Fluid
Coded
Networked
Mediated
Museum
Responsive
Scaleable
Cognitively appropriate
Like This
What might the future Museum actually look like? The first thing we need to do is to dispense with all of those w...
Like This
What might the future Museum actually look like? The first thing we need to do is to dispense with all of those w...
I Want to Connect 50 Years
Bring Me 4 Objects
When we visit the museum with granny we are able to call up small objects us...
I Want to Connect 50 Years
Bring Me 4 Objects
When we visit the museum with granny we are able to call up small objects us...
This Museum is Organised
by Search
and Reorganised by Search
Because the 21st-century Museum is organised by search not by...
This Museum is Organised
by Search
and Reorganised by Search
The hardware is relevant only at the access level
Because the...
Digital + Physical
Digital and Physical Become Equivalent
This leads to an epistemological equivalence between the digital...
This short movie shows an aspect of this 'Museum of the Future' thinking as applied by Local Projects to the Cooper Hewitt...
This short movie shows an aspect of this 'Museum of the Future' thinking as applied by Local Projects to the Cooper Hewitt...
Subjects Objects
Sites
Collections
database
Text
Stills
Movies
Curator
Author
Thinking
Feeling
Sensing
Socialising
Interna...
Transform table – from old to new
Old New
Transform table – from old to new
Old New
Permanent Exhibition Exhibition
Transform table – from old to new
Old New
Permanent Exhibition Exhibition
Temporary Exhibition Exhibition
Transform table – from old to new
Old New
Permanent Exhibition Exhibition
Temporary Exhibition Exhibition
Linear Narrative Meaning Clusters
Transform table ...
Old New
Permanent Exhibition Exhibition
Temporary Exhibition Exhibition
Linear Narrative Meaning Clusters
Fixed Iterative
...
Old New
Permanent Exhibition Exhibition
Temporary Exhibition Exhibition
Linear Narrative Meaning Clusters
Fixed Iterative
...
Old New
Permanent Exhibition Exhibition
Temporary Exhibition Exhibition
Linear Narrative Meaning Clusters
Fixed Iterative
...
The Iterative Interactive
Mediated Museum
Gently flows the museum
The Iterative Interactive
Mediated Museum
Gently flows the museum
The Iterative Interactive
Mediated Museum
Gently flows the museum
Stephen Feber Ltd
Animations by Knitting Jelly Ltd
© Stephen Feber Ltd 2015
Museums in the Internet Century – the challenges and opportunities for museums in the digital age
Museums in the Internet Century – the challenges and opportunities for museums in the digital age
Museums in the Internet Century – the challenges and opportunities for museums in the digital age
Museums in the Internet Century – the challenges and opportunities for museums in the digital age
Museums in the Internet Century – the challenges and opportunities for museums in the digital age
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Museums in the Internet Century – the challenges and opportunities for museums in the digital age

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This is a web (PDF) version of the keynote presentation I gave MuseumNext Geneva, April 20, 2015. It looks a range of issues connected with the design of museums of the future, memory and identity

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Museums in the Internet Century – the challenges and opportunities for museums in the digital age

  1. 1. Beyond Memory and Experience The Challenges & Opportunities for Museums in the Internet Century
  2. 2. MuseumNext Geneva 20 April 2015 Stephen Feber Ltd stephenfeber@me.com #stephenfeberltd
  3. 3. So, What are the Big Trends This Century?
  4. 4. So, What are the Big Trends This Century? Some Things Will Stay the Same
  5. 5. We Will Still Like Things
  6. 6. This animated timeline looks back over 1,000,000 years to the probable first use of controlled fire. The timeline is very selective and covers agriculture, food, transport, communications, information technology etc. It is a snapshot of human ingenuity. It’s part of a bigger project by SFL to produce animated timelines for all significant human inventions.
  7. 7. This animated timeline looks back over 1,000,000 years to the probable first use of controlled fire. The timeline is very selective and covers agriculture, food, transport, communications, information technology etc. It is a snapshot of human ingenuity. It’s part of a bigger project by SFL to produce animated timelines for all significant human inventions.
  8. 8. And We’ll Keep Some of Them in Museums and Galleries
  9. 9. The British Museum. One of the world’s great museums and a repository of material given, bought and occasionally plundered. Generally, organised using a taxonomic structure and generally foregrounding the object. Context, narrative and background singularly missing throughout.
  10. 10. A gallery arranged in the religious, adoration-of-the-object style.
  11. 11. And We’ll Still Be… Creatures ‘Creatures’ is simply a shorthand way of saying that we will, despite all of the changes that the Internet century presages, remain human animals. We will undoubtedly slowly adapt to the digital but we will undoubtedly also retain the same human cognitive processing structures throughout the century. We will certainly live longer and during these longer lives we learn to use the digital as a tool; an extension of our humanity.
  12. 12. Maslovian Creatures This is Maslow simplified to 3 layers, a basic structuring; social, intellectual and spiritual. In the original there are 5: physiological (breathing, food, water, sex, sleep, homeostasis and excretion), safety (security of body, employment, resources, reality, the family, health and property), love and well-being (friendship, family, sexual intimacy), esteem ( self-esteem, confidence, achievement, respect of others and respect by others) and self-actualisation (morality, creativity, spontaneity, problem-solving, lack of prejudice and acceptance of facts)
  13. 13. Maslovian Creatures Building and physical spaces Gallery and Exhibition Thinking SocialCultural Basic Intellectual & Spiritual Hierarchyof‘Need’ Social Physical This is Maslow simplified to 3 layers, a basic structuring; social, intellectual and spiritual. In the original there are 5: physiological (breathing, food, water, sex, sleep, homeostasis and excretion), safety (security of body, employment, resources, reality, the family, health and property), love and well-being (friendship, family, sexual intimacy), esteem ( self-esteem, confidence, achievement, respect of others and respect by others) and self-actualisation (morality, creativity, spontaneity, problem-solving, lack of prejudice and acceptance of facts)
  14. 14. When Exploring and Experiencing Museums We’ll Still Do 4 Things There are many ways of imagining and thinking about the learning and being cycle. This one is drawn from the work of David Kolb but actually has a number of roots or antecedents; certainly for example in the work of Freud and Piaget. In the Museums and Resilient leadership programme we link this to Daniel Kahneman – thinking fast and thinking slow; System 1 and System 2.
  15. 15. When Exploring and Experiencing Museums We’ll Still Do 4 Things Experience Reflect Think Act Visit There are many ways of imagining and thinking about the learning and being cycle. This one is drawn from the work of David Kolb but actually has a number of roots or antecedents; certainly for example in the work of Freud and Piaget. In the Museums and Resilient leadership programme we link this to Daniel Kahneman – thinking fast and thinking slow; System 1 and System 2.
  16. 16. And We’ll Do These Over and Over In a Discovery Cycle
  17. 17. And We’ll Do These Over and Over In a Discovery Cycle Experience Reflect Think Act Experience Reflect Think Act Experience Reflect Think Act Visit
  18. 18. We Do This in the Museum As a Physiological and Sensory ‘Melody’ These moments of physiological and cognitive intersection or in some ways analogies to Maslow's 'peak experiences' – they might be moments of epiphany or insight. They are certainly points at which there is an intersection between thinking, feeling and doing. These intersections might be solo, social or in a group and may be triggered by a variety of elements within the museum or gallery experience.
  19. 19. We Do This in the Museum As a Physiological and Sensory ‘Melody’ 0 50 100 150 200 Talk Walk Stand Hear Read Touch Interact Smell Visit These moments of physiological and cognitive intersection or in some ways analogies to Maslow's 'peak experiences' – they might be moments of epiphany or insight. They are certainly points at which there is an intersection between thinking, feeling and doing. These intersections might be solo, social or in a group and may be triggered by a variety of elements within the museum or gallery experience.
  20. 20. We Could Measure This But We Have Crude Methods - Currently This is a concealed prediction within the presentation – here I'm imagining that biofeedback and biometric devices will become much more sophisticated and that the consistent digital trend of miniaturisation, computing power increase and energy use reduction will continue. In a way this is a ‘digital imagining’ of what is called Proprioception; the process by which the body can vary muscle contraction in immediate response to incoming information regarding external forces, by utilising stretch receptors in the muscles to keep track of the joint position in the body. Proprioception goes well beyond bodily positioning because it includes our sense of self drawn from multiple sensory inputs. In the graph above I'm imagining that we can digitally monitor in the future a variety of actions and track them within the gallery or museum, thus understanding the complexity at the movement and sensory level of the individual visitor response to exhibitions and rich media.
  21. 21. We Could Measure This But We Have Crude Methods - Currently Talk Walk Stand Hear Read Touch Interact Smell Visit This is a concealed prediction within the presentation – here I'm imagining that biofeedback and biometric devices will become much more sophisticated and that the consistent digital trend of miniaturisation, computing power increase and energy use reduction will continue. In a way this is a ‘digital imagining’ of what is called Proprioception; the process by which the body can vary muscle contraction in immediate response to incoming information regarding external forces, by utilising stretch receptors in the muscles to keep track of the joint position in the body. Proprioception goes well beyond bodily positioning because it includes our sense of self drawn from multiple sensory inputs. In the graph above I'm imagining that we can digitally monitor in the future a variety of actions and track them within the gallery or museum, thus understanding the complexity at the movement and sensory level of the individual visitor response to exhibitions and rich media.
  22. 22. As This Happens We Move Up and Down the Maslow Hierarchies Also an imagining - here the basic idea is that the physical form of the exhibition in the museum or gallery, its building layout and signing system, all support the exploratory/experimental behaviour characteristics of the species; us.
  23. 23. As This Happens We Move Up and Down the Maslow Hierarchies Talk Walk Stand Hear Read Touch Interact Smell Also an imagining - here the basic idea is that the physical form of the exhibition in the museum or gallery, its building layout and signing system, all support the exploratory/experimental behaviour characteristics of the species; us.
  24. 24. The Physical and Intellectual Design of the Museum Should Facilitate These Movements
  25. 25. The Physical and Intellectual Design of the Museum Should Facilitate These Movements Building and physical spaces Gallery and Exhibition Thinking SocialCultural Basic
  26. 26. As We Do This We Use Different Ways of Knowing Multiple Intelligences; the Work of Howard Gardner. Gardner’s work is highly recommended because he points out eloquently how limited and un-inclusive (wasteful of talent) traditional views of IQ and schooling are. The command and control, broadcast and reception, 'empty vessel to be filled by education' view is disabling. I agree. One of the reasons that I got involved in museums in the first place is their emphasis on learning, not education. However, one of the striking characteristics of most museums is how limited they are from the Multiple Intelligences perspective – they still privilege what Gardner calls the 'lawyers mind' over a creative, flexible and essentially experimental learning process.
  27. 27. As We Do This We Use Different Ways of Knowing Multiple Intelligences; the Work of Howard Gardner. Gardner’s work is highly recommended because he points out eloquently how limited and un-inclusive (wasteful of talent) traditional views of IQ and schooling are. The command and control, broadcast and reception, 'empty vessel to be filled by education' view is disabling. I agree. One of the reasons that I got involved in museums in the first place is their emphasis on learning, not education. However, one of the striking characteristics of most museums is how limited they are from the Multiple Intelligences perspective – they still privilege what Gardner calls the 'lawyers mind' over a creative, flexible and essentially experimental learning process.
  28. 28. These Are Idiosyncratic These 3 Pie chart slides simply suggest that our different intelligences can be thought of as a different distribution, weighting or emphasis in our exploratory learning-and-doing cycles.
  29. 29. Our Cognitive Signature Until quite recently (and the advent of the digital signing device) a glance at the delivery man’s clipboard would reveal the particular, idiosyncratic nature of each human signature. In a way our cognitive differences have a similar, signature like, form. All signatures are the same; they fall into a common class of ‘identity markers’ and yet they are all distinct.
  30. 30. Our Cognitive Signature Until quite recently (and the advent of the digital signing device) a glance at the delivery man’s clipboard would reveal the particular, idiosyncratic nature of each human signature. In a way our cognitive differences have a similar, signature like, form. All signatures are the same; they fall into a common class of ‘identity markers’ and yet they are all distinct.
  31. 31. The Museum Design Should Let These Flow Talk Walk Stand Hear Read Touch Interact Smell Here is the ideal, cognitively appropriate, fitting all learning styles museum. There is effortless movement between the three levels of the simplified Maslow pyramid, a melody of actions and an engagement with experience and discovery which is fulfilling and generative for the learner. This museum does not exist. However, were it to exist the visitor/discoverer/learner would have an experience of what Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi calls ‘flow’. In his seminal work, Flow: ‘The Psychology of Optimal Experience’, Csíkszentmihályi outlines his theory that people are happiest when they are in a state of flow; a state of concentration or complete absorption with the activity at hand and the situation. It is a state in which people are so involved in an activity that nothing else seems to matter.The idea of flow is identical to the feeling of being in the zone or in the groove. The flow state is an optimal state of intrinsic motivation, where the person is fully immersed in what he or she is doing. This is a feeling everyone has at times, characterised by a feeling of great absorption, engagement, fulfilment and during which temporal concerns (time, food, ego-self, etc.) are typically ignored.
  32. 32. The Museum Design Should Let These Flow Talk Walk Stand Hear Read Touch Interact Smell This Here is the ideal, cognitively appropriate, fitting all learning styles museum. There is effortless movement between the three levels of the simplified Maslow pyramid, a melody of actions and an engagement with experience and discovery which is fulfilling and generative for the learner. This museum does not exist. However, were it to exist the visitor/discoverer/learner would have an experience of what Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi calls ‘flow’. In his seminal work, Flow: ‘The Psychology of Optimal Experience’, Csíkszentmihályi outlines his theory that people are happiest when they are in a state of flow; a state of concentration or complete absorption with the activity at hand and the situation. It is a state in which people are so involved in an activity that nothing else seems to matter.The idea of flow is identical to the feeling of being in the zone or in the groove. The flow state is an optimal state of intrinsic motivation, where the person is fully immersed in what he or she is doing. This is a feeling everyone has at times, characterised by a feeling of great absorption, engagement, fulfilment and during which temporal concerns (time, food, ego-self, etc.) are typically ignored.
  33. 33. The Museum Design Should Let These Flow Talk Walk Stand Hear Read Touch Interact Smell This Support This Here is the ideal, cognitively appropriate, fitting all learning styles museum. There is effortless movement between the three levels of the simplified Maslow pyramid, a melody of actions and an engagement with experience and discovery which is fulfilling and generative for the learner. This museum does not exist. However, were it to exist the visitor/discoverer/learner would have an experience of what Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi calls ‘flow’. In his seminal work, Flow: ‘The Psychology of Optimal Experience’, Csíkszentmihályi outlines his theory that people are happiest when they are in a state of flow; a state of concentration or complete absorption with the activity at hand and the situation. It is a state in which people are so involved in an activity that nothing else seems to matter.The idea of flow is identical to the feeling of being in the zone or in the groove. The flow state is an optimal state of intrinsic motivation, where the person is fully immersed in what he or she is doing. This is a feeling everyone has at times, characterised by a feeling of great absorption, engagement, fulfilment and during which temporal concerns (time, food, ego-self, etc.) are typically ignored.
  34. 34. The Museum Design Should Let These Flow Talk Walk Stand Hear Read Touch Interact Smell This Support This To Allow This Here is the ideal, cognitively appropriate, fitting all learning styles museum. There is effortless movement between the three levels of the simplified Maslow pyramid, a melody of actions and an engagement with experience and discovery which is fulfilling and generative for the learner. This museum does not exist. However, were it to exist the visitor/discoverer/learner would have an experience of what Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi calls ‘flow’. In his seminal work, Flow: ‘The Psychology of Optimal Experience’, Csíkszentmihályi outlines his theory that people are happiest when they are in a state of flow; a state of concentration or complete absorption with the activity at hand and the situation. It is a state in which people are so involved in an activity that nothing else seems to matter.The idea of flow is identical to the feeling of being in the zone or in the groove. The flow state is an optimal state of intrinsic motivation, where the person is fully immersed in what he or she is doing. This is a feeling everyone has at times, characterised by a feeling of great absorption, engagement, fulfilment and during which temporal concerns (time, food, ego-self, etc.) are typically ignored.
  35. 35. Museums (Like Schools) Do Not Fit Our Physiological and Cognitive Processes Most museums however are ‘wall bound’, anti flow physical ‘devices’.
  36. 36. Museums (Like Schools) Do Not Fit Our Physiological and Cognitive Processes Most museums however are ‘wall bound’, anti flow physical ‘devices’.
  37. 37. And they often look like this – this is the National Museum of Bahrain.
  38. 38. This is a shop in Manama the capital of Bahrain – it's interesting how the taxonomic imperative which is expressed by the Museum is also the underpinning of retail.
  39. 39. University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia
  40. 40. Harrods, London
  41. 41. Very temporary exhibition of edible collection. Edible Harrods, London
  42. 42. Are We Thinking? It is perhaps going too far to suggest that museum going and shopping share an easy browsing mode and that museum visiting is no more thoughtful than idly cruising the display cases and aisles of a shop. Yet there is something profoundly similar between the Department store and the Museum, in layout and structure. Departments are like galleries and galleries are like the departments of a store.
  43. 43. Are We Thinking? Or Shopping? It is perhaps going too far to suggest that museum going and shopping share an easy browsing mode and that museum visiting is no more thoughtful than idly cruising the display cases and aisles of a shop. Yet there is something profoundly similar between the Department store and the Museum, in layout and structure. Departments are like galleries and galleries are like the departments of a store.
  44. 44. Does the Museum Fit Us? Is our adaptability actually a problem?
  45. 45. Does the Museum Fit Us? Or Do We Fit Ourselves to the Museum? Is our adaptability actually a problem?
  46. 46. 21st Century Trends
  47. 47. Trend 1 We’ll Live Longer
  48. 48. Trend 1 We’ll Live Longer Ageing in the Digital Age
  49. 49. This animation draws on the work of Hans Rosling at Gapminder
  50. 50. This animation draws on the work of Hans Rosling at Gapminder
  51. 51. Aubrey de Grey…. 6 Ages of Man and Woman 'I think we're in striking distance of keeping people so healthy that at 90 they'll carry on waking up in the same physical state as they were at the age of 30, and their probability of not waking up one morning will be no higher than it was at the age of 30….' Aubrey de Grey is a controversial researcher into ageing who believes that ageing is like a disease and is therefore curable. Some are appalled by the vision that he paints of human beings living into their 90s and beyond. Some are captivated by the idea of an extended and fruitful life.
  52. 52. Aubrey de Grey…. 6 Ages of Man and Woman 'I think we're in striking distance of keeping people so healthy that at 90 they'll carry on waking up in the same physical state as they were at the age of 30, and their probability of not waking up one morning will be no higher than it was at the age of 30….' Aubrey’s words were spoken by a Macintosh Aubrey de Grey is a controversial researcher into ageing who believes that ageing is like a disease and is therefore curable. Some are appalled by the vision that he paints of human beings living into their 90s and beyond. Some are captivated by the idea of an extended and fruitful life.
  53. 53. This is an illustrative graphic only and looks at the population in the United Kingdom over the period between 1950 and 2100.
  54. 54. This is an illustrative graphic only and looks at the population in the United Kingdom over the period between 1950 and 2100.
  55. 55. As We Age ‘Cohort Overlap’ Decreases Decades 1915-25 1925-35 1935-45 1945-55 1955-65 1965-75 1975-85 1985-95 2005-05 2005-15 Overlap Decades 100 yrs old 1 90 yrs old 2 80 yrs old 3 70 yrs old 4 60 yrs old 5 50 yrs old 6 40 yrs old 7 30 yrs old 8 20 yrs old 9 10 yrs old 10 The cohort gap. As we age the number of our contemporaries decreases and this graph looks at a potential future. What it illustrates is that 100-year-old man or woman shares direct, lived life, with a decreasing number of others. In the most extreme case a 10-year-old’s many generations separated from 100-year-old man or woman. What this has meant is that our cultural and social bonds and networks gradually shrink because on the whole they are maintained through first and second person contact. Hitherto, our ability to connect with the personal 'deep past' of the single human life has been very limited. As we age shared memories decrease in number (there are fewer people to share them with) and one hypothesis is that this is a cause of a weakening sense of identity.
  56. 56. As We Grow The Neural Network Grows This slide and the next three suggest a simple graphic view of our growing neural network as we transition from childhood through adolescence to adulthood. We are used to the idea of the learning, growing and maturing brain
  57. 57. As We Age We are also used to thinking that ageing is attended by decline; that we lose mental acuity as we get older.
  58. 58. It Shrinks Is this inevitable?
  59. 59. These slides is an animation which shows a visualisation of the growth of a network. It stands a proxy for the development of our own neural structures - the complex networks we create as we experience, reflect, think and act. Inevitably for such a social creature these networks are socially rich.
  60. 60. The network is a map of our identity These slides is an animation which shows a visualisation of the growth of a network. It stands a proxy for the development of our own neural structures - the complex networks we create as we experience, reflect, think and act. Inevitably for such a social creature these networks are socially rich.
  61. 61. Image is hugely important in the structure of memory and images of people are critical to many aspects of memory, connection and identity.
  62. 62. Image is hugely important in the structure of memory and images of people are critical to many aspects of memory, connection and identity.
  63. 63. People are important but so are things; as museums abundantly demonstrate
  64. 64. But we have an over abundance of things - capitalism has its downsides
  65. 65. Longevity seems like a good thing but may present huge challenges to our sense of self
  66. 66. As We Age ‘Cohort Overlap’ Decreases Decades 1915-25 1925-35 1935-45 1945-55 1955-65 1965-75 1975-85 1985-95 2005-05 2005-15 Overlap Decades 100 yrs old 1 90 yrs old 2 80 yrs old 3 70 yrs old 4 60 yrs old 5 50 yrs old 6 40 yrs old 7 30 yrs old 8 20 yrs old 9 10 yrs old 10 As we age we not only lose human and cultural connection, we have a decreasing ability to carry a personal object store with us which might trigger memory and connection. Identity resides in both social networks and personal object collections.
  67. 67. Trend 2 From Analogue to Digital We’ll cease to speak of the Internet in 10 years time. Just as we have ceased to speak of electricity, gas or the telephone. They have become, at least in the ‘developed’ world, commonplace; literally utilities
  68. 68. Trend 2 From Analogue to Digital It Starts in 1936 We’ll cease to speak of the Internet in 10 years time. Just as we have ceased to speak of electricity, gas or the telephone. They have become, at least in the ‘developed’ world, commonplace; literally utilities
  69. 69. These 3 images show Vannevar Bush, Alan Turing and the Manchester Mark 1 - which was one of the earliest stored-program computers, (Manchester, England 1948). The analogue differential analyser which Vannevar Bush stands before has to be re-set each time a calculation is made. The stored programme digital computer is capable of many things (not anything) - what Turing called a Universal Machine.
  70. 70. These 3 images show Vannevar Bush, Alan Turing and the Manchester Mark 1 - which was one of the earliest stored-program computers, (Manchester, England 1948). The analogue differential analyser which Vannevar Bush stands before has to be re-set each time a calculation is made. The stored programme digital computer is capable of many things (not anything) - what Turing called a Universal Machine.
  71. 71. These 3 images show Vannevar Bush, Alan Turing and the Manchester Mark 1 - which was one of the earliest stored-program computers, (Manchester, England 1948). The analogue differential analyser which Vannevar Bush stands before has to be re-set each time a calculation is made. The stored programme digital computer is capable of many things (not anything) - what Turing called a Universal Machine.
  72. 72. Trend 3 Computing Power Rises Cost Falls When Turing’s insights are applied in the Post Second World War period remarkable things happen; engineering, technology, computer science, commerce and marketing converge and there is a revolution.
  73. 73. Trend 3 Computing Power Rises Cost Falls Moore’s Law When Turing’s insights are applied in the Post Second World War period remarkable things happen; engineering, technology, computer science, commerce and marketing converge and there is a revolution.
  74. 74. Millions of Instructions Per Second Versus Cost Electromechanical 10 -6 10 -4 10 -2 1 10 2 10 4 10 6 10 8 10 10 Relay Vacuum Tube Transistor Integrated Circuit 1900 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 20001910 Looking over the Century; from les than an instruction a second to 10 Billion a second. This changes almost everything
  75. 75. Millions of Instructions Per Second Versus Cost 0 3.5 7 10.5 14 0 2.5 5 7.5 10 Electromechanical 10 -6 10 -4 10 -2 1 10 2 10 4 10 6 10 8 10 10 Relay Vacuum Tube Transistor Integrated Circuit 1900 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 20001910 Looking over the Century; from les than an instruction a second to 10 Billion a second. This changes almost everything
  76. 76. And so….. Falling Cost Rising Power
  77. 77. And so….. Falling Cost Rising Power Equals a Revolution
  78. 78. Worldwide Internet Usage 2000 - 2014 350 Million 3 Billion World Bank Figures for Internet take-up
  79. 79. Worldwide Internet Usage 2000 - 2014 0 750,000,000 1,500,000,000 2,250,000,000 3,000,000,000 2000 2014 Africa Asia Europe North America Latin America Oceania Australia 350 Million 3 Billion World Bank Figures for Internet take-up
  80. 80. Internet Penetration Rates
  81. 81. Internet Penetration Rates Africa Asia Europe Middle East North America Latin America Oceania Australia 72% 52% 87% 48% 70% 34% 26%
  82. 82. 3 Convergent Forces These three forces are taken from Schmidt and Rosenberg’s new book 'How Google Works' (2014)
  83. 83. 3 Convergent Forces 1. The Internet has made information and knowledge either free or very cheap - practically everything is online These three forces are taken from Schmidt and Rosenberg’s new book 'How Google Works' (2014)
  84. 84. 3 Convergent Forces 1. The Internet has made knowledge everything is online 2. Mobile devices and networks have made global reach and continuous connectivity continuously available These three forces are taken from Schmidt and Rosenberg’s new book 'How Google Works' (2014)
  85. 85. 3 Convergent Forces 1. The Internet has made knowledge everything is online 2. Mobile devices and networks reach and available 3. Cloud computing has put sophisticated tools and applications at everyone's disposal These three forces are taken from Schmidt and Rosenberg’s new book 'How Google Works' (2014)
  86. 86. This Changes Almost Everything
  87. 87. 1994
  88. 88. 1994 1999
  89. 89. 2001 1994 1999
  90. 90. 2001 1994 2002 1999
  91. 91. 2001 1994 2002 2004 1999
  92. 92. 2001 1994 2002 2004 2005 1999
  93. 93. 2001 2006 1994 2002 2004 2005 1999
  94. 94. 2001 2006 1994 2002 2004 2005 1999 2006
  95. 95. 2001 2006 1994 2002 2004 2005 2007 1999 2006
  96. 96. 2001 2006 1994 2002 2004 2005 2007 2007 1999 2006
  97. 97. 2001 2006 1994 2002 2004 2005 2007 2007 2008 1999 2006
  98. 98. 2001 2006 1994 2002 2004 2005 2007 2007 2008 2010 1999 2006
  99. 99. 2001 2006 1994 2002 2004 2005 2007 2007 2008 2010 2010 1999 2006
  100. 100. 2001 2006 1994 2002 2004 2005 2007 2007 2008 2010 2010 20111999 2006
  101. 101. 2001 2006 1994 2002 2004 2005 2007 2007 2008 2010 2010 2011 2014 1999 2006
  102. 102. 2001 2006 1994 2002 2004 2005 2007 2007 2008 2010 2010 2011 2014 201 1999 2006
  103. 103. Buying - delivery - shopping
  104. 104. Buying - delivery - shopping
  105. 105. City Mapper Talks to: • Apple Maps • Google maps • Waze Uses: • Open Street Map • TfL data feeds • Citymapper software • GPS • The Phone Travel - this is one of the most interesting convergence examples; it shows the use of APIs - Application Programming Interfaces - which mean that different data streams and different imaging systems can be brought together in a seamless experience. In this case City Mapper. The Flow maps show London transport and movement systems ‘at play’
  106. 106. City Mapper Talks to: • Apple Maps • Google maps • Waze Uses: • Open Street Map • TfL data feeds • Citymapper software • GPS • The Phone Travel - this is one of the most interesting convergence examples; it shows the use of APIs - Application Programming Interfaces - which mean that different data streams and different imaging systems can be brought together in a seamless experience. In this case City Mapper. The Flow maps show London transport and movement systems ‘at play’
  107. 107. Museums in The Internet Century Consequences
  108. 108. Museums in The Internet Century Consequences The Knowledge Process
  109. 109. Co-ordinates in Space and Time Y Axis X Axis Z Axis We are used to thinking of the curatorial 'epistemology' as being fundamentally linked to provenance. Diagrammatically this is represented here as spatial coordinates; where something was made.
  110. 110. Curatorial Co-ordinates in Space and Time - Provenance Y Axis X Axis Z Axis And of course when it was made. The curatorial mantra of 'where, when, why and by whom?' is a familiar one
  111. 111. Curatorial Co-ordinates in Space and Time - Provenance Y Axis X Axis Z Axis Time FuturePast And of course when it was made. The curatorial mantra of 'where, when, why and by whom?' is a familiar one
  112. 112. Fixed Sequence Museums Gallery Effect Primary Effect Effect Primary Effect Effect Effect Primary Primary PrimaryPrimary Primary Primary Primary Primary Primary Primary Secondary Secondary Secondary Secondary Secondary Secondary This often causes us to develop new museums with linear flow galleries where cause-and-effect sequences are neatly organised
  113. 113. Linear Cause and Effect Provenance of the Object. The neat intellectual organisation of the curatorial mind is then mirrored by the equally neat physical organisation of the gallery by the designer
  114. 114. Linear Cause and Effect Cause Cause effect effect object effect objecteffect cause effect effect effect object Provenance of the Object. The neat intellectual organisation of the curatorial mind is then mirrored by the equally neat physical organisation of the gallery by the designer
  115. 115. Linear Cause and Effect Cause Cause effect effect object effect objecteffect cause effect effect effect object Provenance of the Object. The neat intellectual organisation of the curatorial mind is then mirrored by the equally neat physical organisation of the gallery by the designer
  116. 116. Linear Cause and Effect Cause Cause effect effect object effect objecteffect cause effect effect effect object Provenance of the Object. The neat intellectual organisation of the curatorial mind is then mirrored by the equally neat physical organisation of the gallery by the designer
  117. 117. Linear Cause and Effect Cause Cause effect effect object effect objecteffect cause effect effect effect object Provenance of the Object. The neat intellectual organisation of the curatorial mind is then mirrored by the equally neat physical organisation of the gallery by the designer
  118. 118. Linear Cause and Effect Cause Cause effect effect object effect objecteffect cause effect effect effect object Provenance of the Object. The neat intellectual organisation of the curatorial mind is then mirrored by the equally neat physical organisation of the gallery by the designer
  119. 119. Linear Cause and Effect Cause Cause effect effect object effect objecteffect cause effect effect effect object Curatorial Provenance of the Object. The neat intellectual organisation of the curatorial mind is then mirrored by the equally neat physical organisation of the gallery by the designer
  120. 120. Linear Cause and Effect Cause Cause effect effect object effect objecteffect cause effect effect effect object Curatorial Design Provenance of the Object. The neat intellectual organisation of the curatorial mind is then mirrored by the equally neat physical organisation of the gallery by the designer
  121. 121. Internet Co-ordinates Become Relational Y Axis X Axis Z Axis In the Internet age the four co-ordinates, X, Y, Z & T acquire a fifth dimension – R = relation
  122. 122. Internet Co-ordinates Become Relational Y Axis X Axis Z Axis Time FuturePast In the Internet age the four co-ordinates, X, Y, Z & T acquire a fifth dimension – R = relation
  123. 123. Internet Co-ordinates Become Relational Y Axis X Axis Z Axis Time FuturePast R Axis Relationship In the Internet age the four co-ordinates, X, Y, Z & T acquire a fifth dimension – R = relation
  124. 124. Internet Co-ordinates Become Relational Y Axis X Axis Z Axis Time FuturePast R Axis Relationship In the Internet age the four co-ordinates, X, Y, Z & T acquire a fifth dimension – R = relation
  125. 125. Internet Co-ordinates Become Relational Y Axis X Axis Z Axis Time FuturePast R Axis Relationship In the Internet age the four co-ordinates, X, Y, Z & T acquire a fifth dimension – R = relation
  126. 126. It’s a Linguistic Model This digital expression of the associative and network nature of knowledge is in effect a linguistic one
  127. 127. It’s a Linguistic Model Cause Cause effect effect object effect objecteffect cause effect effect effect object This digital expression of the associative and network nature of knowledge is in effect a linguistic one
  128. 128. Coded Relationships Are a Grammar Cause Cause effect effect object effect object effect cause effect effect effect object Grammar offers a coded structure for the production of meaning
  129. 129. A Finite System Generating Infinite Results Cause Cause effect effect object effect object effect cause effect effect effect object Wilhelm von Humboldt observed that grammar was a finite system capable of generating infinite results. The slide shows a notional cause-and-effect 'grammatical structure' and the famous tree diagram from Noam Chomsky’s 1957 Syntactic Structures
  130. 130. A Finite System Generating Infinite Results Cause Cause effect effect object effect object effect cause effect effect effect object Wilhelm von Humboldt observed that grammar was a finite system capable of generating infinite results. The slide shows a notional cause-and-effect 'grammatical structure' and the famous tree diagram from Noam Chomsky’s 1957 Syntactic Structures
  131. 131. Transform table
  132. 132. From To Transform table
  133. 133. From To Authority Network Transform table
  134. 134. From To Authority Network Single Knower Knowledge Community Transform table
  135. 135. From To Authority Network Single Knower Knowledge Community Fixed Fluid Transform table
  136. 136. From To Authority Network Single Knower Knowledge Community Fixed Fluid Linear Iterative Transform table
  137. 137. From To Authority Network Single Knower Knowledge Community Fixed Fluid Linear Iterative Curator Cultural Coder Transform table
  138. 138. Museums in The Internet Century Although there is a great deal of talk about 3-D printing in reality manufacturing in the 21st-century will go substantially beyond the idea of additive manufacture to complete local design, development and production. We can imagine universal factories (or factories of universal creation) offering in physical form the same kind of flexibility that the stored program computer offers digitally
  139. 139. Museums in The Internet Century Things Although there is a great deal of talk about 3-D printing in reality manufacturing in the 21st-century will go substantially beyond the idea of additive manufacture to complete local design, development and production. We can imagine universal factories (or factories of universal creation) offering in physical form the same kind of flexibility that the stored program computer offers digitally
  140. 140. From Subtractive to Additive These two images contrast old school subtractive manufacturing with future additive manufacturing. Interestingly the computer- controlled machining workstation on the left uses code just as the additive manufacturing printing workstation on the right.
  141. 141. From Subtractive to Additive; Usage : G0 Xnnn Ynnn Znnn Ennn Fnnn Snnn : G1 Xnnn Ynnn Znnn Ennn Fnnn Snnn ; Parameters : ''Not all parameters need to be used, but at least '''one''' has to be used'' : '''Xnnn''' The position to move to on the X axis : '''Ynnn''' The position to move to on the Y axis : '''Znnn''' The position to move to on the Z axis : '''Ennn''' The amount to extrude between the starting point and ending point : '''Fnnn''' The feedrate per minute of the move between the starting point and ending point (if supplied) : '''Snnn''' Flag to check if an endstop was hit ''('''S1''' to check, '''S0''' to ignore, '''S2''' see note, default is '''S0''')''<sup>1</sup> ; Examples : G0 X12 ''(move to 12mm on the X axis)'' : G0 F1500 ''(Set the feedrate to 1500mm/minute)'' : G1 X90.6 Y13.8 E22.4 ''(Move to 90.6mm on the X axis and 13.8mm on the Y axis while extruding 22.4mm of material)'' These two images contrast old school subtractive manufacturing with future additive manufacturing. Interestingly the computer- controlled machining workstation on the left uses code just as the additive manufacturing printing workstation on the right.
  142. 142. Additive and Subtractive 3D Printed Car This 3-D printed car is actually a ‘transitional object’ because it is built from both additively and subtractively made parts
  143. 143. Additive and Subtractive 3D Printed Car This 3-D printed car is actually a ‘transitional object’ because it is built from both additively and subtractively made parts
  144. 144. The Internet of things currently often means sensors or location devices attached to existing objects. But this represents only a low level of intelligence
  145. 145. Internet of Things (IoT) The future will see these technologies miniaturised and made as part of the product
  146. 146. Internet of Things (IoT) 1. Embedded devices 2. Communication 3. Cloud Sensing Remembering Readable Connected The future will see these technologies miniaturised and made as part of the product
  147. 147. The Authentic Walter Benjamin
  148. 148. The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction 1936 One might subsume the eliminated element in the term 'aura' and go on to say: that which withers in the age of mechanical reproduction is the aura of the work of art. By making many reproductions it substitutes a plurality of copies for a unique existence. What bothered Walter Benjamin about the age of mechanical reproduction was the loss of the individuality of the work of art; its unique place in space and time conferred by its singular production by an artist. He uses the term 'aura' to suggest what was lost in the transition from individual creation to machine made reproduction
  149. 149. Granny One of the intriguing things about the Internet of things which goes beyond the embedding sensors for location and operation, is the idea that future objects may carry with them a digital aura. That, in fact prosaic objects will acquire through their use a personality – a form of digital memory made possible by the application of Moore’s Law; computing power becoming so cheap that it is possible to embed digital intelligence in every object. To see how this might work we need a grandmother. So purely for illustration purposes, here is a famous granny.
  150. 150. Granny One of the intriguing things about the Internet of things which goes beyond the embedding sensors for location and operation, is the idea that future objects may carry with them a digital aura. That, in fact prosaic objects will acquire through their use a personality – a form of digital memory made possible by the application of Moore’s Law; computing power becoming so cheap that it is possible to embed digital intelligence in every object. To see how this might work we need a grandmother. So purely for illustration purposes, here is a famous granny.
  151. 151. So here is granny’s mug, a mug of the future.The mug is digitally enabled – it carries sensors, location awareness chips and it can intersect with a similarly digitally enabled house. When the grandchildren visit they are able to use devices like their phones to release the memories which the mug has.
  152. 152. So here is granny’s mug, a mug of the future.The mug is digitally enabled – it carries sensors, location awareness chips and it can intersect with a similarly digitally enabled house. When the grandchildren visit they are able to use devices like their phones to release the memories which the mug has.
  153. 153. Y Axis So here is granny’s mug, a mug of the future.The mug is digitally enabled – it carries sensors, location awareness chips and it can intersect with a similarly digitally enabled house. When the grandchildren visit they are able to use devices like their phones to release the memories which the mug has.
  154. 154. Y Axis X Axis So here is granny’s mug, a mug of the future.The mug is digitally enabled – it carries sensors, location awareness chips and it can intersect with a similarly digitally enabled house. When the grandchildren visit they are able to use devices like their phones to release the memories which the mug has.
  155. 155. Y Axis X Axis Z Axis So here is granny’s mug, a mug of the future.The mug is digitally enabled – it carries sensors, location awareness chips and it can intersect with a similarly digitally enabled house. When the grandchildren visit they are able to use devices like their phones to release the memories which the mug has.
  156. 156. Y Axis X Axis Z Axis R Axis Relationship So here is granny’s mug, a mug of the future.The mug is digitally enabled – it carries sensors, location awareness chips and it can intersect with a similarly digitally enabled house. When the grandchildren visit they are able to use devices like their phones to release the memories which the mug has.
  157. 157. Y Axis X Axis Z Axis R Axis Relationship So here is granny’s mug, a mug of the future.The mug is digitally enabled – it carries sensors, location awareness chips and it can intersect with a similarly digitally enabled house. When the grandchildren visit they are able to use devices like their phones to release the memories which the mug has.
  158. 158. Y Axis X Axis Z Axis Time FuturePast R Axis Relationship So here is granny’s mug, a mug of the future.The mug is digitally enabled – it carries sensors, location awareness chips and it can intersect with a similarly digitally enabled house. When the grandchildren visit they are able to use devices like their phones to release the memories which the mug has.
  159. 159. Can We Grow Granny’s Neural Network? If all objects are digitally enabled and carry memory and indeed to a limited extent their own identity and personality, would they then have their own digital auras? They ‘know’ where they have been, what they have done and what has been done with them… and these auras might be revealed using digital discovery devices like phones or tablets
  160. 160. By Finding Digital Auras? For Walter Benjamin the aura of a work or art stems from its unique place in time and space - each work is an original, unique. The great work of art is unique for everyone. In the digital era the idea that objects might be digitally enabled produces a reversal of Benjamin’s contention; each object will be unique and personal in a new way - it will have its own ‘digital aura’
  161. 161. Enhanced by The Knowledge Graph? In the Internet Century granny’s biological networks may start to shrink in old age but if she can be connected with objects with heir own digital auras then her identity can be preserved or even developed, albeit in a completely new way.
  162. 162. Enhanced by The Knowledge Graph? In the Internet Century granny’s biological networks may start to shrink in old age but if she can be connected with objects with heir own digital auras then her identity can be preserved or even developed, albeit in a completely new way.
  163. 163. Enhanced by The Knowledge Graph? In the Internet Century granny’s biological networks may start to shrink in old age but if she can be connected with objects with heir own digital auras then her identity can be preserved or even developed, albeit in a completely new way.
  164. 164. If at Home Why Not in the Museum? So, here is the question; could the 21st-century Museum be an object, a structure, a system to think with? Could it be organised in a structured yet fluid way such that visitors could use it not just to understand themselves and their place in the world but to reflect on problems, shape decisions and enact solutions?
  165. 165. Can the Internet Century Museum Be an Identity Rebuilder? Decades 1915-25 1925-35 1935-45 1945-55 1955-65 1965-75 1975-85 1985-95 2005-05 2005-15 Overlap Decades 100 yrs old 1 90 yrs old 2 80 yrs old 3 70 yrs old 4 60 yrs old 5 50 yrs old 6 40 yrs old 7 30 yrs old 8 20 yrs old 9 10 yrs old 10 The grey boxes are the epistemological territory for this 21st-century museum. Not only could it help with the identity issues noted above in the presentation but it can also act as a knowledge networker and therefore as an agent of change
  166. 166. The 21st Century Fluid Coded Networked Mediated Museum Responsive Scaleable Cognitively appropriate
  167. 167. Like This What might the future Museum actually look like? The first thing we need to do is to dispense with all of those walls. So here is the physically fluid warehouse style Museum of the future. In this museum objects large and small are capable of being physically moved using robotic platforms. An Amazon distribution warehouse in shown for illustration purposes only.
  168. 168. Like This What might the future Museum actually look like? The first thing we need to do is to dispense with all of those walls. So here is the physically fluid warehouse style Museum of the future. In this museum objects large and small are capable of being physically moved using robotic platforms. An Amazon distribution warehouse in shown for illustration purposes only.
  169. 169. I Want to Connect 50 Years Bring Me 4 Objects When we visit the museum with granny we are able to call up small objects using the robotic delivery system. In the future these objects will come complete with their own digital aura because they will have been created with digital intelligence. Pre digital aura objects will have an attached digital aura via the newly redefined curatorial process
  170. 170. I Want to Connect 50 Years Bring Me 4 Objects When we visit the museum with granny we are able to call up small objects using the robotic delivery system. In the future these objects will come complete with their own digital aura because they will have been created with digital intelligence. Pre digital aura objects will have an attached digital aura via the newly redefined curatorial process
  171. 171. This Museum is Organised by Search and Reorganised by Search Because the 21st-century Museum is organised by search not by a fixed taxonomy it is in effect continuously organised and reorganised as it is used by visitors. The visitor and the curator-coder are now in dialogue via the intermediary of the museum exhibition floor and open storage
  172. 172. This Museum is Organised by Search and Reorganised by Search The hardware is relevant only at the access level Because the 21st-century Museum is organised by search not by a fixed taxonomy it is in effect continuously organised and reorganised as it is used by visitors. The visitor and the curator-coder are now in dialogue via the intermediary of the museum exhibition floor and open storage
  173. 173. Digital + Physical Digital and Physical Become Equivalent This leads to an epistemological equivalence between the digital and the physical. The digital ceases to be a mere representation of the physical and becomes a thing in itself.
  174. 174. This short movie shows an aspect of this 'Museum of the Future' thinking as applied by Local Projects to the Cooper Hewitt Museum in New York.
  175. 175. This short movie shows an aspect of this 'Museum of the Future' thinking as applied by Local Projects to the Cooper Hewitt Museum in New York.
  176. 176. Subjects Objects Sites Collections database Text Stills Movies Curator Author Thinking Feeling Sensing Socialising Internalisation Reflection Action Mediated Museum Publish Web desk Web hand Web gallery Web site Audiences Wiki Experience capital Feedback Improve This flowchart of the mediated museum – the Museum of the 21st-century starts to sketch out how the system will work. It has been criticised for omitting the role of the designer.
  177. 177. Transform table – from old to new
  178. 178. Old New Transform table – from old to new
  179. 179. Old New Permanent Exhibition Exhibition Transform table – from old to new
  180. 180. Old New Permanent Exhibition Exhibition Temporary Exhibition Exhibition Transform table – from old to new
  181. 181. Old New Permanent Exhibition Exhibition Temporary Exhibition Exhibition Linear Narrative Meaning Clusters Transform table – from old to new
  182. 182. Old New Permanent Exhibition Exhibition Temporary Exhibition Exhibition Linear Narrative Meaning Clusters Fixed Iterative Transform table – from old to new
  183. 183. Old New Permanent Exhibition Exhibition Temporary Exhibition Exhibition Linear Narrative Meaning Clusters Fixed Iterative Curator Cultural Coder Transform table – from old to new
  184. 184. Old New Permanent Exhibition Exhibition Temporary Exhibition Exhibition Linear Narrative Meaning Clusters Fixed Iterative Curator Cultural Coder Make once Re-make always Transform table – from old to new
  185. 185. The Iterative Interactive Mediated Museum Gently flows the museum
  186. 186. The Iterative Interactive Mediated Museum Gently flows the museum
  187. 187. The Iterative Interactive Mediated Museum Gently flows the museum
  188. 188. Stephen Feber Ltd Animations by Knitting Jelly Ltd © Stephen Feber Ltd 2015

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