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Lean construction & BIM

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BIM Lecture Note (5/6)
Objectives
* The challenges of Building Construction Project
* To understand what is IPD & LEAN Construction
* To understand Asset Lifecycle Management (iBIM)
*How to apply ALM & BIM to enable LEAN Construction
Question
* How iBIM can be applied to enable IPD & LEAN Construction?

Published in: Technology
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  • Great Information Stephen! I am new to construction, but not new to Lean. This really helps put it all together for me. Thanks again!
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Lean construction & BIM

  1. 1. IPD, Lean Construction & iBIM Stephen AUStephen AU Oct. 10, 2013 Lecture Class BRE398: Building Information Modeling BRE398: Building Information Modeling
  2. 2. TopicsTopics Challenges on Building Construction Project IPD & LEAN Construction Asset Life Cycle Management & BIM for IPD & Lean Deliverable and workflow managementDeliverable and workflow management Integrated Project Management Summary BRE398: Building Information Modeling
  3. 3. Lecture Objectives and ResultsLecture Objectives and Results Objectives The challenges of Building Construction Project To understand what is IPD & LEAN Construction To understand Asset Lifecycle Management (iBIM)y g ( ) How to apply ALM & BIM to enable LEAN Construction QuestionQuestion How iBIM can be applied to enable IPD & LEAN C t ti ?Construction? BRE398: Building Information Modeling
  4. 4. TopicsTopics Challenges on Building Construction Project IPD & LEAN Construction Asset Life Cycle Management & BIM for IPD & Lean Deliverable and workflow managementDeliverable and workflow management Integrated Project Management Summary BRE398: Building Information Modeling
  5. 5. Peculiarities of construction on product, j / d i d i d l lproject/production and industry level Sit d ti (iSite production (i.e. Organizing the production around the product dependent on outdoor conditions) Temporary productionTemporary production organization (e.g. Fragmented supply chain)chain), One-of-a kind product (e.g. Design-to-order( g g project-based production). R f R b V ijh f1 d L i K k l 2005 R i iti th th li iti f d ti i t ti BRE398: Building Information Modeling Ref: Ruben Vrijhoef1 and Lauri Koskela , 2005, Revisiting the three peculiarities of production in construction
  6. 6. Construction VariabilityConstruction Variability A C (A C)Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) processes are inherently variable and uncertain. V i bilit d i j t f dVariability undermines project performance and disrupts workflow leading to detrimental project consequences on cost duration quality flowconsequences on cost, duration, quality, flow, sequencing, etc. (Hamzeh et al., 2007; Hopp & Spearman 2008) Organizations under norms ofSpearman, 2008). Organizations, under norms of rationality, strive to maintain consistency in production flow and shield production fromp p uncertainty in business processes and in their environment (Thompson, 1967). BRE398: Building Information Modeling
  7. 7. Building Construction Contract ModelBuilding Construction Contract Model Design-Build-Finance- Maintain-Operation (DBFMO) BRE398: Building Information Modeling
  8. 8. Draw Back of Convention Construction Model (Ballard 2010) Th f ll h llThe fallacious assumption that all activities in a construction project add value to the product, No distinguishing between process and flow activitiesNo distinguishing between process and flow activities, Estimation of costs based on work breakdown structures No appropriate consideration of resource flowsNo appropriate consideration of resource flows, All activities are assumed to function independent of each other and a reduction in the cost of a particular activity isother and a reduction in the cost of a particular activity is assumed to reduce cost of entire project, No taking into account the effects of poor quality of productg p q y p or considering market uncertainties and fluctuations, Linear work flow structure. BRE398: Building Information Modeling
  9. 9. Wastages in Construction IndustryWastages in Construction Industry (B ll d 2010) Pi lli (2010) b li d th t b th t i tit d d(Ballard, 2010). Piselli (2010) believed that both management ineptitude and poor management of information / data flows were the main reason for waste in the construction industry. A measure of the extent of the cost of waste can be gauged from the fact that onlyg g y 40% of all funds allocated to a construction project is spent on value adding activities with the remaining 60% being spend on non–value added activities including rework, correction of defects, inventory stockpiling and even legal suits with dissatisfied customers (Hilton, 2010).with dissatisfied customers (Hilton, 2010). C i Effi i f I d i ( f D S i h NIBS 2009) BRE398: Building Information Modeling Comparative Efficiency of Industries (after D. Smith, NIBS, 2009)
  10. 10. 7 Wastes7 Wastes BRE398: Building Information Modeling
  11. 11. Causes of Waste in the Construction Industry Ref: Piselli, 2010 BRE398: Building Information Modeling
  12. 12. Value and WastagesValue and Wastages Value lost due to Value lost due to ConstructionExtra cost due toT t l C t Value lost due to Design Extra cost due to construction Extra cost Total Cost due to design B Extra cost due to design inefficiency Total Value Total Cost Best practices cost Best practices cost Design Cost Construction Cost Value of Constructed Facility cost BRE398: Building Information Modeling
  13. 13. General Issues in Building /Construction (1/2) Part of customer requirements are lost or not taken into account in the early phase of design There is no optimization of several solutions There is lack of compliance with quality standardsThere is lack of compliance with quality standards Designs are incomplete and need additional ifi ti h t i i lspecifications or, what is more common involve “improvisations” at the site Many times the design are not clear or explicit BRE398: Building Information Modeling
  14. 14. General Issues in Building /Construction (1/2) D i h f t ti ll d t th l k fDesign changes are frequent, partially due to the lack of mechanisms that allow designers to understand, in the early phases of the project, the real expectations of the customer. The duration of the design drafting stage is prolonged often making unattainable some constructive solutions due to the lack of interaction between the agents involved in thelack of interaction between the agents involved in the process Lack of coordination among the subjects involved, which fneed to incompatibility and conflict between distinct designs When considered in terms of cost, the constructive problems resulting from design failures make up the largest categoryresulting from design failures make up the largest category And finally, the cost of the design is only reduced at the expense of quality BRE398: Building Information Modeling
  15. 15. Problems for Tradition ConstructionProblems for Tradition Construction Constrains of sequent phases are not taken into account in the design phase Unnecessary constraints for subsequent phases are in the design phaseg p Little feedback for specialist L k f l d hi d ibilit f th t t lLack of leadership and responsibility for the total project Ref: Dupagene.A (ed). 1991. Computer Integrated Building. Strategic Final Report BRE398: Building Information Modeling
  16. 16. Practical examples of resolving li i i f d i i ipeculiarities of production in construction Ref: Ruben Vrijhoef1 and Lauri Koskela , 2005, Revisiting the three peculiarities of productionpeculiarities of production in construction
  17. 17. TopicsTopics Challenges on Building Construction Project IPD & LEAN Construction Asset Life Cycle Management & BIM for IPD & Lean Deliverable and workflow managementDeliverable and workflow management Integrated Project Management Summary BRE398: Building Information Modeling
  18. 18. What Is IPDWhat Is IPD Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) is a project delivery approach that integrates people, systems, business structures and practices into a process that collaboratively harnesses the talents and insights of all participants to optimize project results, increase value to the owner, reduce waste, and maximize efficiency through all phases of design, fabrication, and construction. (http://ipd-ca.net/overview/)( p // p / /) BRE398: Building Information Modeling
  19. 19. Overall TransformationOverall Transformation Fragmented, assembled on “just-as- needed” or “minimum-necessary” basis, An integrated team entity composed key j k h ld bl d l i h Traditional Project Delivery Integrated Project Delivery Teamsneeded or minimum necessary basis, strongly hierarchical, controlled Linear, distinct, segregated; knowledge h d “j d d” project stakeholders, assembled early in the process, open, collaborative Concurrent and multi-level; early contributions of knowledge and expertise information Process gathered “just-as-needed”; information hoarded; silos of knowledge and expertise Individually managed, transferred to of knowledge and expertise; information openly shared; stakeholder trust and respect Collectively managed, appropriately sharedRisk the greatest extent possible Individually pursued; minimum effort for maximum return; (usually) first-cost based Team success tied to project success; value- based Digitally based, virtual; Building Information M d li (3 4 d 5 di i l) Reward T h lPaper-based, 2 dimensional; analog Encourage unilateral effort; allocate and transfer risk; no sharing Modeling (3, 4 and 5 dimensional) Encourage, foster, promote and support multi- lateral open sharing and collaboration; risk sharing Technology Agreements BRE398: Building Information Modeling sharing Ref: AIA – IPD User Guide
  20. 20. Process TransformationProcess Transformation Traditional Design ProcessTraditional Design Process Integrated Design ProcessIntegrated Design Process BRE398: Building Information Management
  21. 21. What is Lean?What is Lean? G d S (20 ) l f hGrover and Somaya (2011), lean refers to those processes which result in maximum value through minimum consumption of resourcesconsumption of resources. Piselli (2009), believes that the concept of lean refers to that philosophy that considers consumption of resourcesthat philosophy that considers consumption of resources only to produce value to the end consumer. Any other utilization of resources is considered to be a waste and has to be eliminated from the system. Bhatla (2010), further explained this by saying that lean processes reduce time in fulfilment of customer orders by eliminating all sources of waste in the system. BRE398: Building Information Modeling
  22. 22. Lean ConstructionLean Construction S h b (2009) h d fi d l t ti lSchonberger (2009), who defined lean construction goals as reduction of waste in human efforts, inventory and time to market and to become more response to customer needs and producing products of very high quality in the most efficient and economical manner possible. Lean Construction is a production management-basedLean Construction is a production management-based approach to project delivery -- a new way to design and build capital facilities…Applied to construction, Lean changes the way work is done throughout the delivery processway work is done throughout the delivery process. Lean Construction extends from the objectives of a lean production system – maximize value and minimize waste - top y specific techniques and applies them in a new project delivery process. BRE398: Building Information Modeling
  23. 23. Main Focus of Lean ConstructionMain Focus of Lean Construction Th f ili d i d li d i d hThe facility and its delivery process are designed together to better reveal and support customer purposes. Positive iteration within the process is supported and negative iteration reduced.within the process is supported and negative iteration reduced. Work is structured throughout the process to maximize value and to reduce waste at the project delivery level. Efforts to manage and improve performance are aimed at improving total project performance because it is more h d h h d fimportant than reducing the cost or increasing the speed of any activity. “Control” is redefined from “monitoring results” to “makingControl is redefined from monitoring results to making things happen.” The performance of the planning and control systems are measured and improved. BRE398: Building Information Modeling y p
  24. 24. Comparison of Traditional and Lean Projects BRE398: Building Information Modeling
  25. 25. Traditional versus Lean Delivered Project BRE398: Building Information Modeling
  26. 26. Principles of Lean (1/2)Principles of Lean (1/2) Customer Value – customer needs at specific time and specific price. It is about “Measurement, Design & Management” The Value Stream – the most effective process isp achieved by minimum number of value added steps without no-value added stepwithout no value added step Flow – effective and efficiency flow of materials and informationand information BRE398: Building Information Modeling
  27. 27. Principles of Lean (2/2)Principles of Lean (2/2) Pull – a system of cascading production and delivery instructions from downstream to upstream activities in which nothing is produce by the upstream supplier until the downstream customer signals a need Synchronization (Timing)y ( g) Alignment (Position) TransparencyTransparency Perfection – continuous improvement BRE398: Building Information Modeling
  28. 28. Production ProcessProduction Process
  29. 29. Key Components of LeanKey Components of Lean A f d d h ’ d fA focus on understanding the customer’s purpose, defining associated requirements to meet those purposes and a project design to deliver and fulfill those purposes;project design to deliver and fulfill those purposes; Holistic view of project delivery; Communication and authority structures;Communication and authority structures; Project delivery structure; Collaborative environments;Collaborative environments; “Last planner” empowerment; and Lean tools that are applied to a job site or processes thatLean tools that are applied to a job site or processes that support the delivery of the project and the elimination of waste. BRE398: Building Information Modeling
  30. 30. The Recommended Practice Fundamental Techniques BRE398: Building Information Modeling
  31. 31. Value Stream MappingValue Stream Mapping Value Stream Mapping is a more in depth technique designed to set out each of the stepsValue Stream Mapping is a more in-depth technique designed to set out each of the steps from the beginning to the end of a specific process (including how much inventory, rework and waiting there is within a process) and includes: teaching the crew(s) working in the area/on the task about the 7 wastes k h d /S d G & S h k d d ( 3 d )asking the Team Leader/Superintendent to Go & See the work site and spend some time (~1-3 days) mapping out each step of the process, engaging with the crew using post-it notes to display these steps up on a wall, including data for each step: number of people doing the work how long it takes any rework seen any inventory seen between steps any waiting between steps inviting the crew in, refreshing them on the 7 wastes, asking them to review and agree with the process, then identifying waste in the process with a different coloured post-it note brainstorming countermeasures for each of the wastes (once again some further investigation may be necessary) and adding these to the wall ranking the countermeasures by ease of implementation and benefit to the process implementing the easy, high benefit countermeasures first and then working through the others. BRE398: Building Information Modeling
  32. 32. Last Planner SystemLast Planner System The Last Planner System® (LPS) is a production control method designed toproduction control method designed to integrate “should-can-will-did” planning and activity delivery of a project. Its aim is to deliver predictablep j p work flow and rapid learning.
  33. 33. Last Planner SystemLast Planner System
  34. 34. LPS Planning PracticesLPS Planning Practices (1) Pl i t d t il t l t f i th(1) Plan in greater detail as you get closer to performing the work (2) Develop the work plan with those who are going to(2) Develop the work plan with those who are going to perform the work, (3) Identify and remove work constraints ahead of time as a t t k k d d i li bilit f kteam to make work ready and increase reliability of work plans (4) Make reliable promises and drive work execution based on( ) p coordination and active negotiation with trade partners and project participants, and (5) L f l i f il b fi di th t(5) Learn from planning failures by finding the root causes and taking preventive actions (Ballard 2000, Ballard et al. 2007, Ballard et al. 2009). BRE398: Building Information Modeling
  35. 35. LPS – Should/Can/Will/Did PlanLPS Should/Can/Will/Did Plan
  36. 36. Planning StagePlanning Stage
  37. 37. Planning StagePlanning Stage 1 Th h d l h f f d l d b k b d1- The master schedule is the output of front-end planning describing work to be carried out over the entire duration of a project. It identifies major milestone dates and incorporates critical path method (CPM) logic to determine overall project duration (Tommelein & Ballard, 1997). 2 Ph h d li t d t il d h d l i h j t h h2- Phase scheduling generates a detailed schedule covering each project phase such as foundations, structural frame, and finishing. In a collaborative planning setup, the phase or pull schedule employs reverse phase scheduling and identifies handoffs between the various specialty organizations to find the best way to meet milestones stated in the master schedule (Ballard & Howell, 2004). 3- Lookahead planning signifies the first step of production planning with a time frame usually spanning between two to six weeks. At this stage, activities are broken down into the level of processes/operations, constraints are identified, responsibilities are assigned, and assignments are made ready (Ballard, 1997; Hamzeh et al., 2008). 4- Commitment planning represents the most detailed plan in the system showing interdependence fbetween the work of various specialist organizations. It directly drives the production process. At the end of each plan period, assignments are reviewed to measure the reliability of planning and the production system. Analyzing reasons for plan failures and acting on these reasons is used as the basis of learning and continuous improvement (Ballard, 2000). BRE398: Building Information Modeling reasons is used as the basis of learning and continuous improvement (Ballard, 2000).
  38. 38. Lean Project Delivery System (Ballard, 2000 and 2006) BRE398: Building Information Modeling
  39. 39. Project Phases and Target CostingProject Phases and Target Costing Allowable Cost ≥ Expected Cost ≥ Target Cost •To embrace this early involvement requires a mindset shift to money as an “investment” in the whole, rather than arather than a “control” of the piece Di f “L P j D li S U d ” B ll dDiagram from “Lean Project Delivery System: an Update”, Ballard 2008. Diagram originally produced for Sutter Health by the Project Production Systems Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley.
  40. 40. Process Map Depicting the Planning Processes Modified from The Last Planner Handbook at CHH Cathedral Hill Hospital, 2009
  41. 41. LPS Schedule Development ModelLPS Schedule Development Model Modified from The Last Planner Handbook at CHH Cathedral Hill Hospital, 2009
  42. 42. Six Week Look Ahead ScheduleSix Week Look Ahead Schedule
  43. 43. Information Flow Model for Planning Processes Modified from The Last Planner Handbook at CHH Cathedral Hill Hospital, 2009
  44. 44. Constraint LogConstraint Log BRE398: Building Information Modeling
  45. 45. Weekly Working PlanWeekly Working Plan BRE398: Building Information Modeling
  46. 46. Plot Of Plan Percent CompletePlot Of Plan Percent Complete P l l (PPC)Percent plan complete (PPC) is a metric used to track the performance of reliable promising at the weekly work plan level b i th t f t kby measuring the percentage of tasks completed relative to those planned. It thus helps assess the reliability of work plans andy p initiates preparations to perform work as planned. BRE398: Building Information Modeling
  47. 47. WPP CalculationWPP Calculation BRE398: Building Information Modeling
  48. 48. Information Centre MeetingsInformation Centre Meetings Information Centre Meetings are 10 – 15 minute stand up meetings around a whiteboard to review key performance metrics (KPIs) for the team on a daily basis Information Centremetrics (KPIs) for the team on a daily basis. Information Centre Meetings form the nerve centres of the project, ensuring each person on site is aware of their role, delivering the site KPIsp , g and enabling problem solving around concerns as they arise BRE398: Building Information Modeling
  49. 49. Benefits of LeanBenefits of Lean Projects using lean construction have demonstrated Better budget performance Fewer change orders Higher on-time performanceg p Fewer accidents Fewer lawsuitsFewer lawsuits Better value delivery to the customer BRE398: Building Information Modeling
  50. 50. TopicsTopics Challenges on Building Construction Project IPD & LEAN Construction Asset Life Cycle Management & BIM for IPD & Lean Deliverable and workflow managementDeliverable and workflow management Integrated Project Management Summary BRE398: Building Information Modeling
  51. 51. MacLeamy CurveMacLeamy Curve The MacLeamy Curve is a graph of the cost of decisions mapped along the timeline of aThe MacLeamy Curve is a graph of the cost of decisions mapped along the timeline of a typical construction project. It clearly shows that decisions made early in a project (during design) can be made at lower cost and with greater effectiveness. A reasonable inference to draw from this graph is in fact the idea that projects will benefit by having more diverse expertise (i.e., more interested parties) in the room during design, so that value engineering decisions, especially ones that affect the life cycle costs of the project, can be moved forward in time, when decisions are relatively inexpensive.
  52. 52. ALM for Building Industry Definition 52 ALM for Building Industry Definition A business approach driving Product, Process and Resources management and collaboration over the life cycle of a AEC project that enables an enterprise to effectively and efficiently innovate and manage its building and related services throughout the entire building lifecycle, from design, construction to facility management.g Build the Asset 资产建造 20 – 30 – 60 years Engineering / De elopment 0.5 – 2 years O ti / M tEngineering / De elopment 0.5 – 2 years O ti / M tEngineering / Development 工程建造 / 发展 Operations / Management 运作 / 管理 Engineering / Development 工程建造 / 发展 Operations / Management 运作 / 管理 Initial Design Detailed Engineering Construction & Start-up Operations & Maint.Mgt Requiremt Specif. RetirementUpgrade project Operations & Maint.Mgt Operations & Maint.Mgt Revamping project Initial Design Detailed Engineering Construction & Start-up Operations & Maint.Mgt Requiremt Specif. RetirementUpgrade project Operations & Maint.Mgt Operations & Maint.Mgt Revamping project Initial Design Detailed Engineering Construction & Start-up Operations & Maint.Mgt Requiremt Specif. RetirementUpgrade project Operations & Maint.Mgt Operations & Maint.Mgt Revamping project M th A t 资产管理 Life cycle of the asset 资产的生命周期Life cycle of the asset 资产的生命周期 Manage the Asset 资产管理
  53. 53. Asset Data managed by ALM LOCATION STRUCTURE  (Grey Components) ASSETS (FUNCTION) STRUCTURE (Colored Components) Asset Data managed by ALM Plant AreaBuilding System System Location Equipment Component
  54. 54. Asset Lifecycle Managed InformationAsset Lifecycle Managed Information LocationsLocations Physical ItemsPhysical ItemsAssetsAssetsDocumentsDocuments LocationsLocations Physical ItemsPhysical ItemsAssetsAssetsDocumentsDocuments jjProjectsProjects
  55. 55. All Domains working on the “Single Version of the Truth” Architect Governance Regulatory & IP Lifecycle ManagementStructural i i Architect Design Facility Program Management Regulatory & Compliance Engineering E& M Engineeringy Management Analysis Sales / Marketing Construction Customers Technical PublicationsManagement Global Sourcing Unified Live Collaboration SourcingSuppliers Customers Partners Quality BRE398: Building Information Management 55
  56. 56. ALM Systemy Governance IP Lifecycle ManagementArchitectRegulatory & Structural i iProgram Management Architect Design Facility Regulatory & Compliance Engineering E& M Engineering Analysis y Management Sales / Marketing Construction Customers Technical PublicationsManagement SourcingSuppliers Customers Partners Quality Global Sourcing Unified Live Collaboration BRE398: Building Information Management 56
  57. 57. Interactions between Lean and BIM (Borrmann and Rank, 2008) BRE398: Building Information Modeling
  58. 58. Software Tools to Support LPDSoftware Tools to Support LPD Ref: A systemic view of lean management in construction (© Vishal Porwal & Jose Fernández-Solís 2009)
  59. 59. Values of ALM & BIM for IPDValues of ALM & BIM for IPD I d d i lit th h d l b d l i d i l tiIncreased design quality through model-based analysis and simulations Better cost prediction through repeated, accurate bill-of-materials costing Lowered risk through reduced errors and field changes resulting from 3D interference checking Greater potential for prefabrication due to predictable field conditions and Improved field efficiency by visualizing the planned construction h d lschedule. At the end of the construction phase, the BIM model may be transferred to the facility operator to improve the long-term facility performance with: Asset management Space planning / Real estate utilization, and Maintenance scheduling. BRE398: Building Information Modeling
  60. 60. Relative Importance of BenefitsRelative Importance of Benefits Architect's Perceived Benefits of BIM (from McGraw Hill Market(from McGraw Hill Market Report, 2009) BRE398: Building Information Management
  61. 61. A "Swim Lane" diagram of the IPD /BIM Process Robert Anderson, An Introduction to the IPD Workflow for Vectorworks BIM Users, Nemetschek Vectorworks
  62. 62. Current Situation – Islands of Information 62 Current Situation Islands of Information “Plant ConfigurationPlant Configuration handled in one system Plan documentationPlan documentation handled in another system Maintenance tasksMaintenance tasks handled in a third system Projects handledProjects handled in a fourth system….. … and so on” “Information is not fully shared between the systems. This leads to slow, inefficient processesinefficient processes with high riskwith high risk for human errors due to manual transfer of information” Performance A l i Configuration Management (Excel...) P&IDs Requirements Specifications (Office, PDF) & Analysis (Cognos, Actuate) Planning system (MS Project, Primavera) (Plant design)
  63. 63. The Asset Lifecycle Managemet 63 The Asset Lifecycle Managemet “Plant ConfigurationPlant Configuration handled in one system Plan documentationPlan documentation handled in another system Maintenance tasksMaintenance tasks handled in a third system Projects handledProjects handled in a fourth system….. … and so on” “Information is not fully shared between the systems. This leads to slow, inefficient processesinefficient processes with high riskwith high risk for human errors due to manual transfer of information” Automated numbering for locations and documentsAutomated numbering for locations and documents - No duplicates Higher securityHigher security - Different security groups for different diciplines, Revision control Plant Configuration Management (Excel...) P&IDs Performance A l i Requirements Specifications (Office, PDF) Easier and faster finding documentEasier and faster finding document - What documents affects a specific location All data in the same placeAll data in the same place - Easier to generate reports, Ex. line lists, valve lists Easier see how equipment are connected to other equipmentEasier see how equipment are connected to other equipment - Ex. pipelines (isometric (Plant design) & Analysis (Cognos, Actuate) Planning system (MS Project, Primavera) Easier see how equipment are connected to other equipmentEasier see how equipment are connected to other equipment Ex. pipelines (isometric drawing) and pipesupports, pump and pump engine Separate project structureSeparate project structure - Only the locations affected ”
  64. 64. Asset Life Cycle Management – Key Strengths Single Version Of the Truth Enterprise Collaboration 3D Web Navigation Openness and Scalability 3D Web Navigation Visibility and Decision Making WW Extended Enterprise g
  65. 65. Integrated Product DevelopmentIntegrated Product Development BRE398: Building Information Modeling
  66. 66. Asset LifecycleAsset Lifecycle Asset approved by Engineering now in Quality Assurance, Regulators… Asset Decommissioned And not in use any more Asset is now under construction Design and Engineering Asset Released, Ready for Asset Installed & Engineering Ready for Construction Commissioned Asset is now in Maintenance BRE398: Building Information Modeling Maintenance
  67. 67. Drawing / Document ManagementDrawing / Document Management 1 Plan Drawing Schdule 2 Deliverable driven 3 Schedule Tracking 10% 30% 50% 80% Create Assign Review IFA IFC
  68. 68. Asset Documents Mechanical Design 2D Drawings SpecificationSpecification Sheets Finite Element Analysis Quality Documents & Test Reports P&ID (Piping & Instrumentation Diagrams) Maintenance Procedures & Functional Diagrams Onsite Pictures & Lay outs
  69. 69. ALM aviALM avi BRE398: Building Information Modeling A01_ALM.avi
  70. 70. Integration of BIM with LPSIntegration of BIM with LPS (Adapted from Abdelhamid, 2006) BRE398: Building Information Management ( p , )
  71. 71. On Line CollaborationOn Line Collaboration k d l Co-ordination, Co-operation & Co-decision Teamwork, communication, and management play a larger role in defining building quality than most of us realizerealize Principles of Communication in ALM S dSpeed Accessibility – anytime, anywhere & anyone Communality the shared understanding of the contentCommunality – the shared understanding of the content, structure, and mechanics of the project information and database Adaptability – allow for evolution, accommodating changes and additions to its content Ref George Elvin Integrated Practice in Architecture p 117 118 John Wiley & Sons 2007 BRE398: Building Information Modeling Ref: George Elvin, Integrated Practice in Architecture, p.117 - 118, John Wiley & Sons, 2007
  72. 72. 3D PPR Navigation3D PPR Navigation V6 IPP S BRE398: Building Information Management V6_IPP_Swym.wmv
  73. 73. On Line 3D CollaborationOn Line 3D Collaboration S t “I t t C ll b ti ” Y ll b t ith ithi thSupports “Instant Collaboration”. You can collaborate with anyone within the extended enterprise to share data and ideas. Yes, I can see it (view the 3D data) and I am issuing a change request. I found a problem, please look at it …please look at it … (share the 3D data) I got the change request and I am acting accordingly. BRE398: Building Information Modeling
  74. 74. bim_3dlive_coreview_final.avi
  75. 75. ALM vs non-ALM integrated ?ALM vs non ALM integrated ? When not integrated….Unsecured IP RResources management Program/Project DesignerBQ Managers Where are the Project Specifications ? On which part of project are Site Managers Q manager What is the completeness of task deliverables ? How is my technical requirement fulfilled? Program metrics and dashboards of project are teams working? How Can I fulfilled? Wrong or Discrete (Events) C ti Executives How Can I validate the Project Gate ? Wrong or out-of-date information ! BRE398: Building Information Management Discrete (Events) Continuous (Physics)
  76. 76. Project Management Architecture Link contract data requirement to schedule Link schedule/contract to product deliverables Link to appropriate allocated resource Project Management ArchitectureReal time monitoring of program activities with cross-functional process integration Requirement item, project, sub-project, tasks, deliverable status ,roles, skills… schedule product deliverables Program Planning & Resources t Contracts / i t Program d li bl Program Backbone Planning & Controls managementrequirements deliverables Risks and opportunities managementProgram metrics 3D Dashboards BRE398: Building Information Management
  77. 77. Enterprise Project ManagementManage Complex Projects Across the Extended EnterpriseManage Complex Projects Across the Extended Enterprise With Real-time Access to Development IP Project Management • Manage Projects to deliver the product including Issues, Risks and other project metrics • Task owners complete their deliverables (other B i Obj t )Business Objects) • Status dashboards available for management decisions ProjectProject Project Standards and Definition Project Creation and Setup Scheduling and Management Project Reports and Dashboards Product Portfolio Planning jj ManagerManager
  78. 78. Integrated Project Managementg j g Integrated Project Management Manage all aspects of project or program execution: deliverables, schedules, resources, work / /requests/orders/permits, risks, issues in one integrated system . Risk W k P k (WBS) Bringing it all together Risk Management Bidding Management Scheduling Work Package (WBS)  Management‐ RFQ Engineering Management Deliverable Management Construction Role Based Consistent Information & Work Package Management Role Based  ‐ Consistent Information &  Project data throughout entire Project  Lifecycle  Milestone Management Issues and Ch Collaboration  (O/O, EC, Suppliers,  Vendors) Project  Management Procurement Change Management )
  79. 79. Integrated Project ManagementIntegrated Project Management Suppliers Contractors Owner  Operator Agencies Project data Accountability and traceability EPC Project  Manager ConstructionProcurement Commissioning Discipline  Engineer  controlled visibility through relational database and traceability through releases and workflows Requisitions Issues Scheduling Manager Site manager g ManagerDirector and PPR management Requisition Deliverable Work Packages Changes Scheduling Management Issue Change Deliverable Management Issue Management Schedule Tasks Shapes Tool Kit Change ManagementEngineering Deliverable Baselines Activity Execution BRE398: Building Information Management
  80. 80. Integrated Project ManagementIntegrated Project Management Contract Management Risk Management EngineeringEngineering Procurement Construction Commissioning Construction SiteManagement Requisition Management Site Manager Commis- sioning Manager Pro- curement Deliverable Management Work Package Management Project Manager g g Milestone Management I d Ch Owner Operator Discipline Agencies V lid i bili Unique data source Issues and Change Management Discipline Engineer Director Validation accountability Execution Monitoring q Mastered processes
  81. 81. Facilities iBIM for Facilities Lifecycle Management Design /  Construction  BIM  Post‐ Construction   (Asset  Facility Building Information Model F ibili h h i Pro Forma Analysis Scenario Exploration Applications Configuration (pre-sales) ( Management)  BIM  Applications F Facili Feasibility through operations Components (objects) Relationships between components Concept Design Program Compliance Building Performance (p ) As-Built Commissioning Fromconcept Increas tystartupto MassesSpaces Design Documentation (Generic Components) Operation Simulation (Emergency) Code Compliance Facility Management Financial Asset Management tiontorealiz singlevelof ooperationa ArchitecturalSpacesSite Structural MEP Construction- Level Detailed Components Estimation Coordination P j t Operation Simulation (Emergency) Performance zation detailinmo andretrofit Manufactured / Prefabricated Components Custom, Onsite Components As-Built With Operational Data Project Management Prefabrication Monitoring Configuration (retrofit) del Custom asset object Senor-linked components Increasing levels of scope by component type and integrationExample of associate purpose of BIM (application) with scope and level of detail Ref: C.Eastman, “BIM Handbook – A guide to Building Information Modeling” p.130, John Wiley & Sons, 2008
  82. 82. ALM Project ManagementALM Project Management Document ManagementOverall Project Management Schedule Management • Template driven folder structure • Revision control and security for project documentation • Template driven projects drive consistency • Project information & financials carryover directly from program b l & l • All tasks can be driven directly from template and include mandatory as well as optional tasks S h d l b l l dsubmittal & approval • Standard functionality: • Team Members • Task Structure • Risk Management • Schedule baselines, actuals and estimates • Milestone approvals / sign-offs … direct feed into project management process • Project Financials • Discussion Threads • Related Projects • History • Lifecycle BRE398: Building Information Management
  83. 83. Integrated Project Management83 Integrated Project Management Iterative project definition Project definition evolves to increasing levels of detail through continuous iteration between design, schedule, goals and project organization Space plan Level 1 project definition Space plan Level 2 project definition Space plan Level 3 project definition Space plan WBS l Goal Space plan WBS l Goal Space plan WBS l Goal WBS plan lplan WBS plan lplan WBS plan lplan R f G El i I t t d P ti i A hit t 84 J h Wil & S 2007 Resources plan Resources plan Resources plan Ref: George Elvin, Integrated Practice in Architecture, p.84, John Wiley & Sons, 2007
  84. 84. ALM Project ManagementALM Project Management Contract Management Engineering Procurement Construction Commissioning Risk Management BOMs/BOQs BOMs/BOQs Managing a planning ... Of ... Engineering deliveries Requisition Management Deliverable Management Folders of Specs Documents Folders of Specs Documents Folders of Specs Documents Folders ofFolders of S Drawings by Baseline Deliverable g Work Package Management Specs Documents Specs Documents by Chapter Discipline  Engineer  Director Deliverable Database Milestone Management Issues and Change Management Deliverable Document Lifecycle D li bl Pl i (D i WBS) DesignerEngineer Redactors Single version of the truth Industrial / Generic Use Cases Deliverable Planning (Design WBS) Workflow for transmittal management Reuse experience of previous projects
  85. 85. ALM Project ManagementALM Project Management Contract Management Engineering Procurement Construction Commissioning Risk Management Engineering Procurement Construction Commissioning Requisition Management Deliverable Management R i i g Work Package Management Commissioning Check List Remaining Punch list Commissionin g Milestone Management Issues and Change Management Deliverable Document Lifecycle g Manager Progress monitoring Industrial / Generic Use Cases Commissioning Planning management Receipt, Reserve & issue management Validation accountability
  86. 86. Project PulsingProject Pulsing “9-Blocker” • Same concept as 4-Blocker Project Dashboards “4-Blocker” • Create custom project • Pulse form for projects: Same concept as 4 Blocker but in graphical form with hyperlinks to each data segment: S h d l Create custom project collections & automatically display on a dashboard: • Project lifecycle status • Current milestone Pulse form for projects: • Project summary information • Schedule & dates • Financial summary • Schedule • $E & $I • Resources loading • Issues Ri k • Current milestone • Slip days • Risks • Financial summary • Umbrella program Financial summary • Main risks • Key update notes • Pulsing form is automatically updated by • Risks • Slip weeks • Umbrella program • Project owner automatically updated by system … Project Leaders do not have to perform “extra” work Dashboards and other tools to pulse and manage projects
  87. 87. LEAD THROUGH NEVIGATIONLEAD THROUGH NEVIGATION AEC E i O i i BRE398: Building Information Management AEC Enovia Overview.avi
  88. 88. ALM Enable Last Planner SystemALM Enable Last Planner System Th M t S h d l t th f ibilit f th j t ti iThe Master Schedule proves out the feasibility of the project timing and milestones. Once that plan is complete, it is put aside and phase plans are developed for each milestone. Th l h ll d h k ll b lThe people who actually do the work create a collaborative plan to deliver each project phase; this is essentially the production system to deliver the project. The team creates the phase plan for the entire j tproject. That plan leads to the generation of a “Look Ahead Plan” (LAP), which ideally has a six week scope. The LAP enables the team to i i d b i hi h h d l danticipate and obtain everything that they need to complete and obtain so the work is ready to start when required by the phase plan. The team also generates a weekly plan to identify what can be done related to what should be done and what will be done for the following week. BRE398: Building Information Modeling
  89. 89. ALM to Enable Functions of the Lookahead Process Shape work flow sequence and rate Match work flow and capacityp y Decompose master schedule activities into work packages and operationspackages and operations Develop detailed methods for executing work Maintain a backlog of ready work Update and revise higher level schedules asp g needed. BRE398: Building Information Modeling
  90. 90. ALM for WorkFace PlanningALM for WorkFace Planning W k l d l d fWorkFace Planning was developed as a set of practices to support the execution of very large construction project and is compatible with the principlesconstruction project and is compatible with the principles of Lean Construction. Similar to the Last Planner System WorkFace PlanningSimilar to the Last Planner System, WorkFace Planning involves the creation of small, well defined, field installation Work Packages that support the constructiong pp workforce. A typical Work Package supports one rotation (5 to 10 days) of a work crew and is based on h d d l f hactivities that are extracted directly from the construction schedule/plan. BRE398: Building Information Modeling
  91. 91. WorkFace PlanningWorkFace Planning BRE398: Building Information Modeling
  92. 92. ALM Project ManagementALM Project Management Contract Management Engineering Procurement Construction Commissioning Suppliers Risk Management Contractor Requisitions RFP Procurement Requisition Management Deliverable Management Contract g Work Package Management Discipline  Engineer Work package Tasks Completion Safety EPC Project Manager Milestone Management Issues and Change Management Construction Site manager Engineer  Director Work package definition through iterations p listEng. Doc Standards Safety Rules Work Package linked to tasks (contractors) or to parts (material & equipment suppliers), to Req isition Management Process driven milestone Risk highlights Industrial / Generic Use Cases Requisition Management Procurement Planning Management Risk Management Risk highlights Validation accountability
  93. 93. ALM Project ManagementALM Project Management Contract Management Engineering Procurement Construction Commissioning Risk Management g g g Procurement Master Schedule Requisition Management Deliverable Management Work Discipline  Engineer  Director EPC Project Manager Engineering Contract Amendments Contractg Work Package Management Work package (orders) Permits Construction Site manager Director Changes Completion Receipt Milestone Management Issues and Change Management p g Tasks Completion listEng. Doc Standards Safety RulesContractor Issues Issue traceability Work package execution control Based on completion list Contractor Industrial / Generic Use Cases Execution monitoring p Construction Issue management Possibly implying back to change management
  94. 94. ST F AEC C Fi l i BRE398: Building Information Modeling ST_For_AEC_Cut_Final.avi
  95. 95. Scheduled Maintenance ManagementScheduled Maintenance Management PlanningPlanning DevelopmentDevelopment Test &Test & ValidationValidation ConstructionConstruction Operations &Operations & MaintenanceMaintenance DeDecommissioncommission Service Maintenance & SupportService, Maintenance & Support Work Order Management Maintenance Engineer BRE398: Building Information Modeling Engineer
  96. 96. A07_maintenance_WO.avi
  97. 97. Elements of Visual ManagementElements of Visual Management Vi l M t b i t f di l d i lVisual Management can be a variety of displays and visual markers in the workplace that help you: Establish and post work prioritiesp p Visually display whether expected daily performance was met - was today a good day or a bad day? Better understand the flow of inputs and productionBetter understand the flow of inputs and production Quickly identify abnormal conditions Display standardised methods in use Communicate performance measures Display elements critical to safe and effective operations Provide feedback to/from team members supervisors andProvide feedback to/from team members, supervisors and managers Eliminate the need for more meetings BRE398: Building Information Modeling
  98. 98. Continuous ImprovementContinuous Improvement C ti I t i ll it f i d ith thContinuous Improvement in all its forms is done with the aim of improving safety, quality and productivity on site. LEAN seeks to develop the people themselves. The more someone experiments, the more they will learn and the b h ill b C i Ibetter they will become at Continuous Improvement. Continuous Improvement is an activity that must be done by the crews, team leaders and superintendentsby the crews, team leaders and superintendents themselves. In this way they will own the process and start to see opportunities more clearly. Engineers will also have Continuous Improvement targets which theyalso have Continuous Improvement targets which they will be monitored against. BRE398: Building Information Modeling
  99. 99. Evolution of Lean with ALMEvolution of Lean with ALM Once stability is achieved within the construction system, the LEAN Tools of Built in Quality and Just in Time start to put pressureQuality and Just in Time start to put pressure on the system by introducing techniques which ask us to respond more quickly – Built in Quality asks us to respond to concerns more quickly and Just in Time asks us to respond to the Customer more quickly.
  100. 100. LPD & IPDLPD & IPD I d P D l (IPD) d L P D lIntegrated Project Delivery (IPD) and Lean Project Delivery are co-evolving. Most people distinguish the two by defining IPD as being related to the actual commercial agreementsIPD as being related to the actual commercial agreements and Lean Project Delivery as a methodology to deliver projects IPD agreements usually contain a portion of shared risk. If the team can deliver effectively, they share in the reward. Incentives are at a project level rather than a transactionalIncentives are at a project level, rather than a transactional level. One of the main points of resistance to these agreementsOne of the main points of resistance to these agreements comes from this shared risk, which is natural because it is difficult to align the varied interests of the different parties. BRE398: Building Information Modeling
  101. 101. Implementation ChallengesImplementation Challenges Th hil h f l d ti l dThe core philosophy of lean production revolves around teamwork and continuous improvement. Many organizations fail to operate with much of either. This is often the case for the construction industry, which involves multiple self- interested parties, with little motivation to improve. Lean thinking requires employees to change the way theyLean thinking requires employees to change the way they view and execute their work (Liker, 2004). This often results in some loss of independence as the focus shifts from the individual tasks to the larger integrated team goalsindividual tasks to the larger integrated team goals. Changing the status-quo can not only be seen as cumbersome, but even threatening to people who have d l i l f ll f i hi hoperated relatively successfully for years within a somewhat dysfunctional system. BRE398: Building Information Modeling
  102. 102. LEAN Construction Assessment Framework BRE398: Building Information Modeling
  103. 103. LEAN Construction Assessment Framework BRE398: Building Information Modeling
  104. 104. LEAN Construction Assessment Framework BRE398: Building Information Modeling
  105. 105. LEAN Construction Assessment Framework BRE398: Building Information Modeling
  106. 106. LEAN Construction Assessment Framework BRE398: Building Information Modeling
  107. 107. LEAN Construction Assessment Framework BRE398: Building Information Modeling
  108. 108. LEAN Construction Assessment Framework BRE398: Building Information Modeling
  109. 109. LEAN Construction Assessment Framework BRE398: Building Information Modeling
  110. 110. LEAN Construction Assessment Framework BRE398: Building Information Modeling
  111. 111. LEAN Construction Assessment Framework BRE398: Building Information Modeling
  112. 112. TopicsTopics Challenges on Building Construction Project IPD & LEAN Construction Asset Life Cycle Management & BIM for IPD & Lean Deliverable and workflow managementDeliverable and workflow management Integrated Project Management Summary BRE398: Building Information Modeling
  113. 113. As-Is SituationAs Is Situation No Intelligent data Procurement barriers Adversarial Fear to share Contracts encourage conflict Resistance to innovate Adversarial Blame and claim culture Fear to share Static project approach Inconsistent delivery Lowest cost driven Siloed and fragmented Lowest cost driven No After-Action-ReviewLack of continuous improvement T hn l nd l dLack of R&D Investment Poor information exchange Technology vendor ledRisk dumping Poor value oriented definition BRE398: Building Information Modeling
  114. 114. Should-Be SituationShould Be Situation Holistic procurement process E di li i Life cycle thinking V l d i DynamicProactive Exceeding client requirementsValue driven y AutomationCollaboration Integrated Harmony Model driven (not Integrated Consistent delivery Innovation and knowledge creation paper driven) Consistent delivery Build off-site Sustainable profitability BRE398: Building Information Modeling
  115. 115. Process Re-engineering by ALM Feasibility Design Concept Development Documentation Design Concept Development Documentation Build Pre-Construction Construction Build Pre-Construction Construction PROJECT TIMELINE esign-Bid- Build Bid OperateBid (A)De B ild Feasibility Bid Design Concept Development Documentation Design Concept Development Documentation Build Pre-Construction Construction Build Pre-Construction Construction Operate (B)Design-Bui Feasibility Design Concept Development Documentation Design Concept Development Documentation Operate borative ( Bid Construction Pre-Construction Construction Construction Pre-Construction Construction Time savings due to (C)Collab concurrent design and construction A. The traditional single-stage involves the completion of each phase prior to the start of the next phase, often involving a different organization performing each phase in a non-integrative process B. The design-build process involves an overlap of development phases leading to a shortened overall schedule and requires integration between designers and builders C. A collaborative process involves participation by all key participants as early in the process as possible and ongoing collaboration. Ref: C.Eastman, “BIM Handbook – A guide to Building Information Modeling” p.116, John Wiley & Sons, 2008
  116. 116. Your Winning Solution, from Any Angle 116116 ALM solution provides all angles of the Time-Cost-Quality paradigm for customers to: produce quick-to-market high quality and cost-effective buildingsproduce quick to market, high quality and cost effective buildings meet all three requirements with harmony BRE398: Building Information Modeling
  117. 117. Barriers to IPD & Lean (1/2)Barriers to IPD & Lean (1/2) A b li f th t it d t l t “th ” it i j t f dA belief that it does not apply to “them” or it is just a fad. Lack of understanding what Lean Construction is and its benefits/value proposition. Lack of training. Lack of owner or top management involvement and commitment. Senior management beha ior lang age and s pport not alignedSenior management behavior, language and support not aligned with commitment to Lean. The mindset that “it takes too much time” prevents many from istarting. Poor communication and lack of collaboration among owners, contractors, clients, consultants. It is difficult to actually align the interests of the various parties. BRE398: Building Information Modeling
  118. 118. Barriers to IPD & Lean (2/2)Barriers to IPD & Lean (2/2) C i l t d t f ilit t ll b ti h d i k f dCommercial terms do not facilitate collaboration, shared risk, fund transfers across the project, innovation incentives. Resistance to up-front design costs to involve all key stakeholders, d l h d dmodel the project, and iterate designs. Lack of an embedded culture of transparent synchronized cost management. Relational contracts are viewed by some as untested (in a court of law) and difficult to insure. Culture within in the industry is historically more adversarialCulture within in the industry is historically more adversarial, fragmented and authoritative. Lean requires behavioral and mindset changes not necessarily embraced by all. Lack of team member commitment or a refusal to change behaviorsLack of team member commitment or a refusal to change behaviors. Team members not comfortable with early decision involvement or accountability to plan performance. BRE398: Building Information Modeling
  119. 119. CIOB Talk About BIMCIOB Talk About BIM There are three things that make up BIM. First you need the technologies to build theFirst you need the technologies to build the models. The second is process throughout the entire project life cycle. But what sits right above those two is changing people’sright above those two is changing people s culture and behaviours. Th b i l t i thi BIM j t iThe basic element in this BIM project is very much the intelligent client, that sets the environment for collaborative working. It’s about collaboration throughout the project life cyclecollaboration throughout the project life cycle. “Contractors will be compelled to compete directly with each other on the basis of the efficiency and productivity of their project Delivery techniques.” BRE398: Building Information Management
  120. 120. ConclusionConclusion By understanding the targets and rapidly evaluating design options, Owners and AEC people can make better decisions to improve value delivery and performance of projects. Investment of design and cost management resources, including downstream suppliers, fostersresources, including downstream suppliers, fosters collaboration and innovation leading to better designs, value and project delivery.designs, value and project delivery. BRE398: Building Information Modeling
  121. 121. Questions & Answers stephenau@mtech.com.hk BRE398: Building Information Management
  122. 122. ReferenceReference Natalie J. Sayer, Julian A. J. Anderson, (2012) Status of Lean in the US Construction Industry Steve Knapp , Debbie Hunt , (2012) Recommended Practices for the Application of LEAN Constructionpp Methods to Building New Australian LNG Capacity Ruben Vrijhoef1 and Lauri Koskela (2005)Ruben Vrijhoef1 and Lauri Koskela , (2005) Revisiting the three peculiarities of production in constructionconstruction BRE398: Building Information Modeling

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