Hlt 230 unit 8

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TNCC - HLT 230 - Chapter 8 - Energy

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Hlt 230 unit 8

  1. 1. Unit 8 Calories and Energy 1
  2. 2. Energy 2  Energy = kilocalories = kcal = Calories  Unit of measure used to express the amount of energy produced by foods in the form of heat Carbohydrates – 4 kcal/g Protein – 4 kcal/g 
  3. 3. Energy Metabolism 3
  4. 4. What do we need energy for? 4  - - Energy in food fuels body processes Muscular activity Growth Tissue repair and maintenance Chemical processes Body temperature
  5. 5. Total Energy Needs 5 Thermic Effect of Food Approx. 10% Physical Activity Basal Metabolism Approx. 30% 60-75%
  6. 6. Basal Metabolism 6  - - - Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) the minimum Caloric requirement to sustain life in a resting individual Breathing Heartbeat Body Temperature Growth Organ Functions
  7. 7. 7 Estimate Energy Used for Basal Metabolism  Men: - BMR Calories = body weight (lbs) x 11  Women: - BMR Calories = body weight (lbs) x 10  Varies ± 20% - Depending on physical activity, muscle mass, height, health status, genetic traits
  8. 8. Factors that Effect BMR 8           Body composition - lean vs. fat tissue Growth Hormones Fever Height Environmental temperature Starvation, fasting, and malnutrition Weight loss from dieting Stress Certain drugs
  9. 9. Thermic Effect of Food (Dietary Thermogenesis) 9  Amount of energy required to digest, absorb, and metabolize food  Resting Energy Expenditure (REE) = BMR + Thermic Effect of Food
  10. 10. 10 Physical Activity – Voluntary Muscle Movements    Inactive - sitting most of the day - less than 2 hours of moving about slowly or standing Average - sitting most of the day - walking or standing 2-4 hours, no strenuous activity Active - physically active 4 or more hours each day - little standing, some strenuous activities
  11. 11. Measuring Caloric Need 11 Indirect Calorimetry  indirect estimate of resting energy expenditure that measures the ratio of CO2 expired to the amount of O2 inspired  gold standard  rarely used in clinical settings due to time and cost
  12. 12. Estimating Total Caloric Need 12  Harris-Benedict Equation Mifflin-St. Jeor Equation Ireton-Jones Equation Schofield Equations Toronto Equation  “Rule of Thumb” = 30 kcal/ kg body weight    
  13. 13. MyPyramid Caloric Estimates 13
  14. 14. Energy in Food 14  Carbohydrates – 4 kcal/g  Protein – 4 kcal/g  Alcohol - 7 kcal/g  Fat – 9 kcal/g
  15. 15. Energy in Food 15  Energy-dense foods - provide relatively high levels of Calories  Energy-dense foods tend to be nutrient-poor  Nutrient-rich foods tend to be low in energy  US Diet tends to be high in energy-dense foods
  16. 16. Energy Metabolism 16
  17. 17. Estimate Calories by Food Groups 17 Food Group Ave. Calories / serving Starch/grains 80 Fruits 60 Milk skim or 1% 2% whole 100 120 160 Nonstarchy Veggies 25 Meat and beans Plant-based protein Lean Medium fat High fat varies 45 75 100 Fat/oils 45 Based on American Diabetes Association Exchange lists
  18. 18. Calculating Calories in Food 18  Nutrient grams x calories/gram = calories  Example: 15 g carbohydrate x 4 kcal/g = 60 Calories 10 g protein x 4 kcal/g = 40 Calories 5 g fat x 9 kcal/g = 45 Calories Total = 145 Calories  Most foods are a mixture
  19. 19. Estimating Calories in a Recipe 19  Example: Ricotta Cheese Cookies - 2 C sugar 774 x 2 = 1548 - 1 C butter 1628 - 15 oz. Ricotta cheese 560 - 2 tsp. vanilla extract 31 x 2 = 62 - 2 large eggs 72 x 2 = 144 - 3 ½ C flour 3.5 x 455 = 1593 - 2 tbsp. baking powder 0 - 1 tsp. salt 0 5535 / 36 = 154 Calories per Cookie
  20. 20. How Is Caloric Intake Regulated? 20  Hunger - Physical and psychological sensations that lead people to acquire and eat food - Causes weakness, stomach pains, irritability  Satiety - Feeling of fullness or of having eaten enough
  21. 21. How Is Caloric Intake Regulated? 21  Appetite - The desire to eat - A pleasant sensation aroused by thoughts of taste and enjoyment of food - Can override hunger and satiety mechanisms  Appetite may or may not relate to hunger
  22. 22. In vs. Out 22 Intake < TEE Intake = TEE Intake > TEE
  23. 23. Weight Change WEIGHT MAINTENANCE 23 WEIGHT GAIN WEIGHT LOSS CARBS PROTEIN BMR IN OUT Dietary Thermogenesis FAT CALORIE INTAKE (WHAT YOU EAT) Physical Activity vs. TOTAL ENERGY EXPENDITURE
  24. 24. Tips for increasing activity 24       Find something you enjoy Use the buddy system Spread activity over the entire day if desired Start slowly and gradually increase activity Keep moving / move more Keep an activity log
  25. 25. Calorie Requirements Homework 25  Go to http://www.bmrcalculator.org/  Do not get tempted by the pretty flashing advertisements.  Input your information for age, gender, weight, and height.  Discover your Calorie requirements based off of 2 estimating equations

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