English worldwide global englishes


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A discussion on the emergence of World Englishes - varieties other than the US or UK standards and the proposition of Global English as a lingua franca. The implications of these issues on English Language Teaching are consequently considered.

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  • NNEST = Non-native English speaking teacher; NEST = Native English speaking teacher
  • Rashi
  • Australian English – source: http://www.ausnc.org.au/corpora/art/abce2-text
  • Canadian English exemplifies the historical ties with the UK and the geographical proximity with the US, to the point of people often erroneously referring to it as the 51st state.
  • The Basilect is the most Creolized form
  • The correct forms are: doesn’t; which; respect; knowledge
  • The correct forms are: these, pay more attention; haven’t you?; phone me.
  • English worldwide global englishes

    1. 1. English Worldwide – A look at varieties of English and the impacts on ELT Stephan Hughes – M.A. in Linguistics, Specialist in Distance Education and E-moderation. Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes
    2. 2. Aims• Talk about the spread of English (from Kachrus 3 circles to today)• Examine the (symbiotic) relationship between British and American English• Explore the rise (in larger or minor scale) of other varieties e.g. Australian, Canadian, Indian, South African, Caribbean• Study the case for Global English or ELF as a teaching resource Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes
    3. 3. What is/are World English(es)?• According to Bolton (2006): – tterm that refers to the differing approaches to describe and analyze English worldwide – The “new Englishes” from the Caribbean, West and East African societies to Asian Englishes Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes
    4. 4. Different spreading phases• The British Empire up to the Victorian era• The rise of the US as superpower• The advent of radio, film and TV• The birth of the computer and the Internet• The social media boom and the generation Connect craze• The status of English as language for business, politics, global issues of all kinds Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes
    5. 5. • Norm-providing: USA, UKThe 3 groups of Englishspeakers (Kachru, 1992) • Norm-developing: India,The spread of Englishconceived in 3 concentric Nigeriacircles. At the core is theNorn-providing group, the • Norm-dependent: Brazil,Norm-developing group fornsthe middle layer and the Chinanorn-dependent the outercrust.This representation, however,fails to depict the fluiditybetwwen these so-calledlayers. Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes
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    7. 7. With the Outer Circle continually expanding,The vast majority of ESL and EFL teachers are non-native speakers. This leads us to the perennial debate Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes
    8. 8. Who is a native speaker? And is that important?What can a NNEST do better? What can a NEST do better? Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes
    9. 9. Canagarajah (2006) argues• The circles are leaking – Reasons: – Human migration – Technology (ICTs) Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes
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    11. 11. The Americanization of British EnglishThe Britishisation of American English Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes
    12. 12. Americanisms the Brits dont like• Where you at?• Take-out food• Bi-weekly• Alphabetize• They’ve got issuesSee the article “Americanisms: 50 of your most noted examples”,http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-19670686 Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes
    13. 13. Britishisms that amuse Americans• Go missing• Chat somebody up• Sell-by date• Spot on!See the article “Britishisms and the Britishisation of American English”,http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-19670686 Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes
    14. 14. Conclusion: The two varieties mutually affect each other. Does that mean the intralingual differences no longer exist? Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes
    15. 15. What about the differences in other Englishes? Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes
    16. 16. Which English should be taught in language classrooms?• Watch the videos to find out: – http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=0XT04EO5RSU – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_hd6rjsxs5U – http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=dxbDwmclUcM Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes
    17. 17. One thing must be pointed out• Despite the phonological, lexical and (to a lesser extent) syntactic differences, speakers of each variety have little or no difficulty understanding each other. Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes
    18. 18. For Kandiah (1998a), the reasons for varieties are twofold:• Development of language in ‘new and unfamiliar contexts’– Contexts marked by different ecological, cultural, linguistic, social, etc. characteristics.
    19. 19. Is it always easy for English speakers of different varieties to understand each other? Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes
    20. 20. Simon. Gday Peto.Simo you too. GdayLes. Good morning gentlemen good morning gentlemen I find you both well.You are very well.Yes Im yih absolutely dynamic. Chipper is the phrase I believe.Is that right. I Im the best Ive been for ages. Hey good good. Grr.Oh he is too hubba hubba wing ding that carpenters got everything.Pete how are . Who was that singer recently that kept singing. Oh ChubbyChecker.No no the the woman singer with the the uh the vamp yknow that that the shnot I forget her name. Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes
    21. 21. Canadian English Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes
    22. 22. Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes
    23. 23. Indian EnglishClassic 19th-century literatureEuropean wordsthat have beenIndianized Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes
    24. 24. Caribbean Creole English Varies from country to Lexicon from British English country Lexcion from Indian languages –Morphology, phonology and syntax Hindi, Urdu, Persian (Trinidad andfrom West African languages Guyana) Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes
    25. 25. Examples of CCE (phonological –lexical- syntactic)• He rich• She tell meh everyting• I wash de clothes yesterday• Students does go on like that• He does go to church every week• My fadder workin 2 job• We limin tomorrow? Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes
    26. 26. CCE along a continuum (Gibson, 1986) Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes
    27. 27. Standard English Acrolect Mesolect Basilect Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes
    28. 28. Trinidad English• We get the redeye, not the pinkeye.• Overweight people have big skin, not big bones.• When friends meet, they say wha’ going on, not wassup? Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes
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    32. 32. Caribbean Overlap (Clachar, 2006; Le Page, South 1985; Nero, 2000) African Creole English English Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes
    33. 33. In both varieties• Hand refers to the arm• Foot refers to the leg• A next one means another one• Object pronouns generally replace subject pronouns Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes
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    35. 35. Why are two billion people learning English?http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dxbDwmclUcM Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes
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    37. 37. Global English The pros and cons ofinternationalizing the language Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes
    38. 38. In the words of Canagarajah (2006)• There is no such thing as a universal English Language, nor a World Standard English (WSE)• People construct English according to the communicative purpose and context• Functionality and pragmatics dictate communication in English today. Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes
    39. 39. Global English – implications• Need for a global language in a globalized world• Decadence of other languages (cultural genocide)• Practicality of learning English• Reduction of problems in translation (gain on one end, loss on the other) Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes
    40. 40. What is Global English? Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes
    41. 41. English as a Lingua Franca• The manager don’t like when people arrive late• The company who has grown steadily over the past years now faces its biggest challenge to date.• They have a respect for all of us• The knowledges we gain from learning another language is undeniable
    42. 42. English as a Lingua Franca• Can you take a look at this files?• There are some points of the contract we need to put more attention to.• You’ve met the new CEO, isn’t it?• Could you please ask him to phone to me as soon as he gets in? We need to discuss about the new project.
    43. 43. Global English seems to present forms generally considered incorrect These changes or imperfections are not limited to only one aspect of language.
    44. 44. Bibliography• BOLTON, K. Current perspectives on teaching world Englishes and English as a Lingua Franca. TESOL Quarterly. (2006)• CANAGARAJAH, S. Negotiating the Local in English as a Lingua Franca. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 197-218, CUP. (2006) Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes
    45. 45. Bibliography• CLACHAR, Arlene. Re-examining ELL Programs in Public Schools: A Focus on Creole-English Children’s Clause – Structuring Strategies in Written Academic Discourse. Forum on Public Policy: A Journal of the Oxford Round Table (Fall, 2006). 1-38.• GIBSON, Kean. The Ordering of Auxiliary Notions in Guyanese Creole. Linguistic Society of America. (September 1986) 571-586.• KACHRU, B. The Alchemy of English: the spread, functions and models of non-native Englishes. University of Illinois Press. (1990) Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes
    46. 46. Bibliography• KANDIAH, T. Why New Englishes. In: English in New Cultural Contexts: Reflections from Singapore, J. Foley, T. Kandiah, B. Zhiming, A. Gupta, L. Algasoff, C.L. Ho, L. Wee, L.S. Talib, W. Bokhorst-Heng (eds), 1- 40. OUP. 1998ª.• LE PAGE, R.B. & TABOURET-KELLER, Andree. Acts of Identity. Cambridge , Great Britain; CUP, 1985, Print.• NERO, Shondel J. The Changing Faces of English: A Caribbean Perspective. TESOL Quarterly. Vol. 34, No.3 (Autumn, 2000) 483-510. Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes
    47. 47. For more on World Englishes• Varieties of English around the world: http://www.benjamins.com/cgi- bin/t_seriesview.cgi?series=veaw• World Englishes: http://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/produc tCd-WENG.html Stephan Arthur Solomon Hughes