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When is an article
actually published?
An analysis of online availability,
publication, and indexation dates
Stefanie Haus...
Introduction
Motivation and Questions
Methods
Results
Discussion and Conclusion
Outlook
Outline
?
submission acceptance publication
journal issue
Introduction
submission acceptance publication
journal issue
Introduction
preprint
submission acceptance publication
journal issue
online
publication
Introduction
preprint
Introduction
JASIST: 270 “Early View” articles
Introduction
JASIST: lag between online publication and journal issue
Introduction
JASIST: lag between online publication and journal issue
Introduction
submission acceptance publication
journal issue
online
publication
preprint
publication
year
citations citati...
• Publication year insufficient for bibliometric indicators
• January vs. December papers
• Acceleration of read-cite-read...
• Publication year insufficient for bibliometric indicators
• January vs. December papers
• Acceleration of read-cite-read...
1. Which publishers specify what kind of dates?
 Determining dates provided by publishers
2. How reliable are these dates...
Dataset
• WoS papers published in 2012 with ≥ 1 tweet
captured by Altmetric.com
• Matching of 313,301 WoS papers to Altmet...
Determining available dates
Methods
a = provided via API
m = in the metadata of the article webpage
w = on the article web...
Dataset
• Limited to 71,175 papers from Wiley-Blackwell, Springer,
PLOS and NPG due to technical feasibility and relevance...
Journal issue date (WoS)
Methods
WoS indexing date
Methods
Altmetric.com publication date
Altmetric.com first seen date
Date of first tweet (Altmetric.com)
+ most detailed date info...
• Comparison of 58,896 papers with all 6 dates
• Comparing online date to:
• Date of first tweet
• Journal issue month (fi...
Results: Validation of Online Dates
3.5%
34.4%
62.2%
65
7
0.0%
37.2%
62.8%
15
1
0.1%
1.1%
98.9%
92
6
14.5%
15.2%
70.3%
97
...
Results: Other Dates
Springer
online date
Journal issue
(first of issue month)
WoS indexing date
Altmetric.com publication...
CrossRef dates as more reliable alternatives?
Results (preliminary)
submission acceptance publication
journal issue
online...
Results (preliminary): CrossRef
Springer
deposit
update
first resolution
online date
+ 1 year + 2 years + 3 years + 4 year...
• Effect of online-issue lag on:
• Bibliometric indicators
• OA embargoes
“[T]he manuscript will not be posted [on PMC] un...
• Publishers should provide publication dates using
same terminology
• Inclusion of dates in metadata:
• Submission
• Acce...
Thank you
for your attention!
Stefanie Haustein, Timothy D. Bowman & Rodrigo Costas
@stefhaustein @timothydbowman @Rodrigo...
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When is an article actually published? An analysis of online availability, publication, and indexation dates

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Presentation at ISSI2015

Haustein, S., Bowman, T.D. & Costas, R. (2015). When is an article actually published? An analysis of online availability, publication, and indexation dates


Abstract. With the acceleration of scholarly communication in the digital era, the publication year is no longer a sufficient level of time aggregation for bibliometric and social media indicators. Papers are increasingly cited before they have been officially published in a journal issue and mentioned on Twitter within days of online availability. In order to find a suitable proxy for the day of online publication allowing for the computation of more accurate benchmarks and fine-grained citation and social media event windows, various dates are compared for a set of 58,896 papers published by Nature Publishing Group, PLOS, Springer and Wiley-Blackwell in 2012. Dates include the online date provided by the publishers, the month of the journal issue, the Web of Science indexing date, the date of the first tweet mentioning the paper as well as the Altmetric.com publication and first-seen dates. Comparing these dates, the analysis reveals that large differences exist between publishers, leading to the conclusion that more transparency and standardization is needed in the reporting of publication dates. The date on which the fixed journal article (Version of Record) is first made available on the publisher's website is proposed as a consistent definition of the online date.

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When is an article actually published? An analysis of online availability, publication, and indexation dates

  1. 1. When is an article actually published? An analysis of online availability, publication, and indexation dates Stefanie Haustein, Timothy D. Bowman & Rodrigo Costas @stefhaustein @timothydbowman @RodrigoCostas1
  2. 2. Introduction Motivation and Questions Methods Results Discussion and Conclusion Outlook Outline ?
  3. 3. submission acceptance publication journal issue Introduction
  4. 4. submission acceptance publication journal issue Introduction preprint
  5. 5. submission acceptance publication journal issue online publication Introduction preprint
  6. 6. Introduction JASIST: 270 “Early View” articles
  7. 7. Introduction JASIST: lag between online publication and journal issue
  8. 8. Introduction JASIST: lag between online publication and journal issue
  9. 9. Introduction submission acceptance publication journal issue online publication preprint publication year citations citations • Bibliometric indicators are based on publication year of journal issue • Lag between online and issue date creates citation advantage
  10. 10. • Publication year insufficient for bibliometric indicators • January vs. December papers • Acceleration of read-cite-read cycle • Online publication before journal issue • Lags between online and issue date  Online dates would allow for more accurate metrics Motivation and Questions ?
  11. 11. • Publication year insufficient for bibliometric indicators • January vs. December papers • Acceleration of read-cite-read cycle • Online publication before journal issue • Lags between online and issue date  Online dates would allow for more accurate metrics 1. Which publishers specify what kind of dates? 2. How reliable are these dates? 3. What existing dates can be used as alternatives? Motivation and Questions ?
  12. 12. 1. Which publishers specify what kind of dates?  Determining dates provided by publishers 2. How reliable are these dates?  Validating online dates with date of first tweet 3. What existing dates can be used as alternatives?  Analyzing other dates • WoS indexing date • Altmetric.com publication date • Altmetric.com first seen date • CrossRef dates Methods
  13. 13. Dataset • WoS papers published in 2012 with ≥ 1 tweet captured by Altmetric.com • Matching of 313,301 WoS papers to Altmetric via DOI • Excluding Altmetric records with preprints (arXiv ID or ADS ID) • Tweets to papers based on publisher’s website, DOI, PMID • Identification of top 10 publishers Methods • Elsevier • Wiley-Blackwell • Lippincott • Springer • PLOS • BMC • NPG • ACS • Oxford • Sage
  14. 14. Determining available dates Methods a = provided via API m = in the metadata of the article webpage w = on the article webpage only d = as dynamic content on the webpage only
  15. 15. Dataset • Limited to 71,175 papers from Wiley-Blackwell, Springer, PLOS and NPG due to technical feasibility and relevance • Retrieving online date information via API and parsing specific HTML tags Wiley-Blackwell “Early View” Springer “Online First” NPG “Advance Online Publication” PLOS identical to publication date • Additional dates from WoS, Altmetric.com and CrossRef Methods
  16. 16. Journal issue date (WoS) Methods
  17. 17. WoS indexing date Methods
  18. 18. Altmetric.com publication date Altmetric.com first seen date Date of first tweet (Altmetric.com) + most detailed date information ‒ only for 21% of papers ‒ not always on day of publication Methods
  19. 19. • Comparison of 58,896 papers with all 6 dates • Comparing online date to: • Date of first tweet • Journal issue month (first of month) • WoS indexing date • Altmetric.com publication date • Altmetric.com first seen date • CrossRef deposit, first resolution & update Methods validation potential alternatives • Wiley-Blackwell: 27,432 • Springer: 14,473 • PLOS: 9,600 • NPG: 7,391
  20. 20. Results: Validation of Online Dates 3.5% 34.4% 62.2% 65 7 0.0% 37.2% 62.8% 15 1 0.1% 1.1% 98.9% 92 6 14.5% 15.2% 70.3% 97 68 n=7,391 n=9,600 n=14,473 n=27,432 Difference(days)betweenfirsttweetandonlinedate Before: Equal: After: Mean: Median:
  21. 21. Results: Other Dates Springer online date Journal issue (first of issue month) WoS indexing date Altmetric.com publication date Mean: 146 Std dev: 111 Min: -269 Max: 1850 Median: 120 Before: 3.5% Equal: 0.1% After: 96.4% Mean: 163 Std dev: 113 Min: -252 Max: 1866 Median: 138 Before: 0.1% Equal: 0.0% After: 99.9% Mean: 9 Std dev: 48 Min: -519 Max: 1850 Median: 1 Before: 43.4% Equal: 34.1% After: 22.5%
  22. 22. CrossRef dates as more reliable alternatives? Results (preliminary) submission acceptance publication journal issue online publication DOI deposit first resolution update
  23. 23. Results (preliminary): CrossRef Springer deposit update first resolution online date + 1 year + 2 years + 3 years + 4 years + 5 years + 6 years 78.8% -1 day to online date 96.4% -3 to 3 days to online date collaboration with Joe Wass
  24. 24. • Effect of online-issue lag on: • Bibliometric indicators • OA embargoes “[T]he manuscript will not be posted [on PMC] until 12 months after the official date of publication. […] The official publication date may thus be considered the online publication date for some journals and the print publication date for others.“ Wiley “[The embargo period] begins from the publication date of the issue the article appears in. Our embargo periods typically range from 12 – 24 months […].” Elsevier Discussion and Conclusion
  25. 25. • Publishers should provide publication dates using same terminology • Inclusion of dates in metadata: • Submission • Acceptance • Publication of preprint • Publication of Version of Record (VoR) • Publication of (print) issue • Via CrossRef?  Implementation of date standards • Via NISO? Discussion and Conclusion
  26. 26. Thank you for your attention! Stefanie Haustein, Timothy D. Bowman & Rodrigo Costas @stefhaustein @timothydbowman @RodrigoCostas1

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