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Scholarly Twitter metrics: How, when and what does the Twittersphere tweet about science?

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Invited talk at EBBC6, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), 18 July 2018
http://www.ebbc.inf.br/

Published in: Data & Analytics
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Scholarly Twitter metrics: How, when and what does the Twittersphere tweet about science?

  1. 1. Scholarly Twitter Metrics Stefanie Haustein stefanie.haustein@uottawa.ca | @stefhaustein | #ScholCommLab How, when and what does the Twittersphere tweet about science?
  2. 2. Juan Pablo Alperin co-director Stefanie Haustein co-director Cecilia Rozemblum PhD student SFU Rémi Toupin PhD student UQAM Asura Enkhbayar PhD student data scientist SFU Alison Kealey research assistant UOttawa Tristan Lamonica research assistant UOttawa Carol Muñoz Nieves research assistant SFU Who we are ScholCommLab.ca/People
  3. 3. Florence Millerand associate professor UQAM Katherine Reilly associate professor SFU Collaborators Former members Vincent Larivière associate professor UMontreal Germana Barata visiting faculty Fereshteh Didegah postdoctoral researcher David Moscrop postdoctoral researcher Lesley Schimanski lecturer SFU Who we are ScholCommLab.ca/People
  4. 4. Outline www.altmetric.com/blog/ • Twitter in scholarly communication • Dataset and methods • Journal articles on Twitter: What kind of articles are shared on Twitter? Where do tweets come from? How are articles on Twitter diffused? When are scholarly articles tweeted? Who tweets about scholarly articles? • What does this mean for tweet-based altmetrics?
  5. 5. Twitter uptake https://www.statista.com/statistics/242606/number-of-active-twitter-users-in-selected-countries/ Twitter users per country Number of users 2018 (in million) Percentage of population
  6. 6. Twitter in academia Sugimoto, C. R., Work, S., Larivière, V., & Haustein, S. (2017). Scholarly use of social media and altmetrics: A review of the literature. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. doi:10.1002/asi.23833 Van Noorden, R.. (2014). Online collaboration: Scientists and the social network. Nature, 512(7513), 126-129. doi: 10.1038/512126a • 10-15% of academics use Twitter • Used for informational needs: • Post work content • Follow discussions • Discover papers • Used in social context: • Discover peers • Criticism and reluctance: • Shallow medium “pointless babble” • Blurred boundaries
  7. 7. s Dataset and methods Tweets linking to journal articles Metadata Documentidentifier Twitter Facebook Blogs News Google+ … DOI Metadata Citations sTweet
  8. 8. Dataset and methods Number of journal articles 2016 Articles published in journals covered by the Web of Science
  9. 9. Dataset and methods Brazilian articles per NSF discipline Articles with a DOI published by an author with Brazilian address (n=39,717)
  10. 10. Dataset and methods Altmetric Twitter data • Collection of tweets to scientific documents since 2012 • DOI or other common document identifier (PMID, arXiv ID) • Altmetric database • Until June 2016 24 million tweets, 2.6 million users 36% of 2015 WoS papers: 3.96 million tweets, 601,290 users • Until October 2017 42.5 million tweets, 4.1 million users 33% of Brazilian 2016 articles: 104,638 tweets, 48,332 users
  11. 11. What? Twitter coverage and density Brazilian articles with a DOI per NSF discipline (n=39,717) 2.6 0.2 1.6 0.4 0.3 1.5 1.2 6.2 4.4 2.2 3.7 1.0 2.6 0.5 0.1 Twitter coverage Twitter density
  12. 12. What? Top tweeted Brazilian articles doi Tweets Users 10.1126/science.aaf2693 1,211 (#1) 257 (#44) 10.1002/bjs.10151 1,014 (#2) 356 (#29) 10.1038/srep22170 1,011 (#3) 171 (#70) 10.1056/NEJMoa1602412 1,001 (#4) 839 (#2) 10.1080/15548627.2015.1100356 925 (#5) 895 (#1) 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31467-2 850 (#6) 746 (#3) 10.1038/srep37855 746 (#7) 632 (#4) 10.1001/jamainternmed.2015.7431 724 (#8) 624 (#5) 10.1001/jamaoncol.2016.0386 723 (#9) 540 (#13) 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2016.02.023 720 (#10) 607 (#7)
  13. 13. Where? Tweets per country Tweets captured by Altmetric until June 2016 with geotag
  14. 14. Where? Geographic location of tweets to Brazilian articles Top cities Tweets Users London 2,620 1,175 Oxford 937 208 Washington, DC 906 363 Guaranta do Norte 772 281 Madrid 648 358 San Francisco 571 234 Melbourne 558 286 Boston 543 265 Sydney 522 264 Toledo 521 222 Cambridge 520 229 Toronto 517 316 Honolulu 510 19 … ... … São Paulo 488 196 Top countries Tweets USA 18,323 UK 10,610 Spain 3,670 Brazil 3,085 Canada 2,601 Australia 2,401 France 1,759 Japan 1,486 Germany 995 Mexico 923 Netherlands 905 Switzerland 742 Italy 718 Colombia 645
  15. 15. Tweets per Brazilian region and city Where? Top countries Tweets Southeast 112,829 No location 45,176 South 30,222 Northeast 21,924 Central-West 20,025 North 8,602 Top cities Tweets São Paulo 47,128 Rio de Janeiro 27,286 Porto Alegre 15,148 Brasília 12,616 Belo Horizonte 8,530
  16. 16. How? Retweets Tweets to WoS 2015 papers (06/2016)
  17. 17. How? Hashtags Hashtags in all tweets (06/2016) Hashtags to WoS 2015 papers (06/2016)
  18. 18. How? Hashtags Timeline of tweets and most popular hashtags for Adams, Wright, & Lohr (1996) doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.105.3.440
  19. 19. How? Emojis
  20. 20. How? Emojis in tweets to Brazilian articles Tweets in Altmetric (10/2017) linking to WoS 2016 article with Brazilian addresses • Liking • Pointing • Sports • Reading • Faces
  21. 21. How? Emojis in tweets from Brazil Tweets in Altmetric (10/2017) with geocoded country=Brazil • Sports • Pointing • Liking • Reading • Faces
  22. 22. How? Top 10 emojis from different countries Tweets in Altmetric (10/2017) with geocoded country
  23. 23. When? Temporal indicators
  24. 24. When? Tweet span Tweets captured by Altmetric 2012⎼2015
  25. 25. When? Seasonal patterns Tweets captured by Altmetric 2012⎼2015
  26. 26. When? Weekday patterns Tweets captured by Altmetric 2012⎼2015
  27. 27. Who? Identifying users
  28. 28. Who? Number of tweets and articles per user Users tweeting Brazilian articles with a DOI published in 2016 (n=48,332) arXiv_trend par_papers banbarori5 AnestesiaF BlackPhysicists psych2evidence uranus_2 LotusOak SurgeryScience joefirth7 PLOSBiology jsexmed LGBTjournal 🇧🇷
  29. 29. Who? Most productive users Tweets captured by Altmetric (06/2016)
  30. 30. So what? • What? • One third of recent papers on Twitter • Biomedical and social science publications • Where? • Anglophone North American and European countries • Global South underrepresented, some countries blocked • How? • Majority of tweet are retweets → diffusion, not discussion • Hashtags increase audience and provide context • Emojis are used infrequently
  31. 31. So what? • When? • Immediately after publication → rapid diffusion • Articles with long tweet spans are exception • Who? • Academics, journals or publishers, bots or cyborgs • Small fraction of tweets hints at public engagement  Twitter ≠ societal impact  Counts → context  Differentiating types of users (e.g., flagging bots)  Various levels of engagement (discussion > diffusion)
  32. 32. More? Book chapter Haustein, S. (in press). Scholarly Twitter Metrics. In: Glänzel, W., Moed, H., Schmoch, U., & Thelwall, M., Handbook of Science and Technology Indicators, Springer. arxiv.org/abs/1806.02201 Blog posts on Altmetric.com Intro: Twitter in scholarly communication What: Uncitable research is infinitely more tweetable Where: It ain’t where you’re from, it’s where you’re tweeting How: RT @PLOSONE #cancer #health #openaccess When: Never put off till tomorrow, what you can tweet today Who: Not sure if scientist or just Twitter bot Slides from today’s talk slideshare.com/StefanieHaustein 📖 💻
  33. 33. stefanie.haustein@uottawa.ca | @stefhaustein | #ScholCommLab Obrigada!

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