Haustein, S., Smith, E., Mongeon, P., Shu, F., & Larivière, V. (2016). Access to global health research. Prevalence and cost of gold and hybrid open access. In Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Science and Technology Indicators (p. 410–418). Valencia, Spain.
20.4% of 2008 papers OA (Björk et al, 2008) 8.5% gold or hybrid OA 11.9% green OA
Gold OA journal (non-APC): Open access journal which provides immediate access to all of their content free of charge to both readers and authors. Many of these journals were often financed or subsidized by scientific societies or associations. Gold OA journal (APC): Open access journal which provides free immediate access to all of their contents based on an author-pays model via APCs. APCs were collected in or converted to USD. Delayed OA journal: Subscription journal which provides all content for free after an embargo or delay period of several months to years. Journals which provide delayed open access to only some of their content were classified as subscription journals and their free papers identified as delayed OA articles. Hybrid journal: Subscription journal which is primarily financed by reader-pays model based on subscriptions and pay-per-view fees but allows authors to pay an APC to make their article available free of charge for the reader without delay. APCs were collected in or converted to USD. Subscription only journal: Subscription journal which is financed by reader-pays model based on subscriptions and pay-per-view fees and does not offer author-pays OA options. Some subscription journals might decide to make single articles available for free temporarily or permanently to promote certain contents. If identified by PubMed, these free articles are coded as “other free access”. Unknown: Journals for which the access status could not be determined.
If APCs were not provided in USD, currencies were converted using the mean of weekly historical conversion rates between 01.01.2010 and 31.12.2014 using OANDA (http://www.oanda.com/currency/historical-rates).
58% free, 42% not accessible – hidden behind paywall
Haustein, S., Smith, E., Mongeon, P., Shu, F., & Larivière, V. (2016): Access to global health research. Prevalence and cost of open access
global health research
Prevalence and cost of open access
Stefanie Haustein, Elise Smith, Philippe Mongeon, Fei Shu &
Background: Open Access
• Different forms of OA
• Gold OA
• Delayed OA
• OA uptake
• 46.9% of 2011-2013 papers (Archambault et al., 2014)
• 12.1% gold and hybrid
• 5.9% green in certain repositories, 30.9% other green
• OA citation advantage (Archambault et al., 2014)
• - 39% citations for gold and hybrid OA
• +53% citations for green in certain repositories
• +36% citations for other green
• Hybrid OA
• Green OA
Archambault, É., Amyot, D., Deschamps, P., Nicol, A., Provencher, F., Rebout, L., & Roberge, G. (2014). Proportion of Open Access Papers
Published in Peer-Reviewed Journals at the European and World Levels 1996-2013. (RTD-B6-PP-2011-2: Study to develop a set of indicators
to measure open access). European Commission.
Background: Global Health
• Global health research (GHR) defined as:
• ”an area for study, research, and practice that places a
priority on improving health and achieving equity in health
for all people worldwide" (Koplan et al., 2009, p. 1995)
• “a multi- and interdisciplinary field concerned with
improving health and achieving equity in health for all
people.” (MeSH, 2015)
• Knowledge sharing is central in GHR
• Access to publications essential for researchers and
practitioners in LMICs
Koplan, J.P., Bond, T.C., Merson, M.H., Reddy, K.S., Rodriguez, M.H., Sewankambo, N.K., et al. (2009): Towards a common
definition of global health. The Lancet, 373(9679),1993–5.
MeSH (2015): Global Health. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/68014943
• What types of publication practices are prevailing in
• To what extent do journals allow gold, hybrid or green OA?
• To what extent do authors make use of various routes of
• What are the costs of gold and hybrid OA in GHR?
• What are the average prices of gold and hybrid APCs?
• Which publishers benefit most from gold and hybrid APCs?
• What is the impact of various access categories?
• Which papers have the highest citation impact?
• Which papers are cited most by LMICs?
• PubMed search for MeSH term “Global Health”
2010-2014: 4,333 documents
• Research articles only:
• 3,366 documents
• 909 journals
• Determining publishers (Larivière et al., 2015)
• Determining journal access status and APCs
• Manual check of all journals and publishers
• Sherpa RoMEO status of journal
Larivière, V., Haustein, S., & Mongeon, P. (2015). The Oligopoly of Academic Publishers in the Digital Era. PLOS ONE, 10(6),
Access categories at the journal level
• Gold OA journal (non-APC)
• Gold OA journal (APC)
• Delayed OA journal
• Hybrid journal
• Subscription only journal
Access categories at the paper level
• Gold OA article (non-APC)
• Gold OA article (APC)
• Delayed OA article
• Hybrid article
• Toll access article
• Green OA article
• Other free access
• Paper status unknown
• Citation analysis
• NSF field and year normalized (not presented)
• GHR and year normalized
• Citing countries
• Classification according to World Bank Atlas method
• Low income
• Lower middle income
• Upper middle income
• High income
• Normalization as a share of citing countries per paper
Policy compliance of green OA
• 700 subscription and hybrid journals
84% formally support green OA
7% do not formally support green OA
9% not graded by SHERPA RoMEO
• 2,061 papers in 638 RoMEO graded journals
• 1,872 papers could have been green OA
• 189 papers cannot be self-archived
$1,713,215 for 627 papers
$2,732 per paper
$1,864 per gold journal
$2,978 per hybrid journal
18% Springer Nature
Average distribution of citing countries per paper
• Sharing of knowledge is inherent to and essential in GHR
• 42.0% of articles hidden behind a pay-wall
• Despite a higher impact, only 39.2% of papers that could
be self-archived are green OA; 60.8%% of green OA
• Particular high hybrid APCs
• Although hybrid papers are cited more than gold OA,
LMICs are underrepresented among citing countries
• Overwhelming proportion of research funds funneled to
Stefanie Haustein @stefhaustein
for your attention!