Academic Writing Problems, Process, and SolutionsTask A1. Identify the parts of a problem-solution text in the following writing.2. This writing actually consists of three paragraphs. Where would you divide it? There are various benefits that student-teachers can accrue from researching their own practice as they focus their intellects, academic knowledge, and personal experience on conducting classroom-based research (Steinberg and Kincheloe 1998). Unfortunately, however, many teachers rarely engage in research unless encouraged to do so by5 teacher education (Borg 2009a). To help teachers become research active, Borg (2009b) suggests that teacher education courses can be organized and structured in certain ways. For example, they can include awareness-raising activities and opportunities for the participating teachers to put ideas into practice, set their own goals, and evaluate their own progress. Supportive mentoring and feedback and opportunities to meet recycled10 input may also help. In addition, with sufficient space and time, participating teachers may more easily develop their ideas. Thus, the inclusion, in course design, of extensive action research projects that encourage deep personal engagement can be beneficial, as can institutional support, in the form of reduced workloads. Successful outcomes of engaging in research might include the development of research skills, increased15 awareness of the teaching/ learning process, renewed enthusiasm for teaching, greater collaboration with colleagues (Atay 2008), enhanced self-efficacy (Henson 2001), and continuing commitment to professional development following the teacher education intervention (Kirkwood and Christie 2006). Teachers may thus be empowered, pedagogically, cognitively, and politically (Steinberg and Kincheloe op.cit.), to become20 more active in supporting learning. However, notwithstanding the work of Atay (op.cit.), writing in a Turkish context, little of this supporting evidence comes from the field of ELT (Borg 2009a). Wyatt, M. (2011). Teachers researching their own practice. ELT Journal 65/4, p. 417-425.
Academic Writing Problems, Process, and SolutionsTask B1. Which problem is stated in the following writing?2. How is the process of SL performance (production of utterances) characterized? Draw figure 1 (line 15). Conscious language learning, on the other hand, is thought to be helped a great deal by error correction and the presentation of explicit rules (Krashen and Seliger, 1975). Error correction it is maintained, helps the learner come to the correct mental representation of the linguistic generalization. Whether such feedback has this effect to5 a significant degree remains an open question (Fanselow, 1977; Long, 1977). No invariant order of learning is claimed, although syllabi implicitly claim that learners proceed from simple to complex, a sequence that may not be identical to the acquisition sequence. The fundamental claim of Monitor Theory is that conscious learning is available to10 the performer only as a Monitor. In general, utterances are initiated by the acquired system--our fluency in production is based on what we have "picked up" through active communication. Our "formal" knowledge of the second language, our conscious learning, may be used to alter the output of the acquired system, sometimes before and sometimes after the utterance is produced. We make these changes to improve15 accuracy, and the use of the Monitor often has this effect. Figure 1 illustrates the interaction of acquisition and learning in adult second language production.