Here is the recipe!A. INSTRUCTIONS B. PROCESS First,the oven is preheated.Preheat the oven Then, the dark chocolate isBreak the dark broken in pieces. Next,chocolate in pieces some butter is melted withMelt some butter with those pieces of chocolate.those pieces of chocolate After that, some water,Add some water, some some flour, some sugarflour, some sugar and eggs and eggs are added.Ready to bake! It’s ready to bake.
Academic writing requires…that you use ‘Passive Voice’rather than giving instructionswhile writing an academic processdescription. We shall see what happens and why it does so in the following examples.
Language Focus: Verbs andAgents in the Solution1. Imperatives and Passive Voice2. Flow of Ideas in a Process Description 2.1 Participles 2.2 Active Voice 2.3 Causes and Effects
1. Here is a set of instructions about howto prepare a flu vaccine* Identify the three most common strains of flu virus.* Grow each of the strains separately and harvest.* Purify the harvested virus.* Inactivate the purified virus.* Blend the inactivated virus strains together with acarrier fluid and dispense into vials. THIS FORM COULD BE USED AS A GUIDANCE ‘Imperatives are used’
If you need to write an academicexplanation in a process, First, the three most common strains of flu virus are identified. These strains are then separately grown and harvested. The harvested virus is purified and inactivated. Finally, the inactive virus strains are blended together with a carrier fluid and dispensed into vials. ‘Passive Voice is used’
When to use ‘Agents’ The technician identifies the virus strains in the lab. The technician separately grows and harvests the virus. The technician purifies and inactivates the virus. The technician blends the inactive virus strains together with a carrier fluid and dispenses them into vials.‘The process is backgrounded and the emphasis shifts to the agent’
Agents could be used, when describingthe history of the field. From Junco’s (2011) article titled ‘The Relationship between frequency of Facebook use, participation in Facebook and student engagement’ The study used a 19-item NSSE scale developed by Junco, Heiberger et al. (2010) to measure engagement.
2. Flow of Ideas in a ProcessDescriptionVerbs should very carefully be put together.2.1 Participles‘…listening skills are ignored.’Ignored listening skills are….’2.2 Active VoiceNatural processes stay still.‘Sun rises…’
Language Focus: -ing Clauses ofResult To avoid using to much ‘therefore’ and ‘as a result’, you may use: ‘Any number of the students can take part in a radio play, as a result of modifying the script’ (Sze, 2006). ‘Any number of the students can take part in a radio play, by modifying the script’ (Sze, 2006).
Language Focus: IndirectQuestions Indirect questions follow a standard word order. They do not require the subject and verb to be inverted.Direct Question: What time is it?Indirect Question: She asked what time it is.
Use of Indirect Questions ‘Until such time, nonnative speakers of English will remain uncertain about how effective their publications are in their own languages’. ‘Being able to know about our students individual learning styles and preferences will give us the clue so as to know whether we should correct them or not and how error correction could improve their linguistic and communicative competence’(Martinez, 2006).
ReferencesAl- Ansari, H., S. 1993. Integrative and Instrumental Motivation as Factors Influencing Attained Levels of Proficiency in English. J. King Saud Univ., Vol 5, Arts (2), pp. 71-83.King, FJ., Goodson, L., Rohani, F. Higher Order Thinking Skills.Retrieved from:http://www.cala.fsu.edu/files/higher_order_thinking_skills. pdfMartinez, S., G. 2006. Should we correct our students’ errors in L2 learning?Retrieved from: http://www.encuentrojournal.org/textos/16.8.pdfSwales, J., M. and Feak, B., C. 2004. Academic Writing for Graduate Students, Essential Tasks and Skills. The University of Michigan Press.