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© Termi...
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Making Terms Matter 2015. Henrik Nilsson, TNC

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From the conference on September 25, 2015 in Stockholm:
Better, faster, cheaper!
Terminology management for big data and explosive content growth.

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Making Terms Matter 2015. Henrik Nilsson, TNC

  1. 1. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC Terminology, target groups and TIAs Henrik Nilsson, Terminologicentrum TNC Making Terms Matter Again! (InterverbumTech) 25 September 2015
  2. 2. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC • target group adaptation – terms – definitions – interfaces, etc. (Case 1) • redundancy • TIA – definition – methodology – Case 2 & 3 Agenda
  3. 3. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC Case 1: Statistics Sweden [Statistics Sweden]
  4. 4. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC • hardcore, ”true” terminology records – ”bare” definition format – other terms in definitions → other records • = not user-friendly!? – user must click several times → loses track • solution = principle of substitution? Problem
  5. 5. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC Principle of substitution metal with atomic number 26iron steel alloy with iron as chief constituent and with carbon content so low that solidification is not accompanied by the formation of either cementite or graphite steel alloy with the metal with atomic number 26 as chief constituent and with carbon content so low that solidification is not accompanied by the formation of either cementite or graphite
  6. 6. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC Principle of substitution iterated policy intentions and direction of an organization (3.1.13) as formally expressed by its top management (3.1.23) → policy intentions and direction of a person or group of people that has its own functions with responsibilities, authorities and relationships to achieve its objectives (3.1.12) as formally expressed by its person or group of people who directs and controls an organization (3.1.13) at the highest level → policy intentions and direction of a person or group of people that has its own functions with responsibilities, authorities and relationships to achieve its results to be achieved as formally expressed by its person or group of people who directs and controls a person or group of people that has its own functions with responsibilities, authorities and relationships to achieve its results to be achieved at the highest level
  7. 7. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC • hardcore, ”true” terminology records – ”bare” definition format – terms in definitions → other records • = not user-friendly!? – user must click several times → loses track • solution ≠ principle of substitution! • solution = technical Problem
  8. 8. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC Case 1: Statistics Sweden [Statistics Sweden]
  9. 9. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC • human users: • experts • terminologists • translators • personnel • officials (at authorities and agencies) • the media • the general public (?) • machines: • other term banks • other software (translation, authoring etc.) Termbank user groups
  10. 10. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC ”Bearing in mind that the user may be a translator, a specialist in the field or a teacher wishing to use the termbank for instruction, the resulting ’picture’ presented to the user must be crystal clear.” [Sager & McNaught, 1980]
  11. 11. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC · Search (preferences, profile): · very common · Hit list: · common · Record display: · macro- and microstructure: varies · fixed (vertical) order: common · user can choose display of various fields · ”metalanguage”: almost always · field granulation: sometimes · graphic means: quite common · Functionalities · several ways of performing the same operation Target group adaptation: access & display
  12. 12. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC · terms · different terms for different target groups · (but: term often kept in simplified versions?) · definitions · different wording of definitions for different target groups Target group adaptation: contents
  13. 13. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC Jargon expressions utomkvedshavandeskap blindtarmsinflammation three day measles; German measles X app Terms ”General” terms extrauterin graviditet appendicit Rubellas Target group adaptation: terms
  14. 14. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC New data categories [Madsen et al, 2012] · register · specialist–specialist · specialist–layman · layman–layman
  15. 15. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC breathing zone (general definition) space around the worker’s face from where he or she takes his or her breath breathing zone (technical definition) hemisphere (generally accepted to be 0,3 m in radius) extending in front of the human face, centred on the mid point of a line joining the ears; the base of the hemisphere is a plane through this line, the top of the head and the larynx. [ISO/DIS 15202-1] Same concept – different definitions Various target groups?
  16. 16. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC General Definition of Biodiesel: Biodiesel is a domestic, renewable fuel for diesel engines derived from natural oils like soybean oil, and which meets the specifications of ASTM D 6751. Technical Definition for Biodiesel (ASTM D 6751): Biodiesel, a fuel comprised of mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal fats, designated B100, and meeting the requirements of ASTM D 6751. [http://www.mid-americabiofuels.com/biodieselinfo/] Target group adaptation: definitions → data category for definition usage
  17. 17. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC · terms · different terms for different target groups · definitions · different wording of definitions for different target groups → redundancy!? Target group adaptation: contents
  18. 18. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC Redundancy · definitions: · data, in a database, which can be removed without information being lost [GIS-ordboken] · a word, phrase, etc., that repeats something else and is therefore unnecessary [Merriam-Webster] · superfluous repetition [Merriam-Webster] · existence of more than one means for performing a required function when needed [SS-EN 13306] · more data and more storage space  redundancy? · store more than one thinks, but store more than necessary (terms, definitions)? = unnecessary, costly? · but: misused terms, deficient terms etc. need to be included · but: useful in target group adaptation?
  19. 19. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC Redundancy · terms · synonyms in several places in one resource for retrieval reasons · several term records with different terms, but identical definitions, comments etc. → unwillingness to recommend · look-up terms · when there IS information about the concept in the term record: instead of a proper record · when there IS NO information about the concept in the term record: help the user to find the record · where does one draw the line for deprecated, deficitient, misspelt etc. variants?
  20. 20. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC Redundancy (cont.) · definitions · several (almost) identical definitions · ”incorporated definitions” (when there IS another record for the concept in question) → instead of link to a related term record; or keep to spare the user from searching again or clicking/looking at several records · ·
  21. 21. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC Identical definitions
  22. 22. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC • same (general) definition kept over the years  redundancy • solution: sorption superordinate term for absorption and adsorption Source: Vattenordlista; Betongteknisk ordlista; VA-teknisk ordlista but: • each macrostructure (cross-references etc.) might have to be adjusted
  23. 23. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC Almost identical definitions
  24. 24. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC • almost identical definition  redundancy • solution: • adjust into one definition but: • which definition = template? • visibility for each supplier (who gets the honour?) • macro structure of each collection? • other information (”stacked” note, equivalents etc.)?
  25. 25. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC User survey (Rikstermbanken) Good Bad No opinion 16. If your search for a particular term generated several hits, what do you think about that? 84,3 % (172) 2,0 % (4) 13,7 % (28) 27 skipped question 17 comments
  26. 26. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC User survey (cont.) You can always make comparisons yourself and see the different domains they belong to. One must try to make one’s own assessment of what is relevant then. Of course it can be bad if there are synonyms. Normally very good, but sometimes I feel some are identical. The more the merrier! Nothing that disturbs presently, but if you get far too many hits from different sources with similar definitions or explanations then ... well, then it would work better to merge the records. Since the same term is often used within various domains, it is good that all hits are visible, even if they are not directly relevant. I do not think a domain classification is required already on the search page, as it would limit the number of hits.
  27. 27. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC Redundancy: term record level [EU: CBRNE Glossary]
  28. 28. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC indication of synonymy indication of synonymy in comment ENGELSK TERM (ACCEPTERAD) SVENSK TERM (ACCEPTERAD)
  29. 29. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC Redundancy · advantages • clearer (for certain users?) • no need to look in several places and potentially missed out on information • better search results · disavantages • counters the principle one concept–one record • double storage → management in several places • repeated information • hard to interpret • more hits • takes time (production and consumtion stage)
  30. 30. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC • = important for terminology products! • But: sometimes over-estimated, esp. concerning human users and layout of term banks? • Demand, frequency of usage vs development costs? • Do efforts in user adaptation when it comes to output/layout pay off? • Is customization of output/layout over- estimated? User adaptation!?
  31. 31. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC 1. Objectives and planning 2. Term collection 3. Concept-based structuring 4. Linguistic assessment and revision 5. Creation of new terms 6. Terminology administration 7. Terminology provision and distribution 8. Terminology maintenance 9. Control of terminology usage 9 stages of terminology management [Drewer in Großjean, 2009]
  32. 32. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC • all terminology-related measures must be economically motivated • before any work is started, needs should be demonstrated and prioritized • choice of terms and definitions should, as far as possible, be managed by those technical instances who have the need and the knowledge • existing terminology, internal and external, shall naturally be used, but methods to make it known and accessible need to be improved Terminology work in organizations [LME, 1980]
  33. 33. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC · terminology work (ISO 704, ISO 15188) · terminology inventory and terminology evaluation (ISO 23185, research …) · terminology creation · terminology usage (incl. TIA – terminological impact assessment) · terminology updating (ISO 19104) · terminology storage & terminology distribution (ISO) · terminology education, terminology training · documentation · measuring, evaluation? (terminometry) Terminology processes
  34. 34. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC ”Impact Assessment is a means of measuring the effectiveness of organisational activities and judging the significance of changes brought about by those activities. It is neither Art or Science, but both. Impact assessment is intimately linked to Mission, and, in that sense, ripples through the organisation. Being able to assess and articulate impact is a powerful means of communicating, internally and externally, the contribution of activities […]. Impact is seen as the positive and negative, intended or unintended long-term results produced by an […] operation […], either directly or indirectly. Impact should be seen as the contribution of the intervention to the overall goal.” impact assessment [CBD]
  35. 35. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC • assessment of how consequences […] affect people, structures the environment, etc. (ISO/TS 18683:2015) • process of evaluating the likely […] impacts of a proposed project or development, taking into account inter-related […] impacts, both beneficial and adverse (CBD) • tool used to identify the […] impacts of a project prior to decision-making (UNEP) • environmental impact assessment (EIA) • social impact assessment (SIA) • strategic impact assessment • linguistic impact assessment (LUL?) • impact assessment
  36. 36. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC • definition • any combination of procedures or methods by which a proposed terminology policy or program may be judged as to the effect(s) it may have on […] a population” • process of evaluating the likely […] impacts of a proposed terminology project or development, taking into account inter-related […] impacts, both beneficial and adverse • tool used to identify the […] impacts of a terminology project prior to decision-making • levels? • methodology (cf. terminometry) • by whom? (terminologists, decision-makers, teachers, translators, journalists, experts?) • public participation? TIA:terminological impact assessment
  37. 37. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC EIA methodology
  38. 38. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC TIA methodology • screening • for what terminology measures is a TIA necessary? • scoping • impacts and alternatives (incl. no action alternative) • drafting of TIA • evaluate impacts and alternatives; quantifications and comparisons • reporting & review → • decision-making • post-TIA monitoring • monitor project implementation and actual impacts • terminometry
  39. 39. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC TIA measures: examples Measure Benefit + Disbenefit − Work with terminology Hire terminologist Create termbank Introduce several definitions Introduce several terms Reword definition Change term Change equivalent
  40. 40. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC Case 2: ”pregnancy benefit” · terminology change proposed in investigation: ”havandeskapspenning”  ”graviditetspenning” · reasons? · sounded old-fashioned? (but ”havandeskaps-” still used in medicine: ”havandeskapsförgiftning”) · transparency? · other (political, status, etc.)? · impacts · change of multiple documents (forms etc.) · redirection of searches for old term · several terms for the same concept · change also in equivalents? · modernized language
  41. 41. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC TIA methodology: drafting stage • methodology: • circulation for comments • consultations • nichesourcing (cf. BFT, Finland: wiki termbank) • CBA? • voting procedures? • frequency measuring? • term-tracking? • ? • ?
  42. 42. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC regulation term ”X” + def. X X Xlaw X X X § brochure X X X book X X X catalogue X X X ”Term tracking”
  43. 43. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC
  44. 44. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC Case 3: ”sjukpeng” etc. · short, non-existent term, created by the media: ”sjukpenning”  ”sjukpeng” · reasons? · length · transparency? · honesty (tell it like it is, no euphemisms) · target group adaptation · impacts · redirection of searches for non-existent term · several terms for the same concept · change also in equivalents? · ”tell it like it is” · raised transparency and understanding → democracy
  45. 45. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC TIA methodology: drafting stage • methodology: • search statistics, customer service statistics etc. • frequency measuring? • change in existing systems, templates, correction tools • term-tracking? • crowdsourcing, interviews etc.? • ?
  46. 46. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC ”When used correctly, TIA can be a powerful decision- making tool. It can help to identify and assess the potential impacts of a proposed project or activity, analyze the impacts of alternative formulations of the project or activity, and provide an informed basis for determining whether and how to proceed.” [Bruch et al, 2007, p. 391]
  47. 47. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC 1. Objectives and planning • trust from: • management • financial department • pr department • it department • colleagues • trust in • other (external) parties • chosen way of working together • (through) trust in: • described processes & routines (standards) • roles and responsibilities (other organizations) Trust & terminology management through TIA?
  48. 48. Västra vägen 7 B 169 61 Solna Telefon: 08-446 66 00 Telefax: 08-446 66 29 Webbplats: www.tnc.se E-post: tnc@tnc.se © Terminologicentrum TNC TNC Västra vägen 7 B, Terrassen 169 61 Solna Tfn: 08-446 66 00 Fax: 08-446 66 29 www.tnc.se henrik.nilsson@tnc.se

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