Alzheimer's Presentation


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  • Deficiencies in several neurotransmitters
  • Treatments will be
  • Why are african americans and hispanics more likely to be diagnosed? Treatment most effective in preclinical or prodromal stage, highlites the importance of biomarkers
  • Alzheimer's Presentation

    1. 1.  Alzheimer’s ProposalBACKGROUNDPresented by Stefan Marcus
    2. 2. Alzheimer’s DiseaseDementia – Impairment in cognitive function which is significant enough to interfere with daily activities  Most common dementia  Loss of neuron function and degeneration of the brain  Deficiencies in neurotransmitters  Exact causes unknown  Changes in the brain: beta-amyloid build up and tau tangles  Known cause: Genetic mutation (<1% cases)
    3. 3. Progression and DiagnosisProgression Diagnosis - primary caregiver  New guidelines as of 2011  Variety of symptoms such as memory loss, personality  New stages changes, and physical  Biomarkers (protein levels in impairments blood, for example)1984 1. Beta-amyloid in the brain 2. Extent of neuron damage2011  Timely diagnosis is crucial  Preventative approach (active care)
    4. 4. TreatmentPharmacological NMDA Ligand – Binds to glutamate receptors to prevent overstimulation Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors – Maintain acetylcholine levels by preventing enzyme hydrolysis FDA APPROVED  No cure, only palliative treatments currently availableTotal Sales: 7 billion USD (2009)
    5. 5. Future Developments Potential: Disease modifying drugs (Anti-beta-amyloid antibodies)  Acetylcholine esterase inhibitors and memantine facing patent loss and generic competition Indication Preclinical Phase I Phase II Phase III Pending approval Alzheimer’s 92 59 57 3 11 Global Alzheimer’s Development Pipeline (2009)  Validating and quantifying biomarkers (gold standard)  Prodromal standardization and asymptomatic characterization  Studies on the effect of diet, exercise, previous ailments
    6. 6. Alzheimer’s in the US (2012 and beyond)Prevalence Incidence  Increases with age 5.4 million affected in (2012)  BUT under diagnosed  Number of cases projected to double by 2050  2/3 are women Economic Burden Aggregate Cost of Care by Payers for Alzheimer’s Patients over 65  Forecast: $1.1 trillion in 2050 Percentage of People With  Delaying long-term care could save Alzheimers by Age Group millions of dollars
    7. 7. Summary Debilitating disease with no cure Major cause of death for elderly Americans Socioeconomic drain What is needed?  Understanding pathology of disease to develop new classes of drugs  Clinically integrated early diagnosis methods  Evidence on prevention measures
    8. 8. ReferencesAlzheimer’s Association, 2012. 2012 Alzheimer’s Disease Facts and Figures.Business Insights, 2011. Advances in Alzheimer’s Disease Drug Discovery. , (May).Business Insights, 2010. The Market Outlook for Neurodegenerative Diseases. , (September).Forsyth, E. & Ritzline, P.D., 1998. An overview of the etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of Alzheimer disease. Physical therapy, 78(12), pp.1325–31. Available at:, H. et al., 2011. The future of Alzheimer’s disease: the next 10 years. Progress in neurobiology, 95(4), pp.718–28. Available at: [Accessed July 18, 2012].Herrmann, N. et al., 2011. Current and Emerging Drug Treatment Options for Alzheimer’s Disease: A Systematic Review. Drugs. Available at: [Accessed September 23, 2012].