Doctoraatsverdediging stefan decuyper


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Doctoraatsverdediging stefan decuyper

  1. 1. Teamleren modelleren en faciliteren Stefan Decuyper Prof. Dr. Filip Dochy Prof. Dr. Piet Van den Bossche
  2. 2. TEAMS? Collection of individuals who are interdependent in their tasks, who share responsability for outcomes, who see themselves and who are seen by others as an intact social entity embedded in one or more larger social systems, and who manage their relationships across organizational boundaries. (Cohen & Bailey, 1997, p. 241)
  3. 3. INDIVIDUEEL LEREN Individuele leeruitkomsten Collectieve leeruitkomsten Individuele leerprocessen Inputs Collectieve leerprocessen TEAMLEREN
  4. 4. ² ‘Constructief conflict’ ‘Sharing’ Continuüm ‘Co-constructie’
  5. 5. Individual learning Organisational learning Boundary crossing Storage Context REFLECT/ PLAN Team reflexivity Task Team Retrieval Team activity Act/ Experiment
  6. 6. Training and development Organization * Supra system 118 System domain Fabric Larger social context Values of society External environment Values of industry Cultural and historical aspects Terminology l Limits to growth Calender time discourse Economies of scale Research tradition language Institutionalization country Team training Funding arrangement system Diversity training Investment in training Reward system Collective reward Demography Dynamic complexity (time delays, unethical experiments, instability, oscilliation) Better training of new members Incentives Common method factor Manager Turnover Individual reward Certificates Variation in the environment Human Resources Group rewards based on individual learning Crisis in the environment Physical goods Non monetary rewards Turbulent environment Competitors Product mix Industry experience Better equipment High cost of errors Financial resources Punishment for errors budget Sector/ professional discipline company Investment in plant equipment Resource and development expenditures Support systems Policies and Procedures Methodologies Cooperative learning methods Organisational tenure Virtual worlds Explicit teaching of collaborative skills Information textbooks Goal setting intervention Asymmetric information Reference groups Limited information (mental/ physical filters, expectations, paradigms) group competition Coaching in the chosen method Organisational strategy Emphasis on global integration Organizational authority structure Valueing of working across boundary lines Organizational mission Emphasis on local responsiveness Authority relations Authority system Power relations Organisational learning Subgroup strength Better selection of group members Group composition Reward or goal structure Team design for learning Zone of proximal development Team diversity Group decision making Hierarchy Minority influence Authority relations Status team leader Power differences Power structure Team leadership Recent experiences Person – focused leadership Cooperative group based experience Imrpoved methodology Shared experiences Problem solving method Social integration Team reflexivity Autonomy Experience working together reflexivity Decision making authority Reflective work Authority over decision making Systems experience Reflection and learning spaces Group cognition Experience Empowerment by team leadership Team past performance (Peer)Evaluation Distributed cognition Mental model Ground rules Reflection process Collective mind Use of criteria for dialogue (self-correction, attention for context, scaffolding) Integrating perspectives Team vision Model1/ model 2 behaivour Age diversity Sex diversity Functional background diversity Educational diversity Team leader capacity (sharedness, distributedness, collective social identity, connectivity) Team viability Common goal Agreeing on problem solving method Interdependency Learning goal Shared cognition Recognising and defusing defensive routines Clearly perceived positive interdependency Eroding goals Product perceptual frame Clear direction Group web or matrix Clear but flexible goals Group memory Leaders framing the challenge Substitutability Leader accepting criticism Task interdependency Demographic heterogeinity Community of inquiry Demographic composition Objective instruction by the leader Nature of the task (variety, immediacy) Diversity modelling Ethnical/ race diversity Task structuring Complex team tasks Mix of traits (ability, personality, demographic charateristics) Mission analysis Action strategy Goal interdependence Group norms/ norms Peer norms and sanctions Informal enforcement of norms Colllective instructional efficacy motivation of others Team efficacy Group potency Team culture Team size Size of founding team Climate for expressing objection Collective culture Social discourse Error detection/ correction Diagnosis Error management Cognitive problem-solving orientation Norms in favour of accepting task conflict Action Active work Disruption Ability for knowledge management Adaptive problem solving orientation cohesiveness Managing reality Action research Repetition Action process Experimentation Result oriented activity Testing shared mental models Implementation failure Play (in stead of game) Controlled experimentation (inter)activity activity Improved product design Relationshipconflict avoidance norms Cummulative output Routinizaton of tasks adaptation Shared situational awareness Awareness of colleagues expertise Team member awareness of relevant situated knowledge Inter personal climate Product characteristics (complex, new, low experience, amount IP, familiarity with product) focus primary task Multiple inclusions Plan Team learning orientation Stability of fluctuation visioning Recognition Theory Team tenure (autonomy, feedback, significance, identity, skill variety) documentation Stop action and reflect Model 1/ 2 strategies Task characteristics Knowledge management (status of units, dyadic relations between units, pattern in relations between units) Unscientific reasoning Shared understanding of the problem Team psychological safety Team climate Stability of membership Single feedback loops Model 1 / 2 values crowding Double feedback loops Flawed cognitive maps Reward interdependency Cost benefit for all Change of perspective Mutual knowledge Team learning goals Positive interdependency Leader roles Team diversity perspective Shared vision Team/ group goals Trust Operating principles Ambigue knowledge Access to information Codified knowledge codification Team adaptability Team identity Team development Average Collective ability Collective expertise Group development Level of agreeability Perception of time Level of openness to experience Length of time spent on learning Technology transfer Personal movement Participation in meetings Observation Social network sharing Feedback loop within the organization Boundary crossing connectedness Relationships with key stakeholders Cross-functional cooperation External communication Crossing boundaries Between group co-operation Inviting experts in meetings Boundary spanning External integration, coordination and communication Frequency of external communication Groupthink Social laboring Compensatory behaviour Defensive routines Team synergy Social loafing Dynamic realocation of functions Level of appreciation Free riding Appropriability of knowledge Lack of team knowledge Team maturity/ fase Individual * Subsystem 100 Role- taking status Social role modeling Expert in team Social identity Individual formal power responsibility Individual empowerment ownership Social position Personal responsibility Individual learner autonomy Accept responsibility for learning Emotional states Individual accountability feelings Autonomous learner Refresh decision making skills Individual study Member flexibility Individual learning Critical reflection by each memeber envolvement Invention Openness Group commitment of new members Creativity Error hiding Construction of meaning Deception Legitimate peripheral participation Hjgh achievers in the group Game playing Individual expression openness to experience inducibility Attentional capacity Individual problem solving Team member skills Systems thinking Team member resources (knowledge, skills, abilities) Inter personal skills Self-disclosure Psychological safety trust assertiveness Personal vision Metacongition Cognitive abalility Search for knowledge in environment Conflict escalation Flexebility Integration and learning perspective Small-group skills Learning by engeniers Task cohesion Level of general cognitive ability Framing Co-construction Collaborative construction Learning by suppliers Performance monitoring Group cohesiveness Learning climate (activation energy, container, social quality of the interactions) Constructive conflict Revolution from within Team conflict Conflict managemen Routine task conflict Relational conflict Affective conflict Cognitive conflict Constructive controversy Reframing Problem solving Discuss negotiation Other group learning Monitoring Social cohesion Innovative problem-solving orientation Number of complaints Sharing and exchange Team communication Communication frequency Informal communication Communication patterns or styles (mutual) Feedback debate Communication Dialogue Face-to-face promotive interaction Frequent group processing (listen, question, clarify, prompt, revise, summarize, speculate, ypothesize) Responsive communication Real time analyzing and drawing lessons Shared mental model Team leader coaching Tenure diversity Accepting silence Distributed working memory Leader consideration Team type Tacit knowledge Facilitator (mediating conflict, offering advice, challenging, etc.) Encouragement to use knowledge management Social comparison Team autonomy support Past experience Leader participation level Similar group members Functional diversity Ideosyncratic knowledge Task design/ task instruction Work group autonomy hierarchical differences Team * System 296 Nature of knowledge Knowledge management systems Autonomy to determine the agenda goals Good team task (completenesss, varied demands, requirements of interdependence and interaction, task significance, opportunities for learning, developmental possibilities for the task, intrinsically motivating) Team empowerment Information systems Informal intuitive rules Task specialisation (social) facilitation (by means of principles) Opportunity for knowledge management Dyadic methods cooptition Reflective role assignment by the leader Employee training measurement Communication barriers Cooperation Workload distribution Omitting feedback in time Think sheets Competition Workload sharing High quality outcome feedback Representational systems Teacher imposed structure Roles/ team roles External leader performance management Tools and techniques Organisational Culture Specialisation Supervisor high expectations (cross training, team coordination training, self guided correction training, assertiveness training, stress exposure training, scenariobased training, team building) Communication systems Values of the company Division of materials Global team output assessment Individualised team participation assessment Senior management support for change training Training strategies Team evaluation Technical systems Firm performance Division of labour Modelling of managers for crossing boundaries Technology Firm experience Cooperative incentive structure Learning by management Training in team learning processes, climate of exposing objection and support Context support Organisational tenure diversity Structural limitations Interaction-discourse structure Individual evaluation Support for collaboration of teams within the organization Growth and underinvestment Organizational innovation history Group communication structure (managerial attitudes, time and freedom, openness towards recommendations) Crisis created by existing management Organizational structure Organizational history Team structure (paired structure, divisional structure, functional structure) Support for the opperation of teams Debrief, project audits, after action report Asking for support observation Lack of individual team member knowledge Psychological energy Perception of lower ability of team members Motivation Pecieved self-efficacy Self-image Percieved potency Self-esteem Individuals feel important for the fate of the team Psychological health Positive cathexis Private agenda’s Motivation to learn Motivation to encourage others to learn Motivation to help gropumates to learn Misperceptions of feedback Dominant personalities Image of others (teams, departments) Personality (agreableness, assertiveness) Conscientiousness Motivation for participation Individual agreeableness Willingness to reach a mutual understanding Extraversion Emotional stability Motivation for knowledge management Ability for knowledge management Self-monitoring Self regulation and control Member Member Member Member Self-regulation Prior knowledge Individual cognition about the learning area Appreciation for team work Prior experience Positive valuing of groups need need need need for for for for affiliation achievement power resources Functional background Average age Educational background age Average ancienity in the organization generation
  7. 7. Teamleren en sportteams Teamleren
  8. 8. Team psychologische veiligheid Het gedeeld geloof dat het team veilig is voor riskant interpersoonlijk gedraging
  9. 9. Sociale cohesie Alle sociale krachten die het team samen houden
  10. 10. Groepspotentie Het gedeeld geloof in de capaciteit van het team om te presteren
  11. 11. Teamleren en groepsontwikkeling Positieve relatie Negatieve relatie Fase 2: tegen-afhankelijkheid & conflict Fase 3: H2 Team psychologische veiligheid H3 groepspotentie Collectieve leerprocessen Teamleren Vertrouwen en structuur Linking concepts Fase 4: Werk & finalisering H1 groepsontwikkeling
  12. 12. Resultaatsgericht leiderschap ‘empowering’ leiderschap
  13. 13. Teamleren en leiderschapsstijl Positieve relatie Team psychologische veiligheid geen relatie .51 ‘Empowering’ leiderschap .46 .16 .35 Groepspotentie Resultaatsgericht leiderschap .18 .18 .45 .20 Team autonomie Collectieve leerprocessen
  14. 14. Team autonomie De mate waarin het team zelf mag bepalen hoe het de dagelijkse taken aanpakt
  15. 15. Drie stellingen • Teamleren is een belangrijke sleutel voor team effectiviteit • Team psychologische veiligheid is een cruciale sleutel voor teamleren • Facilitatoren spelen een belangrijke rol omdat ze zowel indirect – via hun invloed op belangrijke condities voor teamleren – als direct – via hun deelname aan het proces – het leren van een team beïnvloeden