• Concept of Feedback
• Types of Feedback
• Criteria of Effective Feedback
• Discussion & Exercise
What’s the ultimate purpose of the evaluation &
To endorse qualitative CPD activities for educators
To exclude fraudulent providers
To help providers improve their offer of CPD activities
To improve teaching & learning
As teachers, it is essential that we make the process of
providing feedback a positive, or at least a neutral,
learning experience for the student.
Research on Feedback
• Thorndike (1913)
– Behaviourism: reinforcement and punishment
– Problem: not all feedback is effective
• Page (1958)
– Effects of grades versus comments
(repeated by Black & William, 1998)
– Comments more effective
– Not (always) replicated
Research on Feedback
• Butler and Nisan (1986)
– Student experience of the feedback
– Grade ‘trumps’ the comment
– Most effective feedback
• About the task
• Affecting both performance and motivation
• Fostered interest in task for its own sake (self-regulation)
Research on Feedback
– Kluger and DeNisi (1996)
• Average positive effect of feedback on performance.
• But, 38% of effect sizes were negative!
– Hattie and Timperley (2007)
• Analysis including +100 variables of educational achievement
• Variability in effect sizes -> some types more effective
• Feedback model (see next slide)
• Personal comments often negative effect
Hattie and Timperley’s model for effective feedback
To reduce discrepancies between current understandings/ performance and a desired goal
The discrepancy can be reduced by:
- Increased effort and employment of more effective strategies OR abandoning, blurring or lowering the goals
- Providing challenging and specific goals and assisting learners to reach them through effective learning
strategies and feedback
Effective feedback answers three questions
Where am I going? (the goals) Feed up
How am I going? Feed back
Where to next? Feed forward
Each feedback question works at four levels:
How well tasks are
The main process
needed to understand/
regulating of actions
and affect (usually
Four Levels of Feedback
• Feedback on the task
• You don’t mention how the programme relates to CAPS.
• This is not correct.
• May promote surface learning
• Feedback on the processing of the task
• You may think further on how you relate objectives with activities
• May promote deeper learning
• Feedback on self regulation
• You have already outlined the relevance of the programme, how can
you integrate that with the assessment you designed?
• Stimulating autonomy, commitment
• Effectiveness dependent on characteristics learner
• Feedback on self
• Often ineffective: uninformative, not leading to more engagement or
Criteria for Effective Feedback
• Do you agree on its importance?
• Experience? Example?
Criterion 1: Clear Goals
1. Help clarify what good performance is (goals, criteria,
To what extent do providers have opportunities to engage
actively with goals, criteria and standards before, during
and after the assessment?
Criterion 2: Stimulate Engagement
2. Encourage ‘time and effort’ on submitting a valuable
To what extent does the submission process encourage in-
depth reflection and discussion about the professional
development rather than compliance or surface learning?
Criterion 3: Actionable
3. Deliver feedback information that is specific, accurate
and manageable in order to help providers self-correct and
adapt professional development to educators’ needs.
To what extent do your assessment and feedback
processes help providers self-assess and self-correct
Criterion 4: Simple
4. “Keep feedback as simple as possible but no simpler”
(cf. John Hattie in Sutton, Hornsey, & Douglas (2011),
Feedback: The communication of praise, criticism, and
Criterion 5: Descriptive
5. Focus on describing observable behaviour, indicating
what you observe and what you would do differently.
– Not evaluative, judgemental, generalizing, exaggerating
Criterion 6: Stimulate self-confidence
6. Encourage positive motivational beliefs and self-esteem.
To what extent do your assessments and feedback
processes activate providers’ motivation to learn and be
Criterion 7: Encourage dialogue
7. Encourage interaction and dialogue around learning
(among providers and between SACE and providers).
What opportunities are there for feedback dialogue around
assessment tasks in your course?
• Feedback? Anything is missing?
• Choose two criteria that you feel are most important. For
each one you choose, briefly describe an incident in
which that criterion was important in your evaluation
• Read the extracts of feedback from previous evaluator
sessions in groups of 3.
• Discuss how you can improve what is written, based on
characteristics of effective feedback.
• Plenary discussion
• What do you think of these suggestions?
– Permitting students [providers] to receive formative-only
feedback on their work before submitting it for summative
assessment [endorsement]. This eliminates the focus on marks
and encourages the students [providers] to engage with the
feedback to improve their work and learning.
– Providing exemplars for students [providers] with explanatory
Based on Brown and Glover (2005)
• Butler, R. and Nisan, M. (1986) ‘Effects of no feedback, task-related comments, and grades on
intrinsic motivation and performance’, Journal of Educational Psychology, 78(3), pp. 210–216.
• Hattie, J. and Timperley, H. (2007) ‘The power of feedback’, Review of educational research,
77(1), pp. 81–112.
• Kluger, A. N. and DeNisi, A. (1996) ‘The effects of feedback interventions on performance: a
historical review, a meta-analysis, and a preliminary feedback intervention theory.’, Psychological
bulletin, 119(2), p. 254.
• Bales, R. F. (1950), 'A set of categories for the analysis of small group interaction', American
Sociological Review, 15, 257-63
• Black, P. and Wiliam, D. (1998) ‘Assessment and classroom learning’, Assessment in education,
5(1), pp. 7–74.
• Shute, V. J. (2008) ‘Focus on formative feedback’, Review of educational research, 78(1), pp.
• Nicol, D. (2007) ‘Principles of good assessment and feedback: theory and practice’, In from the
REAP International Online Conference on Assessment Design for Learner Responsibility, 29-31
May 2007, [online] Available from:
(Accessed 22 April 2012).
• Whitelock, D., Watt, S., Raw, Y. and Moreale, E. (2003) ‘Analysing tutor feedback to students: first
steps towards constructing an electronic monitoring system’, Research in Learning Technology,
• Brown, E and Glover, C (2005) 'Evaluating written feedback on students' assignments’. In: Bryan,
C. and Clegg, K. (eds) Innovative Assessment in Higher Education, Taylor and Francis Group Ltd,