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WorldSTE2013: Student-Centred Learning in Pre-service Science Teacher Education in Cambodia

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Overview of successes and challenges of Introducing Student Centred Approaches in Pre-service Science Teacher Education in Cambodia

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WorldSTE2013: Student-Centred Learning in Pre-service Science Teacher Education in Cambodia

  1. 1. Introducing Student Centred Approaches in Pre-service Science Teacher Education in Cambodia World Conference on Science and Technology Education, September 29 – October 3, 2013
  2. 2. Objectives Successes & challenges in a science teacher trainer development programme between 2008 and 2013 in Cambodia
  3. 3. VVOB in a Nutshell Education for Development Quality, Efficiency and Effectiveness • Technical assistance • Strengthen Capacity • Local partnerships • Focus on Meso-level capacity • Link with Macro-level policy & Micro-level needs Bridge the North and the South • Internships • School Links • Partnerships with Flemish University Colleges Flemish Association for Development Cooperation and Technical Assistance Founded in 1982 as a non-profit organisation Main donors are the Belgian and Flemish governments
  4. 4. Objective: Graduate teachers apply improved teaching methodology Strategy: Capacity Strengthening of Pre-service Teacher Training for basic education Teacher Training Programme Science education Biology, Chemistry Physics, Earth Science
  5. 5. Pupils at primary schools/ lower sec schools MoEYS central level (TTD), donors, … SEAL Programme Teacher Trainers at PTTCs/RTTCs Student Teachers at PTTCs/RTTCs Target groups
  6. 6. 75 % of teachers 96 % of university students 67 % of all primary and secondary school pupils …were killed/starved when the Khmer Rouge was in power. Long-term Impact on the Education System and Human & Social Capital in Cambodia Cambodia: the legacy of Pol Pot 71.2% of children aged 12-14 are not enrolled in secondary schools
  7. 7. Education Indicator Year Cambodia Net enrollment primary education (%) 2011 98 Gross enrollment primary education (%) 2011 126 Completion rate primary education (%) 2011 90 Progression to secondary school (%) 2010 80 Overaged primary school attendance (%) 2010 42 % population 15-24 not complete primary edu. (%) 2010 32 Pupil-teacher ratio, primary 2010 48 Pupil-teacher ratio, secondary 2007 29 Literacy rate, youth total (% of people ages 15-24) 2009 87 Education Indicators
  8. 8. • EFA Development Index 2010 (N = 127) Source: UNESCO 2012 Cambodia: Quality of Education EDI Component Value Ranking 1. UPE 0.957 59 2. Literacy 0.739 94 3. Gender 0.883 97 4. Quality 0.621 111 Overall EDI 0.801 100
  9. 9. Significance • Relevance of teaching quality (Hattie, 2009) • Prevalence of rote learning • Increasing relevance of science lessons & motivation  Reduce number of drop-outs and increase proportion of students studying science.
  10. 10. Theory • PCK – TPACK (Schulman, 1986, 1987; Mishra & Koehler, 2006) – Components of subject knowledge – Vs. generic pedagogical focus (Ball, 1991) and technological determinism (Oliver, 2011) – Including • Alternative representations • Typical misconceptions • Choice of examples • Student activities • Curriculum knowledge
  11. 11. Example PCK Textbook Earth Science
  12. 12. Example PCK Teachers doing a ‘solar system walk’
  13. 13. Theory: Student-Centred Approaches • Learning model (Lea et al., 2003) – Active students – Deep learning and understanding – Shared responsibility & accountability for learning outcomes – Sense of autonomy – Position of teacher – Reflexive approach to teaching and learning
  14. 14. Examples Student Centred Approaches Concept Tests & Peer Instruction Active reading & writing Reasoning (Donuts) Experiments
  15. 15. Zero and Low-Cost Experiments
  16. 16. Zero and Low-Cost Experiments
  17. 17. Programme Implementation • Piloting & mainstreaming stage • 20 days of training (2-year period) • Peer learning workshops • Lesson observations (2/ year) • Support monthly technical meetings at college • Teaching resources in Khmer – Teacher manuals, experiment boxes, posters, multimedia, labs – Quality assurance by MoEYS
  18. 18. Evaluation Outcome Knowledge and skills Usage of materials Impact Behaviour and attitude change Higher motivation and satisfaction. Improved learning outcomes (pupils) Institutional level (MoEYS) Interviews with MoEYS officials Interviews with MoEYS officials Plans (TDAP, ICT Master plan) Organisational level (TTCs) Reports to MoEYS Checklist s Interviews with TTC Management Individual level Teacher trainers Lesson Observations Survey Focus Group discussion Interviews with teacher trainers Teachers Lesson Observations In-depth interviews young teachers Student teachers Lesson Observations during practicum Lesson plan analysis Interviews with student teachers Interviews with young teachers Pupils Lesson observations in schools
  19. 19. Findings: Use of SCA by teacher trainers Comparison of use of various SCA by science teacher trainers in 2012 and 2013
  20. 20. Results: Quantity • High reported usage, but decrease one school year after training – Shorter school year – More selective use after trying out
  21. 21. Results: Quality • Main findings from lesson observations – Limited content knowledge – Deductive approach (use of experiments) – Classroom size & infrastructure – Narrow interpretation of SCA (‘getting student active’) – Positive effects on student motivation
  22. 22. Success Factors • Involvement teacher trainers & MoEYS from early stage • Collaborative definition of priorities in curriculum • Measuring impact using existing data • Week-long workshops complemented with regular ‘lesson study’ sessions to build capacity
  23. 23. Challenges Challenges reported by science, pedagogy and agriculture teacher trainers for integrating SCA (2011 – 2013)
  24. 24. Challenges • Role & authority of the teacher • Availability vs. accessibility of materials • Limited preparation time (salary reform) • ‘Wide and shallow’ curriculum • Weak accountability structures & incentives (North, 1994)
  25. 25. References • Links – http://vvob.be/cambodia/ – http://www.slideshare.net/StefaanVandeWalle/ • Contact – @stefaanvw – Stefaan.vandewalle@vvob.be

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