Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

WorldSTE2013: Accessibility Challenges to Science Education in Cambodia - An Institutional Analysis

1,173 views

Published on

Presentation for the World Conference on Science and Technology Education in Kuching, Malaysia, 29 September - 3 October 2013

Published in: Education, Travel
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

WorldSTE2013: Accessibility Challenges to Science Education in Cambodia - An Institutional Analysis

  1. 1. Accessibility Challenges to Science Education in Cambodia World Conference on Science and Technology Education, September 29 – October 3, 2013
  2. 2. Objectives • Framework to analyze accessibility challenges for disabled learners in developing countries • Exploration from perspective of science teacher education in Cambodia Photo credit: UNICEF Cambodia
  3. 3. 75 % of teachers 96 % of university students 67 % of all primary and secondary school pupils …were killed/starved when the Khmer Rouge was in power. Long-term Impact on the Education System and Human & Social Capital in Cambodia Cambodia: the legacy of Pol Pot 71.2% of children aged 12-14 are not enrolled in secondary schools
  4. 4. Education Indicator Year Cambodia Net enrollment primary education (%) 2011 98 Gross enrollment primary education (%) 2011 126 Completion rate primary education (%) 2011 90 Progression to secondary school (%) 2010 80 Overaged primary school attendance (%) 2010 42 % population 15-24 not complete primary edu. (%) 2010 32 Pupil-teacher ratio, primary 2010 48 Pupil-teacher ratio, secondary 2007 29 Literacy rate, youth total (% of people ages 15-24) 2009 87 Education Indicators
  5. 5. • EFA Development Index 2010 (N = 127) Source: UNESCO 2012 Cambodia: Quality of Education EDI Component Value Ranking 1. UPE 0.957 59 2. Literacy 0.739 94 3. Gender 0.883 97 4. Quality 0.621 111 Overall EDI 0.801 100
  6. 6. Significance • Worldwide disability prevalence: ca. 15% (UN-ESCAP, 2012) • Higher prevalence in developing countries – Higher vulnerability (nutrition, medical care) – Armed conflicts • Cambodia – Official prevalence: 6.3% (2009) – Ratification & Implementation UNCRPD (2012-2013) – Incheon strategy (ASEAN) Photo credit: UNICEF Cambodia
  7. 7. Theoretical Framework Theory of Institutional Change (North, 1994; Konur, 2002) Formal Rules Informal Constraints Enforcement Characteristics Alignment
  8. 8. Formal Rules • Legislation, guidelines, standards • Can be changed quickly, but… – Path dependency • Existing structures benefit from status quo • E.g. centralizing tendencies limiting initiatives at local level – External factors • Regional integration • International education benchmarks
  9. 9. Informal Constraints Norms of behaviour, conventions, self-imposed codes of conduct – Disability as result of ‘bad karma’ (Mak Sau-Man, 2009) – Prejudice against education for disabled children (Stubbs, 2008) – Discourse based on ‘what they can’t do’ (Seale, 2013) – Interpretation of ‘reasonable’ adjustments (Konur, 2006) – Values and expectations (e.g. AT, ‘special’ treatments) (Seale, 2013) Cultural Economic Social Technology
  10. 10. Informal Constraints – Poor return on education investments (Banerjee & Duflo, 2011) – Limited employment opportunities & low social mobility (Mak Sau- Man, 2009) – Informal payments (Benveniste et al., 2008) Photo: The Cambodia Trust (CC) Cultural Economic Social Technology
  11. 11. Informal Constraints – Avoiding dependency, stigmatization & isolation (Seale, 2013) • Deal with uncomfortable relationship (e.g. jealousy) • Networks of formal and informal support networks – Inclusive education is not just about schools Cultural Economic Social Technology
  12. 12. Informal Constraints – Limited resources, implementation challenges, conflicting priorities – Sole focus on compliance with WCAG 2.0 unsuitable (Kelly et al., 2010) • Legacy software, lack of infrastructure • Awareness & diagnostics of learning difficulties (e.g. dyslexia) • Simple aids (e.g. glasses, audiobooks) • Learning materials (e.g large size posters, books in large print) Cultural Economic Social Technology
  13. 13. Enforcement Characteristics • Weak enforcement characteristics – Awareness of standards and good practices – Focus on administrative compliance – Limited capacity of organisational structures representing students and parents Photo credit: UNICEF Cambodia
  14. 14. Working towards alignment • Weak incentive & accountability structures – Low incentives to invest in skills and knowledge – High cost & few immediate benefits – Low accountability – Low empowerment – Reliance on informal networks Misalignment Alignment
  15. 15. Working towards alignment • Primacy of overcoming institutional blockages over resource shortages (North, 1994) – Awareness raising activities – Positive role models (staff and graduates with disabilities) – Information on rights and procedures – Data collection – Organisational capacity of disabled students, parents – Bridging capital between disabled and non-disabled students Misalignment Alignment
  16. 16. Conclusions • Importance of informal constraints & enforcement characteristics for generating change • Need for wider, social vision on accessibility beyond compliance with guidelines such as WCAG 2.0 • Focus on removing institutional blockages by strengthening incentive & accountability structures Photo credit:s UNICEF Cambodia
  17. 17. More Information • Links – http://vvob.be/cambodia/ – http://www.slideshare.net/StefaanVandeWalle/ – http://www3.open.ac.uk/study/postgraduate/course/h810.htm • Contact – @stefaanvw – Stefaan.vandewalle@vvob.be • References – See paper Photo credit: jbird

×