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Concept Cartoons &
ConcepTests
An Introduction to Conceptual Science Teaching
2
Alternative frameworks / misconceptions
• Test yourself
A boy tries to pull a dog, so he exercises a force on the dog. T...
3
Alternative frameworks / misconceptions
• Test yourself
You have a lamp, a piece of cupper and a battery. Make a drawing...
Come into the class carrying two ice hands
If you put a glove on one ice hand, will
that make the ice melt slower, faster ...
5
Alternative frameworks / misconceptions
• Test yourself: True or false?
– A moving object needs a force
– The rainbow ha...
6
Alternative frameworks / misconceptions
• Find an example of a
misconception you encounter in
your class.
• Where do you...
Elicitation
• How can we detect misconceptions?
Envelope activity
8
Tools for conceptual change
1. Conceptual experiments
2. Concept tests & Peer instruction
3. Concept maps
4. Concept car...
PART 1: CONCEPT CARTOONS
10
Characteristics of a concept cartoon
1. Range of viewpoints
2. Alternative conceptions represented (realistic)
3. Situatio...
How to use concept cartoons in your class?
1. Class Discussion
2. Group Discussion
3. Experimental Investigation
4. Use in...
Class Discussion
Class Discussion
1. Show the cartoon
2. Individual reflection
• With which idea do you agree and why?
• Is more than one i...
Group Discussion
Group Discussion
1. Make small groups and distribute the concept cartoon
2. Individual thinking time
3. Group discussion a...
Experimental investigation
Experimental investigation
1. Introduce the cartoon
2. Thinking time & quick scan (raising hands)
3. Let students work tog...
Concept Cartoon Circus
1. Select 3 concept cartoons
2. Group discussion & development
lesson fragment
3. Peer investigatio...
PART 2: CONCEPTESTS &
PEER INSTRUCTION
Example earth science: day and night
Six friends were wondering why the sky is dark at night. This is
what they said:
A. T...
Example earth science: solar eclipse
What causes a
solar eclipse?
Example earth science: solar eclipse
During a solar eclipse, parts of the Earth experience
darkness for a brief time durin...
Example Biology: Photosynthesis
Where did most of the matter that makes up
the wood and the leaves of the trees originally...
Example Biology: Photosynthesis
Where did most of the matter that makes up the wood and
the leaves of the trees originally...
Example Biology: Digestive system
What is the main function of the digestive system? Here
are some answers from students:
...
Example physics: phase changes
Put five ice cubes in a glass. After 20 minutes, most of the ice
had melted to form “ice wa...
Example Chemistry: Atom structure
A group of friends is looking at grains of salt through a magnifying glass.
They are won...
Example chemistry: chemical bonding
• The neon atom tends NOT to lose any electrons
because
A. The ionization energy is so...
ConcepTests & Peer Instruction
• What are characteristics of ConcepTests?
• Can you give an example of a topic or lesson w...
Scheme for using ConcepTests
Review: step-by-step
• Divide lesson in key-topics
• Teach about 1st topic
• Present Concept test
• Short individual think...
Practical aspects
• Select example in manual, or choose new topic.
• Integrate a ConcepTest in lesson plan process, paying...
How to make concepTests?
• Vote results
• Information from peer discussions
• Results from exams
• Research
Make your own concept cartoon/ ConcepTest
Identify the
misconception
Make an open
question
Categorize the
answers
Make dra...
Conclusion
• Compare Concept Cartoons and ConcepTests and list
similarities and differences.
• Can both techniques be used...
References
• Driver, R. et al., 1994, Making Sense of Secondary Science:
Research into Children’s Ideas, Routledge, 210p.
...
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Conceptual science teaching: concept cartoons & concepTests

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An introduction to Concept Cartoons and ConcepTests for Cambodian science teachers.

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Conceptual science teaching: concept cartoons & concepTests

  1. 1. Concept Cartoons & ConcepTests An Introduction to Conceptual Science Teaching
  2. 2. 2 Alternative frameworks / misconceptions • Test yourself A boy tries to pull a dog, so he exercises a force on the dog. The dog also pulls back. They both remain at place. What is the exact reason for this? 1. Both forces undo each other. 2. The dog rest at place due to the friction force of the ground. 3. Because the boy exercises a force less than the dog.
  3. 3. 3 Alternative frameworks / misconceptions • Test yourself You have a lamp, a piece of cupper and a battery. Make a drawing so that the lamp will light up.
  4. 4. Come into the class carrying two ice hands If you put a glove on one ice hand, will that make the ice melt slower, faster or make no difference? Alternative frameworks / misconceptions
  5. 5. 5 Alternative frameworks / misconceptions • Test yourself: True or false? – A moving object needs a force – The rainbow has 7 colors – Space is a zero-gravity environment – The Earth goes around the Sun once a day – The greenhouse effect is a bad thing – Objects float because they are lighter than water – Ice is always at zero degrees Celsius
  6. 6. 6 Alternative frameworks / misconceptions • Find an example of a misconception you encounter in your class. • Where do you think this misconception comes from? • Try to construct a definition of a misconception • What can we do about it?
  7. 7. Elicitation • How can we detect misconceptions? Envelope activity
  8. 8. 8 Tools for conceptual change 1. Conceptual experiments 2. Concept tests & Peer instruction 3. Concept maps 4. Concept cartoons 5. …
  9. 9. PART 1: CONCEPT CARTOONS
  10. 10. 10
  11. 11. Characteristics of a concept cartoon 1. Range of viewpoints 2. Alternative conceptions represented (realistic) 3. Situation from daily life 4. Stimulate thinking & discussion 5. Generate interest to find out
  12. 12. How to use concept cartoons in your class? 1. Class Discussion 2. Group Discussion 3. Experimental Investigation 4. Use in combination with other SCA • In the Fishbowl • Traffic Light Cards • …
  13. 13. Class Discussion
  14. 14. Class Discussion 1. Show the cartoon 2. Individual reflection • With which idea do you agree and why? • Is more than one idea correct? • What is a good definition of the concept shadow? 3. Quick scan (showing hands) 4. Class discussion
  15. 15. Group Discussion
  16. 16. Group Discussion 1. Make small groups and distribute the concept cartoon 2. Individual thinking time 3. Group discussion and consensus seeking 4. Feedback (raising hands) 5. Share viewpoints in a class discussion 6. Provide an explicit summary of the initial problem.
  17. 17. Experimental investigation
  18. 18. Experimental investigation 1. Introduce the cartoon 2. Thinking time & quick scan (raising hands) 3. Let students work together in small groups to set up an investigation. 4. Each groups presents its outcomes to the class. 5. Class discussion. 6. Explicit summary by the teacher
  19. 19. Concept Cartoon Circus 1. Select 3 concept cartoons 2. Group discussion & development lesson fragment 3. Peer investigation & feedback 4. Improve lesson plan fragment & mock lesson 5. Class discussion.
  20. 20. PART 2: CONCEPTESTS & PEER INSTRUCTION
  21. 21. Example earth science: day and night Six friends were wondering why the sky is dark at night. This is what they said: A. The clouds come in at night and cover the sun. B. The Earth spins completely around once a day. C. The Sun moves around the Earth once a day. D. The Earth moves around the Sun once a day. E. The Sun moves underneath the Earth at night F. The Sun stops shining. Who do you think has the best reason? Describe your reasons.
  22. 22. Example earth science: solar eclipse What causes a solar eclipse?
  23. 23. Example earth science: solar eclipse During a solar eclipse, parts of the Earth experience darkness for a brief time during the day. Throughout time, people have had different ideas about what happens during a solar eclipse: A. The Sun passes between the Earth and Moon B. The Earth passes between the Sun and the Moon C. The clouds block out the Sun. D. The Earth’s shadow falls on the Sun. E. The Moon’s shadow falls on the Earth. F. The Sun shuts off light for a few minutes
  24. 24. Example Biology: Photosynthesis Where did most of the matter that makes up the wood and the leaves of the trees originally come from?
  25. 25. Example Biology: Photosynthesis Where did most of the matter that makes up the wood and the leaves of the trees originally come from? A. Sunlight B. Water C. Soil D. Carbon Dioxide E. Oxygen F. Minerals G. Chlorophyll
  26. 26. Example Biology: Digestive system What is the main function of the digestive system? Here are some answers from students: A. The main function is to release energy from food. B. The main function is to help us breathe. C. The main function is to break food down into molecules that can be absorbed by cells. D. The main function is to break food down in the stomach into small pieces of food that can be used by the body. E. The main function is to carry bits of food and nutrients to all the different parts of our body. F. The main function is to store food so that we can get energy when we need it.
  27. 27. Example physics: phase changes Put five ice cubes in a glass. After 20 minutes, most of the ice had melted to form “ice water”. There were still some small pieces of ice floating in the water. Measure temperature of ice water . Then add five more ice cubes. Three minutes later, measure the temperature. A. The temperature of the “ice water” increased B. The temperature of the “ice water” decreased C. The temperature of the “ice water” stayed the same
  28. 28. Example Chemistry: Atom structure A group of friends is looking at grains of salt through a magnifying glass. They are wondering what they would see if they had a device powerful enough to see the individual atoms. These are their answers: A. The atoms would be packed tightly together. They would look like a solid material without any empty spaces between the atoms. B.I would see vibrating atoms arranged in an orderly way with spaces between them. There would be nothing in the spaces, not even air. C.I think I would see atoms not moving and arranged in an orderly way. There would be space between the atoms. The space would be filled with air. D.I think I would see atoms in the shape of small cubes. Each of these cubes would join together to form a larger cube of salt. E.I think I would see lots of vibrating atoms connected together by little lines. The lines connecting each atom give them a definite cube shape. F.I think I would see individual atoms moving from place to place. They would be moving all about the inside of the crystal shape.
  29. 29. Example chemistry: chemical bonding • The neon atom tends NOT to lose any electrons because A. The ionization energy is so high B. That would result in a negative ion C. Of its relatively strong effective nuclear charge D. Its electrons are paired together within the same orbitals
  30. 30. ConcepTests & Peer Instruction • What are characteristics of ConcepTests? • Can you give an example of a topic or lesson where you would use this? • Why would you prefer this method to any other? • What voting distributions were encountered (and are possible)? How would you react on each one? • Can you think of any practical tips?
  31. 31. Scheme for using ConcepTests
  32. 32. Review: step-by-step • Divide lesson in key-topics • Teach about 1st topic • Present Concept test • Short individual thinking time • Students “vote” with answer cards • Vote results determine subsequent steps: – Students discuss in groups of 2 – Brief explanation and move on • Students “vote” again – Eventually new ConcepTest – If result not good, additional instruction
  33. 33. Practical aspects • Select example in manual, or choose new topic. • Integrate a ConcepTest in lesson plan process, paying attention to: - What are key topics of the lesson? - What are possible misconceptions with the students? - What actions do you plan before the concepTest? - Integrate voting & peer instruction. • Evaluate each other’s lesson plan process, using the checklist.
  34. 34. How to make concepTests? • Vote results • Information from peer discussions • Results from exams • Research
  35. 35. Make your own concept cartoon/ ConcepTest Identify the misconception Make an open question Categorize the answers Make draft concept cartoon/test Try-out in class Analyze responses and modify
  36. 36. Conclusion • Compare Concept Cartoons and ConcepTests and list similarities and differences. • Can both techniques be used in your teaching? List arguments pro and contra.
  37. 37. References • Driver, R. et al., 1994, Making Sense of Secondary Science: Research into Children’s Ideas, Routledge, 210p. • Mazur, E., 1997, Peer Instruction: A User’s Manual, Prentice Hall, 253p. • Keeley, P. et al., 2005, Uncovering Student Ideas in Science: 25 Formative Assessment Probes, Vol. 1, NSTA Press, 193p. • Keeley, P. et al., 2007, Uncovering Student Ideas in Science: 25 Formative Assessment Probes, Vol. 2, NSTA Press, 194p. • Keeley, P. et al., 2009, Uncovering Student Ideas in Science: 25 Formative Assessment Probes, Vol. 4, NSTA Press, 184p. • Naylor S., Downing, B. and Keogh B. (2001) An empirical study of argumentation in primary science, using Concept Cartoons as the stimulus. Third International Conference of the European Science Education Research Association. Thessaloniki, Greece

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