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Analogies & Models in Science Education


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Analogies & Models in Science Education

  1. 1. Analogies and Models Training in student centered approaches for science teaching
  2. 2. Introduction: What is an analogy? <ul><li>What is an analogy? </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of analogies? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you already use analogies in your teaching? </li></ul><ul><li>Describe how you use them (step-by-step) </li></ul><ul><li>Do you use them in a student-centered way? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Why analogies in science teaching? <ul><li>Browse the manual and select one analogy that you would use. </li></ul><ul><li>Why would you use this analogy in your lesson? </li></ul><ul><li>Compare your reasons with the list on following slide: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are there any reasons in the list you didn’t think of? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do you agree with these reasons? </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Reasons for using analogies
  5. 5. Use of analogies & models <ul><li>Analogies = Two-edged swords </li></ul>
  6. 6. Techniques <ul><li>Focus – Action – Reflection (FAR) guide </li></ul><ul><li>Synectics </li></ul><ul><li>Role plays </li></ul><ul><li>Models </li></ul><ul><li>Student Generated Analogies </li></ul>
  7. 7. Examples
  8. 8. Technique 1: Focus –Action - Reflection <ul><li>What difficult or abstract concept do I want to teach the students? </li></ul><ul><li>What prior knowledge do students already have about the concept? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the analog something your students are familiar with? </li></ul>
  9. 9. Technique 1: Focus –Action - Reflection <ul><li>What are the similarities between the analog and the concept? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the differences between the analog and the concept? </li></ul>
  10. 10. Technique 1: Focus –Action - Reflection <ul><li>Was the analogy clear and effective or rather confusing? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there any changes to be made next time you use this analogy? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Example student worksheet <ul><li>Choose an analogy </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss and try to fill in the table </li></ul>
  12. 12. Synectics: multiple analogies
  13. 13. Role Plays <ul><li>students are involved in the elaboration and acting out of analogies </li></ul>more likely to accept ideas work together abstract thinking fun character
  14. 14. Role plays: sequence <ul><li>Divide the students in groups, depending on the scenario. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the general idea, but don’t go into much detail. </li></ul><ul><li>Student groups work together to distribute roles and develop a scenario. They take notes of their scenario. </li></ul><ul><li>Groups of students present their role play to the others. </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher organizes a class discussion. Students discuss correct and incorrect elements during the play and how they can be improved. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Models simplified constructions of reality low-cost materials
  16. 16. Models <ul><li>Try to let students discover the relation between the model and the concept for themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>The more they can find out themselves, the stronger they will make the relation between concept and model. </li></ul><ul><li>The point where the model does not correspond with reality (avoid misconceptions). </li></ul>
  17. 17. Student-generated analogies <ul><li>Students spontaneously generate analogies that are close to their daily life. </li></ul>relevant and accessible higher order understanding brainstorm
  18. 18. Student-generated analogies <ul><li>Divide students in groups (assign note taker) </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the topic </li></ul><ul><li>Students brainstorm about the analogy </li></ul><ul><li>Let groups present their analogy. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where is the analogy alike the analog? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where is it breaking down? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ask questions (or let students ask each other questions) </li></ul><ul><li>Give feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Input for later lessons </li></ul>
  19. 19. Exercise <ul><li>Select two analogies (or use your own) </li></ul><ul><li>Select two different methods and prepare lesson fragment </li></ul><ul><li>Group discussion: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Which questions do you use? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are students stimulated to think? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the analogy clear for all students? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How can you reinforce the analogy? </li></ul></ul>