Content The history of steel construction Famous steel buildings Why is steel such a good construction element? What is steel in a building? For what do we need steel in a building? What types of steel used in construction? What has construction to do with SBB? - Prices - Industry players - SBB Articles
The history of steel construction Building probably began with simple forms of construction Prehistoric rock-shelter 17th century bark shelter
The history of steel construction Construction materials and techniques developed from reeds and mud into manufactured baked mud and burnt clay brick.
The history of steel constructionLate 1870s - First use of concrete reinforcingThe Industrial Revolution:-Development of new materials, products andTechniques-New forms of energy generation and equipment-Specialization and mass-production - thehallmarks of the Industrial RevolutionCast-iron structural frameworks with load-bearinginfill were being used in English mills and warehouses by theturn of the 19th century. The Crystal Palace (1851)
The history of steel construction1883 - First steel frame building, Home Insurance, Chicago - First iron-framed skyscraper - 10 floors - Destroyed in 1931 1886 - Rand McNally Building - First all-steel frame building - Burnham and Root Architects - Built 1885-86 Commercial high-rise construction in the US, primarily in Chicago.
The history of steel construction1899 - Carson Pirie Scott Department Store 1906 - Ritz Hotel First steel frame building in London!
The history of steel construction 1920s - 1930s International Style - ModernismAfter Second World War, spread from high-rise commercial construction to almost allindustrialized buildings.This form of building rapidly became the universal standard.Architectural vision of architects such as Le Corbusier, Mies Van de Rohe,and theBauhaus School. Movement “International Style” - limited regard for site, climate, and locality - expectations for comfort, durability, and utility rose
The history of steel construction Empire State Building, New York - Built in 1931 - 1250 ft (381m) - 60,000 t steel (16%) Tower 42 (NatWest Tower) - Built in 1980, refurbished 1995 -600 ft (183m) -30,000 t steel 100t rebar for each m height 13 km of stainless steel cladding
The history of steel construction The Gherkin - Swiss Re Building Build in 2004 Floors: 41 Height: 180m Construction facts 10,000 tonnes steel (2,500t in frame) 24,000 m² glass 50% energy of conventional building Burj Dubai, Dubai Built in 2009 Floors: 120 (World Record) Height: 818m Construction facts 39,000 t steel (5%) The Burj Khalifa is the world tallest building!
Why is steel such a good construction element? Why has steel been used in some of the worlds most famous landmarks? Petronas Twin Towers Brooklyn Bridge, NY Eiffel Tower
Why is steel such a good construction element? Advantages of Steel -Strengths, resistance -Design flexibility, adaptability -Durability, sustainability, recyclability -Design flexibility -Speed, lower construction costs -Long term maintenance costs are reduced -Good indoor air quality (IAQ) -Light material
Why is steel such a good construction element?Advantages of Steel Construction - Productivity In the UK market 80% of all non-domestic framed construction is steel. The past 20 years has seen the industry winning 95% of all single storey framed construction and 70% of all multi-storey construction. Being totally re-usable, steel is the ultimate environmentally friendly product. Todays steel structures will almost certainly be re-used in the buildings of tomorrow.
Steel Consumption – End UsesRepresents approximately 50% of global steel consumption – higher in USA (60%),lower in China (approx 40%).
Steel Products for ConstructionRebar-short for reinforcing bar, also known as reinforcing steel,reinforcement steel, or a deformed bar-used as a tensioning device in reinforced concrete andreinforced masonry structures holding the concrete incompression-usually formed from carbon steel, and is given ridges forbetter mechanical anchoring into the concrete-available in different grades and specifications that vary inyield strength, ultimate tensile strength, chemicalcomposition, and percentage of elongation
Steel Products for Construction Structural steel (Sections) -A profile, formed with a specific shape or cross section -Certain standards of chemical composition and mechanical properties -Structural steel shape, size, composition, strength, storage, etc., is regulated in most industrialized countries
What has construction to do with SBB? Prices of long products SBB Special Report: US rebar price hike hinges on imports, Monday, 03 October 2011
What has construction to do with SBB? Country & Product Specific Prices
What has construction to do with SBB? SBB Price Tracker
What has construction to do with SBB? SBB Articles
What has construction to do with SBB? SBB ArticlesTurkish rebar offers too high for local and Turkish rebar export offers soften, millIraqi buyers, Monday, 03 October 2011 output reduced, Friday, 07 October 2011Iraqi and local Turkish buyers of rebar are Suggestions of output reductions wentfailing to respond to ex-works offers of around the market earlier this week, and$720-725/tonne from re-rollers and several participants tell Steel Businesselectric arc furnace mills in the Briefing’s sister publication Platts SteelIskenderun region, regional producers say. Markets Daily that at least one rebar millThese offers are deemed too high by end near Izmir has shut for maintenance.users who had been purchasing at $740- Rebar offers are down around $15/t from750/t ex-works Iskenderun in only mid- last week.September.
What has construction to do with SBB? Construction Market - Prices influenced by scrap prices as scrap goes into EAF – so there is a connection between scrap and long prices - Rebar used in earthquake countries, developing countries use more rebar - US & UK use more sections, because they are quicker built up with skilled workers – opposite in developing countries - Market divided into residential & non residential (infrastructure, retail, offices, etc.) - Price is influenced by scrap prices and by end-user demand
What has construction to do with SBB? Construction Market Generally construction is not doing well -Due to government cuttings (infrastructure) -General shortage of money (credits harder to get) -Domestic market in South Europe has crashed -- they need to export -putting down prices Spain – Alfonso Galliardo Stahlwerk Thueringen ......selling....