SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 2
Ref c237a 12 oct 2015
Measurement of Well-Being and Development in Africa Conference
Durban International Convention Centre
12-14 November 2015
INTRODUCTORY REMARKS
SESSION 1V INCOME AND WEALTH INEQUALITY
By Ben Turok
Institute For African Alternatives (IFAA)
1. I want to make some comments on tracking the evolution of multidimensional inequality
and well-being. With respect to inequality the most disconcerting aspect of the South
African political economy is the fact that one of the most effective liberation movements
in the world has been unable to roll back the inherited inequalities, indeed they have
worsened in some respects. Income inequality is higher now than twenty years ago and
this is hard to understand or to accept, especially as it is also associated with racial
inequality.
2. A recent report by the World Bank examined in considerable detail the effect of fiscal
policy on inequality, i.e. how taxes and spending have impacted on poverty and
inequality. The finding is that the direct tax system is slightly progressive, the rich bear
the brunt of spending, while indirect taxes are slightly regressive. Social spending has
significantly reduced poverty levels but income inequality has proved elusive. (South
Africa Economic Update; Fiscal Policy and Redistribution in an Unequal Society. The
World Bank November 2014)
3. Does this kind of analysis reveal the real profile of South Africa ? On my return to
Johannesburg from 25 years in exile, I toured the city to see its development. I was struck
by the enormous contrast between the physical appearance of inner city and the industrial
areas on the one hand, and the huge informal settlements surrounding Johannesburg on
the other. I wrote a paper called South Africa’s Skyscraper Economy which described the
situation and noted that Mexico City, Caracas, Abidjan and many other Third World
Cities had a similar profile.
4. This phenomenon is not due to income inequalities alone. They reflect huge inequalities
in assets of all kinds, and are deeply structural. Income and wealth is deeply political,
social, and cultural.
5. The reasons for this structural inequality are well known. But the identification of all its
dimensions has not been dealt with adequately. There has been much work on the Gini
and even wealth inequality has been examined, although cursorily. Also, unequal
provision of services has been analysed, again, separately. But capital assets are the
critical factor since inequality here is larger than in incomes, and this is where economic
power lies.
6. Given the multidimensional aspects of capital and the assets associated with it, we need
an overarching examination of the system, including the political system. For ease of
further analysis we need a simple characterisation of the system as a whole.
7. Returning to my opening point why is it that the ruling party has been unable to turn back
the inequality tide? Indeed it has not achieved the “hat trick” of accelerated economic
growth, general poverty reduction and reduced inequality.
8. The ANC view of a future transition was clear- it included both political and economic
transformation. (Morogoro)
9. But in the 1988 negotiations economic issues were downplayed. For instance the draft
Bill of Rights in Constitutional Guidelines ignored socioeconomic rights. Although there
was a surge of thinking about the economy in the early 1990’s in the RDP and Ready to
Govern, once the democratic government took office GEAR took over.
10. As a substitute for economic transformation we experimented with BEE which failed in
its main objectives and only created a tiny black capitalist class who are by no means
economically “patriotic” and who also shovel funds abroad.
11. The frustrations about the lack of structural transformation is leading some, especially
Black students, to argue that the government’s objective of a non-racial society is not
leading to the emancipation of Black people from poverty and inequality. More drastic
action is needed.
12. So we do need more research about inequality in all its dimensions, but in doing so how
can we avoid the trap of statistical juggling as in MDG debates?

More Related Content

What's hot

Truths About Poverty And Inequality In India
Truths About Poverty And Inequality In IndiaTruths About Poverty And Inequality In India
Truths About Poverty And Inequality In IndiaSHASHIKANT KULKARNI
 
Measures of Development
Measures of DevelopmentMeasures of Development
Measures of DevelopmentPaul Wozney
 
Factors that promote or hinder development(1)
Factors that promote or hinder development(1)Factors that promote or hinder development(1)
Factors that promote or hinder development(1)Tashmar Davis
 
14 Development Definitions And Measuring Development
14 Development Definitions And Measuring Development14 Development Definitions And Measuring Development
14 Development Definitions And Measuring DevelopmentEcumene
 
The economics of well being
The economics of well beingThe economics of well being
The economics of well beingjohnnyscaria
 
Lecture delivered by Dr Baburam Bhattarai
Lecture delivered by Dr Baburam BhattaraiLecture delivered by Dr Baburam Bhattarai
Lecture delivered by Dr Baburam BhattaraiUmesh Shrestha
 
Baburam bhattarai ppt note to m phil tu
Baburam bhattarai ppt note to m phil tuBaburam bhattarai ppt note to m phil tu
Baburam bhattarai ppt note to m phil tuBhim Upadhyaya
 
Factors that promote or hinder development
Factors that promote or hinder developmentFactors that promote or hinder development
Factors that promote or hinder developmentDeighton Gooden
 
Group Final Project Macroeconomics LM21
Group Final Project Macroeconomics LM21 Group Final Project Macroeconomics LM21
Group Final Project Macroeconomics LM21 DeviSeran
 
5.1 Development Economics Introduction
5.1   Development Economics   Introduction5.1   Development Economics   Introduction
5.1 Development Economics IntroductionAndrew McCarthy
 
Functional Income inequality and the post 2015 Agenda - presentation by Rolp...
Functional Income inequality and the post 2015 Agenda - presentation by Rolp...Functional Income inequality and the post 2015 Agenda - presentation by Rolp...
Functional Income inequality and the post 2015 Agenda - presentation by Rolp...reinoutthebroker
 
Economic Development (Introduction)
Economic Development (Introduction)Economic Development (Introduction)
Economic Development (Introduction)mattbentley34
 
Building a Notion of Equality: Thoughts on Women, Work and Welfare
 Building a Notion of Equality: Thoughts on Women, Work and Welfare Building a Notion of Equality: Thoughts on Women, Work and Welfare
Building a Notion of Equality: Thoughts on Women, Work and WelfareEconomic Research Forum
 
GVCs a new development strategy for chile
GVCs   a new development strategy for chileGVCs   a new development strategy for chile
GVCs a new development strategy for chileAlfredo Barriga
 
Inequality and the Post-2015 Agenda - presentation by David Woodward
Inequality and the Post-2015 Agenda - presentation by David WoodwardInequality and the Post-2015 Agenda - presentation by David Woodward
Inequality and the Post-2015 Agenda - presentation by David Woodwardreinoutthebroker
 

What's hot (17)

Truths About Poverty And Inequality In India
Truths About Poverty And Inequality In IndiaTruths About Poverty And Inequality In India
Truths About Poverty And Inequality In India
 
Measures of Development
Measures of DevelopmentMeasures of Development
Measures of Development
 
Factors that promote or hinder development(1)
Factors that promote or hinder development(1)Factors that promote or hinder development(1)
Factors that promote or hinder development(1)
 
Decon 03
Decon 03Decon 03
Decon 03
 
14 Development Definitions And Measuring Development
14 Development Definitions And Measuring Development14 Development Definitions And Measuring Development
14 Development Definitions And Measuring Development
 
The economics of well being
The economics of well beingThe economics of well being
The economics of well being
 
Lecture delivered by Dr Baburam Bhattarai
Lecture delivered by Dr Baburam BhattaraiLecture delivered by Dr Baburam Bhattarai
Lecture delivered by Dr Baburam Bhattarai
 
Baburam bhattarai ppt note to m phil tu
Baburam bhattarai ppt note to m phil tuBaburam bhattarai ppt note to m phil tu
Baburam bhattarai ppt note to m phil tu
 
Factors that promote or hinder development
Factors that promote or hinder developmentFactors that promote or hinder development
Factors that promote or hinder development
 
Making Growth Work for the Poor in Zimbabwe
Making Growth Work for the Poor in ZimbabweMaking Growth Work for the Poor in Zimbabwe
Making Growth Work for the Poor in Zimbabwe
 
Group Final Project Macroeconomics LM21
Group Final Project Macroeconomics LM21 Group Final Project Macroeconomics LM21
Group Final Project Macroeconomics LM21
 
5.1 Development Economics Introduction
5.1   Development Economics   Introduction5.1   Development Economics   Introduction
5.1 Development Economics Introduction
 
Functional Income inequality and the post 2015 Agenda - presentation by Rolp...
Functional Income inequality and the post 2015 Agenda - presentation by Rolp...Functional Income inequality and the post 2015 Agenda - presentation by Rolp...
Functional Income inequality and the post 2015 Agenda - presentation by Rolp...
 
Economic Development (Introduction)
Economic Development (Introduction)Economic Development (Introduction)
Economic Development (Introduction)
 
Building a Notion of Equality: Thoughts on Women, Work and Welfare
 Building a Notion of Equality: Thoughts on Women, Work and Welfare Building a Notion of Equality: Thoughts on Women, Work and Welfare
Building a Notion of Equality: Thoughts on Women, Work and Welfare
 
GVCs a new development strategy for chile
GVCs   a new development strategy for chileGVCs   a new development strategy for chile
GVCs a new development strategy for chile
 
Inequality and the Post-2015 Agenda - presentation by David Woodward
Inequality and the Post-2015 Agenda - presentation by David WoodwardInequality and the Post-2015 Agenda - presentation by David Woodward
Inequality and the Post-2015 Agenda - presentation by David Woodward
 

Viewers also liked

HLEG thematic workshop on Economic Insecurity, Yotam Margalit, presenter
HLEG thematic workshop on Economic Insecurity, Yotam Margalit, presenterHLEG thematic workshop on Economic Insecurity, Yotam Margalit, presenter
HLEG thematic workshop on Economic Insecurity, Yotam Margalit, presenterStatsCommunications
 
HLEG thematic workshop on Measuring Trust and Social Capital, John Helliwell
HLEG thematic workshop on Measuring Trust and Social Capital, John HelliwellHLEG thematic workshop on Measuring Trust and Social Capital, John Helliwell
HLEG thematic workshop on Measuring Trust and Social Capital, John HelliwellStatsCommunications
 
HLEG thematic workshop on Measuring Trust and Social Capital, Nicholas Charron
HLEG thematic workshop on Measuring Trust and Social Capital, Nicholas CharronHLEG thematic workshop on Measuring Trust and Social Capital, Nicholas Charron
HLEG thematic workshop on Measuring Trust and Social Capital, Nicholas CharronStatsCommunications
 
HLEG thematic workshop on Measuring Trust and Social Capital, Evgenia Passari
HLEG thematic workshop on Measuring Trust and Social Capital, Evgenia PassariHLEG thematic workshop on Measuring Trust and Social Capital, Evgenia Passari
HLEG thematic workshop on Measuring Trust and Social Capital, Evgenia PassariStatsCommunications
 
HLEG thematic workshop on Measuring Trust and Social Capital, John Helliwell
HLEG thematic workshop on Measuring Trust and Social Capital, John HelliwellHLEG thematic workshop on Measuring Trust and Social Capital, John Helliwell
HLEG thematic workshop on Measuring Trust and Social Capital, John HelliwellStatsCommunications
 
HLEG thematic workshop on Economic Insecurity, Andrea Brandolini, presenter
HLEG thematic workshop on Economic Insecurity, Andrea Brandolini, presenterHLEG thematic workshop on Economic Insecurity, Andrea Brandolini, presenter
HLEG thematic workshop on Economic Insecurity, Andrea Brandolini, presenterStatsCommunications
 
HLEG thematic workshop on Measurement of Well Being and Development in Africa...
HLEG thematic workshop on Measurement of Well Being and Development in Africa...HLEG thematic workshop on Measurement of Well Being and Development in Africa...
HLEG thematic workshop on Measurement of Well Being and Development in Africa...StatsCommunications
 
HLEG thematic workshop on Measurement of Well Being and Development in Africa...
HLEG thematic workshop on Measurement of Well Being and Development in Africa...HLEG thematic workshop on Measurement of Well Being and Development in Africa...
HLEG thematic workshop on Measurement of Well Being and Development in Africa...StatsCommunications
 
HLEG thematic workshop on Measurement of Well Being and Development in Africa...
HLEG thematic workshop on Measurement of Well Being and Development in Africa...HLEG thematic workshop on Measurement of Well Being and Development in Africa...
HLEG thematic workshop on Measurement of Well Being and Development in Africa...StatsCommunications
 
HLEG thematic workshop on Measurement of Well Being and Development in Africa...
HLEG thematic workshop on Measurement of Well Being and Development in Africa...HLEG thematic workshop on Measurement of Well Being and Development in Africa...
HLEG thematic workshop on Measurement of Well Being and Development in Africa...StatsCommunications
 
HLEG thematic workshop on "Intra-generational and Inter-generational Sustaina...
HLEG thematic workshop on "Intra-generational and Inter-generational Sustaina...HLEG thematic workshop on "Intra-generational and Inter-generational Sustaina...
HLEG thematic workshop on "Intra-generational and Inter-generational Sustaina...StatsCommunications
 
HLEG thematic workshop on Measurement of Well Being and Development in Africa...
HLEG thematic workshop on Measurement of Well Being and Development in Africa...HLEG thematic workshop on Measurement of Well Being and Development in Africa...
HLEG thematic workshop on Measurement of Well Being and Development in Africa...StatsCommunications
 
HLEG thematic workshop on Measurement of Well Being and Development in Africa...
HLEG thematic workshop on Measurement of Well Being and Development in Africa...HLEG thematic workshop on Measurement of Well Being and Development in Africa...
HLEG thematic workshop on Measurement of Well Being and Development in Africa...StatsCommunications
 
HLEG thematic workshop on Measurement of Well Being and Development in Africa...
HLEG thematic workshop on Measurement of Well Being and Development in Africa...HLEG thematic workshop on Measurement of Well Being and Development in Africa...
HLEG thematic workshop on Measurement of Well Being and Development in Africa...StatsCommunications
 
Ralph Recto Cenidoza updated CV (4)
Ralph Recto Cenidoza updated CV (4)Ralph Recto Cenidoza updated CV (4)
Ralph Recto Cenidoza updated CV (4)Ralph Recto Cenidoza
 

Viewers also liked (18)

HLEG thematic workshop on Economic Insecurity, Yotam Margalit, presenter
HLEG thematic workshop on Economic Insecurity, Yotam Margalit, presenterHLEG thematic workshop on Economic Insecurity, Yotam Margalit, presenter
HLEG thematic workshop on Economic Insecurity, Yotam Margalit, presenter
 
HLEG thematic workshop on Measuring Trust and Social Capital, John Helliwell
HLEG thematic workshop on Measuring Trust and Social Capital, John HelliwellHLEG thematic workshop on Measuring Trust and Social Capital, John Helliwell
HLEG thematic workshop on Measuring Trust and Social Capital, John Helliwell
 
HLEG thematic workshop on Measuring Trust and Social Capital, Nicholas Charron
HLEG thematic workshop on Measuring Trust and Social Capital, Nicholas CharronHLEG thematic workshop on Measuring Trust and Social Capital, Nicholas Charron
HLEG thematic workshop on Measuring Trust and Social Capital, Nicholas Charron
 
HLEG thematic workshop on Measuring Trust and Social Capital, Evgenia Passari
HLEG thematic workshop on Measuring Trust and Social Capital, Evgenia PassariHLEG thematic workshop on Measuring Trust and Social Capital, Evgenia Passari
HLEG thematic workshop on Measuring Trust and Social Capital, Evgenia Passari
 
HLEG thematic workshop on Measuring Trust and Social Capital, John Helliwell
HLEG thematic workshop on Measuring Trust and Social Capital, John HelliwellHLEG thematic workshop on Measuring Trust and Social Capital, John Helliwell
HLEG thematic workshop on Measuring Trust and Social Capital, John Helliwell
 
HLEG thematic workshop on Economic Insecurity, Andrea Brandolini, presenter
HLEG thematic workshop on Economic Insecurity, Andrea Brandolini, presenterHLEG thematic workshop on Economic Insecurity, Andrea Brandolini, presenter
HLEG thematic workshop on Economic Insecurity, Andrea Brandolini, presenter
 
HLEG thematic workshop on Measurement of Well Being and Development in Africa...
HLEG thematic workshop on Measurement of Well Being and Development in Africa...HLEG thematic workshop on Measurement of Well Being and Development in Africa...
HLEG thematic workshop on Measurement of Well Being and Development in Africa...
 
HLEG thematic workshop on Measurement of Well Being and Development in Africa...
HLEG thematic workshop on Measurement of Well Being and Development in Africa...HLEG thematic workshop on Measurement of Well Being and Development in Africa...
HLEG thematic workshop on Measurement of Well Being and Development in Africa...
 
HLEG thematic workshop on Measurement of Well Being and Development in Africa...
HLEG thematic workshop on Measurement of Well Being and Development in Africa...HLEG thematic workshop on Measurement of Well Being and Development in Africa...
HLEG thematic workshop on Measurement of Well Being and Development in Africa...
 
HLEG thematic workshop on Measurement of Well Being and Development in Africa...
HLEG thematic workshop on Measurement of Well Being and Development in Africa...HLEG thematic workshop on Measurement of Well Being and Development in Africa...
HLEG thematic workshop on Measurement of Well Being and Development in Africa...
 
HLEG thematic workshop on "Intra-generational and Inter-generational Sustaina...
HLEG thematic workshop on "Intra-generational and Inter-generational Sustaina...HLEG thematic workshop on "Intra-generational and Inter-generational Sustaina...
HLEG thematic workshop on "Intra-generational and Inter-generational Sustaina...
 
HLEG thematic workshop on Measurement of Well Being and Development in Africa...
HLEG thematic workshop on Measurement of Well Being and Development in Africa...HLEG thematic workshop on Measurement of Well Being and Development in Africa...
HLEG thematic workshop on Measurement of Well Being and Development in Africa...
 
HLEG thematic workshop on Measurement of Well Being and Development in Africa...
HLEG thematic workshop on Measurement of Well Being and Development in Africa...HLEG thematic workshop on Measurement of Well Being and Development in Africa...
HLEG thematic workshop on Measurement of Well Being and Development in Africa...
 
HLEG thematic workshop on Measurement of Well Being and Development in Africa...
HLEG thematic workshop on Measurement of Well Being and Development in Africa...HLEG thematic workshop on Measurement of Well Being and Development in Africa...
HLEG thematic workshop on Measurement of Well Being and Development in Africa...
 
Gai Cross
Gai CrossGai Cross
Gai Cross
 
Ralph Recto Cenidoza updated CV (4)
Ralph Recto Cenidoza updated CV (4)Ralph Recto Cenidoza updated CV (4)
Ralph Recto Cenidoza updated CV (4)
 
Moodboard
MoodboardMoodboard
Moodboard
 
Anexo1 (1)
Anexo1 (1)Anexo1 (1)
Anexo1 (1)
 

Similar to HLEG thematic workshop on Measurement of Well Being and Development in Africa, Ben Turok

Megacommunities and The African Diaspora
Megacommunities and The African DiasporaMegacommunities and The African Diaspora
Megacommunities and The African DiasporaMo Richards MSIPM
 
Act Local Please respond to the following in 2-3 paragraphsBased .docx
Act Local Please respond to the following in 2-3 paragraphsBased .docxAct Local Please respond to the following in 2-3 paragraphsBased .docx
Act Local Please respond to the following in 2-3 paragraphsBased .docxbobbywlane695641
 
ANC Strengthening Economic Recovery and Reconstruction to Build an Inclusive ...
ANC Strengthening Economic Recovery and Reconstruction to Build an Inclusive ...ANC Strengthening Economic Recovery and Reconstruction to Build an Inclusive ...
ANC Strengthening Economic Recovery and Reconstruction to Build an Inclusive ...SABC News
 
Localization And Globalization
Localization And GlobalizationLocalization And Globalization
Localization And GlobalizationLisa Martinez
 
Digital economy for Somalia how it can help the nation
Digital economy for Somalia how it can help the nationDigital economy for Somalia how it can help the nation
Digital economy for Somalia how it can help the nationAli Mohammed
 
  1  The Lasting Economic Legacy of South African A.docx
   1  The Lasting Economic Legacy of South African A.docx   1  The Lasting Economic Legacy of South African A.docx
  1  The Lasting Economic Legacy of South African A.docxmayank272369
 
Urban Poverty In China
Urban Poverty In ChinaUrban Poverty In China
Urban Poverty In ChinaAlison Hall
 
Cameroon's economic development
 Cameroon's economic development Cameroon's economic development
Cameroon's economic developmentfandjio christian
 
Cameroon's Economic Development
Cameroon's Economic DevelopmentCameroon's Economic Development
Cameroon's Economic Developmentfandjio christian
 
劉遵義 Income inequality under economic globalisation(final) 20150414
劉遵義 Income inequality under economic globalisation(final) 20150414劉遵義 Income inequality under economic globalisation(final) 20150414
劉遵義 Income inequality under economic globalisation(final) 20150414Andy Kuo
 
The Success of Small Countries
The Success of Small CountriesThe Success of Small Countries
The Success of Small CountriesCredit Suisse
 
The Success of Small Countries
The Success of Small CountriesThe Success of Small Countries
The Success of Small CountriesMiqui Mel
 
Unchained globalization by Dr.Mahboob ali khan Phd
Unchained globalization by Dr.Mahboob ali khan Phd Unchained globalization by Dr.Mahboob ali khan Phd
Unchained globalization by Dr.Mahboob ali khan Phd Healthcare consultant
 
The political dynamics of the informal sector in tanzania
The political dynamics of the informal sector in tanzaniaThe political dynamics of the informal sector in tanzania
The political dynamics of the informal sector in tanzaniaDr Lendy Spires
 
IJSRED-V1I2P2
IJSRED-V1I2P2IJSRED-V1I2P2
IJSRED-V1I2P2IJSRED
 
Poverty to progress and distress to viability breakthroughs in ethiopia
Poverty to progress and distress to viability breakthroughs in ethiopiaPoverty to progress and distress to viability breakthroughs in ethiopia
Poverty to progress and distress to viability breakthroughs in ethiopiaAlexander Decker
 
Final globalisation accounting and developing countries cpa submission march ...
Final globalisation accounting and developing countries cpa submission march ...Final globalisation accounting and developing countries cpa submission march ...
Final globalisation accounting and developing countries cpa submission march ...Trevor Hopper
 
Working For the Few - Political Capture and Economic Inequality
Working For the Few - Political Capture and Economic InequalityWorking For the Few - Political Capture and Economic Inequality
Working For the Few - Political Capture and Economic InequalityMiqui Mel
 
The global financial crisis in colombia and the international conference on p...
The global financial crisis in colombia and the international conference on p...The global financial crisis in colombia and the international conference on p...
The global financial crisis in colombia and the international conference on p...UN Global Pulse
 

Similar to HLEG thematic workshop on Measurement of Well Being and Development in Africa, Ben Turok (20)

Megacommunities and The African Diaspora
Megacommunities and The African DiasporaMegacommunities and The African Diaspora
Megacommunities and The African Diaspora
 
Act Local Please respond to the following in 2-3 paragraphsBased .docx
Act Local Please respond to the following in 2-3 paragraphsBased .docxAct Local Please respond to the following in 2-3 paragraphsBased .docx
Act Local Please respond to the following in 2-3 paragraphsBased .docx
 
ANC Strengthening Economic Recovery and Reconstruction to Build an Inclusive ...
ANC Strengthening Economic Recovery and Reconstruction to Build an Inclusive ...ANC Strengthening Economic Recovery and Reconstruction to Build an Inclusive ...
ANC Strengthening Economic Recovery and Reconstruction to Build an Inclusive ...
 
Localization And Globalization
Localization And GlobalizationLocalization And Globalization
Localization And Globalization
 
Digital economy for Somalia how it can help the nation
Digital economy for Somalia how it can help the nationDigital economy for Somalia how it can help the nation
Digital economy for Somalia how it can help the nation
 
  1  The Lasting Economic Legacy of South African A.docx
   1  The Lasting Economic Legacy of South African A.docx   1  The Lasting Economic Legacy of South African A.docx
  1  The Lasting Economic Legacy of South African A.docx
 
Urban Poverty In China
Urban Poverty In ChinaUrban Poverty In China
Urban Poverty In China
 
Cameroon's economic development
 Cameroon's economic development Cameroon's economic development
Cameroon's economic development
 
Cameroon's Economic Development
Cameroon's Economic DevelopmentCameroon's Economic Development
Cameroon's Economic Development
 
劉遵義 Income inequality under economic globalisation(final) 20150414
劉遵義 Income inequality under economic globalisation(final) 20150414劉遵義 Income inequality under economic globalisation(final) 20150414
劉遵義 Income inequality under economic globalisation(final) 20150414
 
The Success of Small Countries
The Success of Small CountriesThe Success of Small Countries
The Success of Small Countries
 
The Success of Small Countries
The Success of Small CountriesThe Success of Small Countries
The Success of Small Countries
 
Unchained globalization by Dr.Mahboob ali khan Phd
Unchained globalization by Dr.Mahboob ali khan Phd Unchained globalization by Dr.Mahboob ali khan Phd
Unchained globalization by Dr.Mahboob ali khan Phd
 
The political dynamics of the informal sector in tanzania
The political dynamics of the informal sector in tanzaniaThe political dynamics of the informal sector in tanzania
The political dynamics of the informal sector in tanzania
 
IJSRED-V1I2P2
IJSRED-V1I2P2IJSRED-V1I2P2
IJSRED-V1I2P2
 
Poverty to progress and distress to viability breakthroughs in ethiopia
Poverty to progress and distress to viability breakthroughs in ethiopiaPoverty to progress and distress to viability breakthroughs in ethiopia
Poverty to progress and distress to viability breakthroughs in ethiopia
 
Final globalisation accounting and developing countries cpa submission march ...
Final globalisation accounting and developing countries cpa submission march ...Final globalisation accounting and developing countries cpa submission march ...
Final globalisation accounting and developing countries cpa submission march ...
 
Working for the Few
Working for the FewWorking for the Few
Working for the Few
 
Working For the Few - Political Capture and Economic Inequality
Working For the Few - Political Capture and Economic InequalityWorking For the Few - Political Capture and Economic Inequality
Working For the Few - Political Capture and Economic Inequality
 
The global financial crisis in colombia and the international conference on p...
The global financial crisis in colombia and the international conference on p...The global financial crisis in colombia and the international conference on p...
The global financial crisis in colombia and the international conference on p...
 

More from StatsCommunications

Globally inclusive approaches to measurement_Shigehiro Oishi.pdf
Globally inclusive approaches to measurement_Shigehiro Oishi.pdfGlobally inclusive approaches to measurement_Shigehiro Oishi.pdf
Globally inclusive approaches to measurement_Shigehiro Oishi.pdfStatsCommunications
 
Globally inclusive approaches to measurement_Erhabor Idemudia.pdf
Globally inclusive approaches to measurement_Erhabor Idemudia.pdfGlobally inclusive approaches to measurement_Erhabor Idemudia.pdf
Globally inclusive approaches to measurement_Erhabor Idemudia.pdfStatsCommunications
 
Globally inclusive approaches to measurement_Rosemary Goodyear.pdf
Globally inclusive approaches to measurement_Rosemary Goodyear.pdfGlobally inclusive approaches to measurement_Rosemary Goodyear.pdf
Globally inclusive approaches to measurement_Rosemary Goodyear.pdfStatsCommunications
 
A better understanding of domain satisfaction: Validity and policy use_Alessa...
A better understanding of domain satisfaction: Validity and policy use_Alessa...A better understanding of domain satisfaction: Validity and policy use_Alessa...
A better understanding of domain satisfaction: Validity and policy use_Alessa...StatsCommunications
 
A better understanding of domain satisfaction: Validity and policy use_Anthon...
A better understanding of domain satisfaction: Validity and policy use_Anthon...A better understanding of domain satisfaction: Validity and policy use_Anthon...
A better understanding of domain satisfaction: Validity and policy use_Anthon...StatsCommunications
 
A better understanding of domain satisfaction: Validity and policy use_Marian...
A better understanding of domain satisfaction: Validity and policy use_Marian...A better understanding of domain satisfaction: Validity and policy use_Marian...
A better understanding of domain satisfaction: Validity and policy use_Marian...StatsCommunications
 
Measuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Anna Visser.pdf
Measuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Anna Visser.pdfMeasuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Anna Visser.pdf
Measuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Anna Visser.pdfStatsCommunications
 
Measuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Oddrun Samdal.pdf
Measuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Oddrun Samdal.pdfMeasuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Oddrun Samdal.pdf
Measuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Oddrun Samdal.pdfStatsCommunications
 
Measuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Gwyther Rees.pdf
Measuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Gwyther Rees.pdfMeasuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Gwyther Rees.pdf
Measuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Gwyther Rees.pdfStatsCommunications
 
Measuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Sabrina Twilhaar...
Measuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Sabrina Twilhaar...Measuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Sabrina Twilhaar...
Measuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Sabrina Twilhaar...StatsCommunications
 
Towards a more comprehensive measure of eudaimonia_Nancy Hey.pdf
Towards a more comprehensive measure of eudaimonia_Nancy Hey.pdfTowards a more comprehensive measure of eudaimonia_Nancy Hey.pdf
Towards a more comprehensive measure of eudaimonia_Nancy Hey.pdfStatsCommunications
 
Towards a more comprehensive measure of eudaimonia_Carol Graham.pdf
Towards a more comprehensive measure of eudaimonia_Carol Graham.pdfTowards a more comprehensive measure of eudaimonia_Carol Graham.pdf
Towards a more comprehensive measure of eudaimonia_Carol Graham.pdfStatsCommunications
 
Towards a more comprehensive measure of eudaimonia_Carol Ryff.pdf
Towards a more comprehensive measure of eudaimonia_Carol Ryff.pdfTowards a more comprehensive measure of eudaimonia_Carol Ryff.pdf
Towards a more comprehensive measure of eudaimonia_Carol Ryff.pdfStatsCommunications
 
Revisiting affect: Which states to measure, and how_Lucia Macchia.pdf
Revisiting affect: Which states to measure, and how_Lucia Macchia.pdfRevisiting affect: Which states to measure, and how_Lucia Macchia.pdf
Revisiting affect: Which states to measure, and how_Lucia Macchia.pdfStatsCommunications
 
Revisiting affect: Which states to measure, and how_Conal Smith.pdf
Revisiting affect: Which states to measure, and how_Conal Smith.pdfRevisiting affect: Which states to measure, and how_Conal Smith.pdf
Revisiting affect: Which states to measure, and how_Conal Smith.pdfStatsCommunications
 
Revisiting affect: Which states to measure, and how_Arthur Stone.pdf
Revisiting affect: Which states to measure, and how_Arthur Stone.pdfRevisiting affect: Which states to measure, and how_Arthur Stone.pdf
Revisiting affect: Which states to measure, and how_Arthur Stone.pdfStatsCommunications
 
1 Intro_Measuring SWB_Romina_Boarini.pdf
1 Intro_Measuring SWB_Romina_Boarini.pdf1 Intro_Measuring SWB_Romina_Boarini.pdf
1 Intro_Measuring SWB_Romina_Boarini.pdfStatsCommunications
 
Key-findings_On-Shaky-Ground-Income-Instability-and-Economic-Insecurity-in-Eu...
Key-findings_On-Shaky-Ground-Income-Instability-and-Economic-Insecurity-in-Eu...Key-findings_On-Shaky-Ground-Income-Instability-and-Economic-Insecurity-in-Eu...
Key-findings_On-Shaky-Ground-Income-Instability-and-Economic-Insecurity-in-Eu...StatsCommunications
 

More from StatsCommunications (20)

Globally inclusive approaches to measurement_Shigehiro Oishi.pdf
Globally inclusive approaches to measurement_Shigehiro Oishi.pdfGlobally inclusive approaches to measurement_Shigehiro Oishi.pdf
Globally inclusive approaches to measurement_Shigehiro Oishi.pdf
 
Globally inclusive approaches to measurement_Erhabor Idemudia.pdf
Globally inclusive approaches to measurement_Erhabor Idemudia.pdfGlobally inclusive approaches to measurement_Erhabor Idemudia.pdf
Globally inclusive approaches to measurement_Erhabor Idemudia.pdf
 
Globally inclusive approaches to measurement_Rosemary Goodyear.pdf
Globally inclusive approaches to measurement_Rosemary Goodyear.pdfGlobally inclusive approaches to measurement_Rosemary Goodyear.pdf
Globally inclusive approaches to measurement_Rosemary Goodyear.pdf
 
A better understanding of domain satisfaction: Validity and policy use_Alessa...
A better understanding of domain satisfaction: Validity and policy use_Alessa...A better understanding of domain satisfaction: Validity and policy use_Alessa...
A better understanding of domain satisfaction: Validity and policy use_Alessa...
 
A better understanding of domain satisfaction: Validity and policy use_Anthon...
A better understanding of domain satisfaction: Validity and policy use_Anthon...A better understanding of domain satisfaction: Validity and policy use_Anthon...
A better understanding of domain satisfaction: Validity and policy use_Anthon...
 
A better understanding of domain satisfaction: Validity and policy use_Marian...
A better understanding of domain satisfaction: Validity and policy use_Marian...A better understanding of domain satisfaction: Validity and policy use_Marian...
A better understanding of domain satisfaction: Validity and policy use_Marian...
 
Measuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Anna Visser.pdf
Measuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Anna Visser.pdfMeasuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Anna Visser.pdf
Measuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Anna Visser.pdf
 
Measuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Oddrun Samdal.pdf
Measuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Oddrun Samdal.pdfMeasuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Oddrun Samdal.pdf
Measuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Oddrun Samdal.pdf
 
Measuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Gwyther Rees.pdf
Measuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Gwyther Rees.pdfMeasuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Gwyther Rees.pdf
Measuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Gwyther Rees.pdf
 
Measuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Sabrina Twilhaar...
Measuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Sabrina Twilhaar...Measuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Sabrina Twilhaar...
Measuring subjective well-being in children and young people_Sabrina Twilhaar...
 
Towards a more comprehensive measure of eudaimonia_Nancy Hey.pdf
Towards a more comprehensive measure of eudaimonia_Nancy Hey.pdfTowards a more comprehensive measure of eudaimonia_Nancy Hey.pdf
Towards a more comprehensive measure of eudaimonia_Nancy Hey.pdf
 
Towards a more comprehensive measure of eudaimonia_Carol Graham.pdf
Towards a more comprehensive measure of eudaimonia_Carol Graham.pdfTowards a more comprehensive measure of eudaimonia_Carol Graham.pdf
Towards a more comprehensive measure of eudaimonia_Carol Graham.pdf
 
Towards a more comprehensive measure of eudaimonia_Carol Ryff.pdf
Towards a more comprehensive measure of eudaimonia_Carol Ryff.pdfTowards a more comprehensive measure of eudaimonia_Carol Ryff.pdf
Towards a more comprehensive measure of eudaimonia_Carol Ryff.pdf
 
Revisiting affect: Which states to measure, and how_Lucia Macchia.pdf
Revisiting affect: Which states to measure, and how_Lucia Macchia.pdfRevisiting affect: Which states to measure, and how_Lucia Macchia.pdf
Revisiting affect: Which states to measure, and how_Lucia Macchia.pdf
 
Revisiting affect: Which states to measure, and how_Conal Smith.pdf
Revisiting affect: Which states to measure, and how_Conal Smith.pdfRevisiting affect: Which states to measure, and how_Conal Smith.pdf
Revisiting affect: Which states to measure, and how_Conal Smith.pdf
 
Revisiting affect: Which states to measure, and how_Arthur Stone.pdf
Revisiting affect: Which states to measure, and how_Arthur Stone.pdfRevisiting affect: Which states to measure, and how_Arthur Stone.pdf
Revisiting affect: Which states to measure, and how_Arthur Stone.pdf
 
1 Intro_Measuring SWB_Romina_Boarini.pdf
1 Intro_Measuring SWB_Romina_Boarini.pdf1 Intro_Measuring SWB_Romina_Boarini.pdf
1 Intro_Measuring SWB_Romina_Boarini.pdf
 
Key-findings_On-Shaky-Ground-Income-Instability-and-Economic-Insecurity-in-Eu...
Key-findings_On-Shaky-Ground-Income-Instability-and-Economic-Insecurity-in-Eu...Key-findings_On-Shaky-Ground-Income-Instability-and-Economic-Insecurity-in-Eu...
Key-findings_On-Shaky-Ground-Income-Instability-and-Economic-Insecurity-in-Eu...
 
Presentation Tatsuyoshi Oba.pdf
Presentation Tatsuyoshi Oba.pdfPresentation Tatsuyoshi Oba.pdf
Presentation Tatsuyoshi Oba.pdf
 
Amy slides.pdf
Amy slides.pdfAmy slides.pdf
Amy slides.pdf
 

Recently uploaded

Defining Constituents, Data Vizzes and Telling a Data Story
Defining Constituents, Data Vizzes and Telling a Data StoryDefining Constituents, Data Vizzes and Telling a Data Story
Defining Constituents, Data Vizzes and Telling a Data StoryJeremy Anderson
 
科罗拉多大学波尔得分校毕业证学位证成绩单-可办理
科罗拉多大学波尔得分校毕业证学位证成绩单-可办理科罗拉多大学波尔得分校毕业证学位证成绩单-可办理
科罗拉多大学波尔得分校毕业证学位证成绩单-可办理e4aez8ss
 
IMA MSN - Medical Students Network (2).pptx
IMA MSN - Medical Students Network (2).pptxIMA MSN - Medical Students Network (2).pptx
IMA MSN - Medical Students Network (2).pptxdolaknnilon
 
Business Analytics using Microsoft Excel
Business Analytics using Microsoft ExcelBusiness Analytics using Microsoft Excel
Business Analytics using Microsoft Excelysmaelreyes
 
9711147426✨Call In girls Gurgaon Sector 31. SCO 25 escort service
9711147426✨Call In girls Gurgaon Sector 31. SCO 25 escort service9711147426✨Call In girls Gurgaon Sector 31. SCO 25 escort service
9711147426✨Call In girls Gurgaon Sector 31. SCO 25 escort servicejennyeacort
 
Data Factory in Microsoft Fabric (MsBIP #82)
Data Factory in Microsoft Fabric (MsBIP #82)Data Factory in Microsoft Fabric (MsBIP #82)
Data Factory in Microsoft Fabric (MsBIP #82)Cathrine Wilhelmsen
 
毕业文凭制作#回国入职#diploma#degree澳洲中央昆士兰大学毕业证成绩单pdf电子版制作修改#毕业文凭制作#回国入职#diploma#degree
毕业文凭制作#回国入职#diploma#degree澳洲中央昆士兰大学毕业证成绩单pdf电子版制作修改#毕业文凭制作#回国入职#diploma#degree毕业文凭制作#回国入职#diploma#degree澳洲中央昆士兰大学毕业证成绩单pdf电子版制作修改#毕业文凭制作#回国入职#diploma#degree
毕业文凭制作#回国入职#diploma#degree澳洲中央昆士兰大学毕业证成绩单pdf电子版制作修改#毕业文凭制作#回国入职#diploma#degreeyuu sss
 
Learn How Data Science Changes Our World
Learn How Data Science Changes Our WorldLearn How Data Science Changes Our World
Learn How Data Science Changes Our WorldEduminds Learning
 
Advanced Machine Learning for Business Professionals
Advanced Machine Learning for Business ProfessionalsAdvanced Machine Learning for Business Professionals
Advanced Machine Learning for Business ProfessionalsVICTOR MAESTRE RAMIREZ
 
MK KOMUNIKASI DATA (TI)komdat komdat.docx
MK KOMUNIKASI DATA (TI)komdat komdat.docxMK KOMUNIKASI DATA (TI)komdat komdat.docx
MK KOMUNIKASI DATA (TI)komdat komdat.docxUnduhUnggah1
 
办理学位证中佛罗里达大学毕业证,UCF成绩单原版一比一
办理学位证中佛罗里达大学毕业证,UCF成绩单原版一比一办理学位证中佛罗里达大学毕业证,UCF成绩单原版一比一
办理学位证中佛罗里达大学毕业证,UCF成绩单原版一比一F sss
 
LLMs, LMMs, their Improvement Suggestions and the Path towards AGI
LLMs, LMMs, their Improvement Suggestions and the Path towards AGILLMs, LMMs, their Improvement Suggestions and the Path towards AGI
LLMs, LMMs, their Improvement Suggestions and the Path towards AGIThomas Poetter
 
Generative AI for Social Good at Open Data Science East 2024
Generative AI for Social Good at Open Data Science East 2024Generative AI for Social Good at Open Data Science East 2024
Generative AI for Social Good at Open Data Science East 2024Colleen Farrelly
 
专业一比一美国俄亥俄大学毕业证成绩单pdf电子版制作修改
专业一比一美国俄亥俄大学毕业证成绩单pdf电子版制作修改专业一比一美国俄亥俄大学毕业证成绩单pdf电子版制作修改
专业一比一美国俄亥俄大学毕业证成绩单pdf电子版制作修改yuu sss
 
原版1:1定制南十字星大学毕业证(SCU毕业证)#文凭成绩单#真实留信学历认证永久存档
原版1:1定制南十字星大学毕业证(SCU毕业证)#文凭成绩单#真实留信学历认证永久存档原版1:1定制南十字星大学毕业证(SCU毕业证)#文凭成绩单#真实留信学历认证永久存档
原版1:1定制南十字星大学毕业证(SCU毕业证)#文凭成绩单#真实留信学历认证永久存档208367051
 
Top 5 Best Data Analytics Courses In Queens
Top 5 Best Data Analytics Courses In QueensTop 5 Best Data Analytics Courses In Queens
Top 5 Best Data Analytics Courses In Queensdataanalyticsqueen03
 
办美国阿肯色大学小石城分校毕业证成绩单pdf电子版制作修改#真实留信入库#永久存档#真实可查#diploma#degree
办美国阿肯色大学小石城分校毕业证成绩单pdf电子版制作修改#真实留信入库#永久存档#真实可查#diploma#degree办美国阿肯色大学小石城分校毕业证成绩单pdf电子版制作修改#真实留信入库#永久存档#真实可查#diploma#degree
办美国阿肯色大学小石城分校毕业证成绩单pdf电子版制作修改#真实留信入库#永久存档#真实可查#diploma#degreeyuu sss
 
Identifying Appropriate Test Statistics Involving Population Mean
Identifying Appropriate Test Statistics Involving Population MeanIdentifying Appropriate Test Statistics Involving Population Mean
Identifying Appropriate Test Statistics Involving Population MeanMYRABACSAFRA2
 
Minimizing AI Hallucinations/Confabulations and the Path towards AGI with Exa...
Minimizing AI Hallucinations/Confabulations and the Path towards AGI with Exa...Minimizing AI Hallucinations/Confabulations and the Path towards AGI with Exa...
Minimizing AI Hallucinations/Confabulations and the Path towards AGI with Exa...Thomas Poetter
 
RS 9000 Call In girls Dwarka Mor (DELHI)⇛9711147426🔝Delhi
RS 9000 Call In girls Dwarka Mor (DELHI)⇛9711147426🔝DelhiRS 9000 Call In girls Dwarka Mor (DELHI)⇛9711147426🔝Delhi
RS 9000 Call In girls Dwarka Mor (DELHI)⇛9711147426🔝Delhijennyeacort
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Defining Constituents, Data Vizzes and Telling a Data Story
Defining Constituents, Data Vizzes and Telling a Data StoryDefining Constituents, Data Vizzes and Telling a Data Story
Defining Constituents, Data Vizzes and Telling a Data Story
 
科罗拉多大学波尔得分校毕业证学位证成绩单-可办理
科罗拉多大学波尔得分校毕业证学位证成绩单-可办理科罗拉多大学波尔得分校毕业证学位证成绩单-可办理
科罗拉多大学波尔得分校毕业证学位证成绩单-可办理
 
IMA MSN - Medical Students Network (2).pptx
IMA MSN - Medical Students Network (2).pptxIMA MSN - Medical Students Network (2).pptx
IMA MSN - Medical Students Network (2).pptx
 
Business Analytics using Microsoft Excel
Business Analytics using Microsoft ExcelBusiness Analytics using Microsoft Excel
Business Analytics using Microsoft Excel
 
9711147426✨Call In girls Gurgaon Sector 31. SCO 25 escort service
9711147426✨Call In girls Gurgaon Sector 31. SCO 25 escort service9711147426✨Call In girls Gurgaon Sector 31. SCO 25 escort service
9711147426✨Call In girls Gurgaon Sector 31. SCO 25 escort service
 
Data Factory in Microsoft Fabric (MsBIP #82)
Data Factory in Microsoft Fabric (MsBIP #82)Data Factory in Microsoft Fabric (MsBIP #82)
Data Factory in Microsoft Fabric (MsBIP #82)
 
毕业文凭制作#回国入职#diploma#degree澳洲中央昆士兰大学毕业证成绩单pdf电子版制作修改#毕业文凭制作#回国入职#diploma#degree
毕业文凭制作#回国入职#diploma#degree澳洲中央昆士兰大学毕业证成绩单pdf电子版制作修改#毕业文凭制作#回国入职#diploma#degree毕业文凭制作#回国入职#diploma#degree澳洲中央昆士兰大学毕业证成绩单pdf电子版制作修改#毕业文凭制作#回国入职#diploma#degree
毕业文凭制作#回国入职#diploma#degree澳洲中央昆士兰大学毕业证成绩单pdf电子版制作修改#毕业文凭制作#回国入职#diploma#degree
 
Learn How Data Science Changes Our World
Learn How Data Science Changes Our WorldLearn How Data Science Changes Our World
Learn How Data Science Changes Our World
 
Advanced Machine Learning for Business Professionals
Advanced Machine Learning for Business ProfessionalsAdvanced Machine Learning for Business Professionals
Advanced Machine Learning for Business Professionals
 
MK KOMUNIKASI DATA (TI)komdat komdat.docx
MK KOMUNIKASI DATA (TI)komdat komdat.docxMK KOMUNIKASI DATA (TI)komdat komdat.docx
MK KOMUNIKASI DATA (TI)komdat komdat.docx
 
办理学位证中佛罗里达大学毕业证,UCF成绩单原版一比一
办理学位证中佛罗里达大学毕业证,UCF成绩单原版一比一办理学位证中佛罗里达大学毕业证,UCF成绩单原版一比一
办理学位证中佛罗里达大学毕业证,UCF成绩单原版一比一
 
LLMs, LMMs, their Improvement Suggestions and the Path towards AGI
LLMs, LMMs, their Improvement Suggestions and the Path towards AGILLMs, LMMs, their Improvement Suggestions and the Path towards AGI
LLMs, LMMs, their Improvement Suggestions and the Path towards AGI
 
Generative AI for Social Good at Open Data Science East 2024
Generative AI for Social Good at Open Data Science East 2024Generative AI for Social Good at Open Data Science East 2024
Generative AI for Social Good at Open Data Science East 2024
 
专业一比一美国俄亥俄大学毕业证成绩单pdf电子版制作修改
专业一比一美国俄亥俄大学毕业证成绩单pdf电子版制作修改专业一比一美国俄亥俄大学毕业证成绩单pdf电子版制作修改
专业一比一美国俄亥俄大学毕业证成绩单pdf电子版制作修改
 
原版1:1定制南十字星大学毕业证(SCU毕业证)#文凭成绩单#真实留信学历认证永久存档
原版1:1定制南十字星大学毕业证(SCU毕业证)#文凭成绩单#真实留信学历认证永久存档原版1:1定制南十字星大学毕业证(SCU毕业证)#文凭成绩单#真实留信学历认证永久存档
原版1:1定制南十字星大学毕业证(SCU毕业证)#文凭成绩单#真实留信学历认证永久存档
 
Top 5 Best Data Analytics Courses In Queens
Top 5 Best Data Analytics Courses In QueensTop 5 Best Data Analytics Courses In Queens
Top 5 Best Data Analytics Courses In Queens
 
办美国阿肯色大学小石城分校毕业证成绩单pdf电子版制作修改#真实留信入库#永久存档#真实可查#diploma#degree
办美国阿肯色大学小石城分校毕业证成绩单pdf电子版制作修改#真实留信入库#永久存档#真实可查#diploma#degree办美国阿肯色大学小石城分校毕业证成绩单pdf电子版制作修改#真实留信入库#永久存档#真实可查#diploma#degree
办美国阿肯色大学小石城分校毕业证成绩单pdf电子版制作修改#真实留信入库#永久存档#真实可查#diploma#degree
 
Identifying Appropriate Test Statistics Involving Population Mean
Identifying Appropriate Test Statistics Involving Population MeanIdentifying Appropriate Test Statistics Involving Population Mean
Identifying Appropriate Test Statistics Involving Population Mean
 
Minimizing AI Hallucinations/Confabulations and the Path towards AGI with Exa...
Minimizing AI Hallucinations/Confabulations and the Path towards AGI with Exa...Minimizing AI Hallucinations/Confabulations and the Path towards AGI with Exa...
Minimizing AI Hallucinations/Confabulations and the Path towards AGI with Exa...
 
RS 9000 Call In girls Dwarka Mor (DELHI)⇛9711147426🔝Delhi
RS 9000 Call In girls Dwarka Mor (DELHI)⇛9711147426🔝DelhiRS 9000 Call In girls Dwarka Mor (DELHI)⇛9711147426🔝Delhi
RS 9000 Call In girls Dwarka Mor (DELHI)⇛9711147426🔝Delhi
 

HLEG thematic workshop on Measurement of Well Being and Development in Africa, Ben Turok

  • 1. Ref c237a 12 oct 2015 Measurement of Well-Being and Development in Africa Conference Durban International Convention Centre 12-14 November 2015 INTRODUCTORY REMARKS SESSION 1V INCOME AND WEALTH INEQUALITY By Ben Turok Institute For African Alternatives (IFAA) 1. I want to make some comments on tracking the evolution of multidimensional inequality and well-being. With respect to inequality the most disconcerting aspect of the South African political economy is the fact that one of the most effective liberation movements in the world has been unable to roll back the inherited inequalities, indeed they have worsened in some respects. Income inequality is higher now than twenty years ago and this is hard to understand or to accept, especially as it is also associated with racial inequality. 2. A recent report by the World Bank examined in considerable detail the effect of fiscal policy on inequality, i.e. how taxes and spending have impacted on poverty and inequality. The finding is that the direct tax system is slightly progressive, the rich bear the brunt of spending, while indirect taxes are slightly regressive. Social spending has significantly reduced poverty levels but income inequality has proved elusive. (South Africa Economic Update; Fiscal Policy and Redistribution in an Unequal Society. The World Bank November 2014) 3. Does this kind of analysis reveal the real profile of South Africa ? On my return to Johannesburg from 25 years in exile, I toured the city to see its development. I was struck by the enormous contrast between the physical appearance of inner city and the industrial areas on the one hand, and the huge informal settlements surrounding Johannesburg on the other. I wrote a paper called South Africa’s Skyscraper Economy which described the situation and noted that Mexico City, Caracas, Abidjan and many other Third World Cities had a similar profile. 4. This phenomenon is not due to income inequalities alone. They reflect huge inequalities in assets of all kinds, and are deeply structural. Income and wealth is deeply political, social, and cultural. 5. The reasons for this structural inequality are well known. But the identification of all its dimensions has not been dealt with adequately. There has been much work on the Gini and even wealth inequality has been examined, although cursorily. Also, unequal provision of services has been analysed, again, separately. But capital assets are the critical factor since inequality here is larger than in incomes, and this is where economic power lies.
  • 2. 6. Given the multidimensional aspects of capital and the assets associated with it, we need an overarching examination of the system, including the political system. For ease of further analysis we need a simple characterisation of the system as a whole. 7. Returning to my opening point why is it that the ruling party has been unable to turn back the inequality tide? Indeed it has not achieved the “hat trick” of accelerated economic growth, general poverty reduction and reduced inequality. 8. The ANC view of a future transition was clear- it included both political and economic transformation. (Morogoro) 9. But in the 1988 negotiations economic issues were downplayed. For instance the draft Bill of Rights in Constitutional Guidelines ignored socioeconomic rights. Although there was a surge of thinking about the economy in the early 1990’s in the RDP and Ready to Govern, once the democratic government took office GEAR took over. 10. As a substitute for economic transformation we experimented with BEE which failed in its main objectives and only created a tiny black capitalist class who are by no means economically “patriotic” and who also shovel funds abroad. 11. The frustrations about the lack of structural transformation is leading some, especially Black students, to argue that the government’s objective of a non-racial society is not leading to the emancipation of Black people from poverty and inequality. More drastic action is needed. 12. So we do need more research about inequality in all its dimensions, but in doing so how can we avoid the trap of statistical juggling as in MDG debates?